Increasing 
the 
mobility 
of 
Stockhausen’s 
Mobile 
Scores
 (2010) Lindsay Vickery

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Published on

Increasing 
the 
mobility 
of 
Stockhausen’s 
Mobile 
Scores

Stockhausen
 compositions
 pioneered
 a
 wide
 range
 of
 the
 innovatve
 techniques
 that
 have
 come
 to
 be
 associate
d with
 the
 Avant
 Garde
 Period.
 In
 the
 exploration
 of
 formal
 structure
 and 
the 
means 
of 
presenting 
work 
to 
performers
via 
novel 
media, 
Stockhausen
 was 
one
 of 
the 
key
contributors
 during
 this time.


These 
innovations 
included:

• 
The
“mobile”
score

• 
The
“transformative”
score

• 
Intuitive
music

Despite
 the 
fact
 that 
Stockhausen 
lived 
well 
into
 the 
first
decade
 of
 the 
21st
 century,
all
 of
 his 
works 
rely
on 
the
traditional 
notion 
of
 a
 printed 
paper 
score.

This
 discussion
 explores
 the
 technical
 and
 practical
 possibilities
 of
 adapting
 the
 innovative
 printed
 scores
 by
 Stockhausen
 through
 the
 use
 of
 computer
 technology.
 The
 technological
 recasting
 of
 these
 works
 is
 considered
 in
 light
 of
 Stockhausen’s
 own
 aesthetic 
statements
concerning 
the 
necessity 
to
 comprehend 
the
“uniqueness”
of 
works
 which
were
 born
 to 
a
 particular 
historical 
moment.


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Increasing 
the 
mobility 
of 
Stockhausen’s 
Mobile 
Scores
 (2010) Lindsay Vickery

  1. 1. Increasing
the
mobility
of
Stockhausen’s
 Mobile
Scores
 Lindsay
Vickery

 Lecturer
in
Music,

 WAAPA,

 Edith
Cowan
University
2010

  2. 2. Increasing
the
mobility
of
Stockhausen’s
Mobile
Scores
 Stockhausen
 composi0ons
 pioneered
 a
 wide
 range
 of
 the
 innova0ve
 techniques
 that
 have
 come
 to
 be
 associate
 with
 the
 Avant
 Garde
 Period.
 In
 the
 explora0on
 of
 formal
 structure
and
the
means
of
presen0ng
work
to
performers
via
novel
media,
Stockhausen
 was
one
of
the
key
contributors
during
this
0me.

 These
innova0ons
included:
 • 
The
“mobile”
score
 • 
The
“transforma0ve”
score
 • 
Intui0ve
music
 Despite
the
fact
that
Stockhausen
lived
well
into
the
first
decade
of
the
21st
century,
all
of
 his
works
rely
on
the
tradi0onal
no0on
of
a
printed
paper
score.
 This
 discussion
 explores
 the
 technical
 and
 prac0cal
 possibili0es
 of
 adap0ng
 the
 innova0ve
printed
scores
by
Stockhausen
through
the
use
of
computer
technology.
The
 technological
 recas0ng
 of
 these
 works
 is
 considered
 in
 light
 of
 Stockhausen’s
 own
 aesthe0c
statements
concerning
the
necessity
to
comprehend
the
“uniqueness”
of
works
 which
were
born
to
a
par0cular
historical
moment.

  3. 3. The Mobile Score The
Mobile
score
aimed
to
 liberate
the
music
score
from
the
 manacles
of
leL‐right/up‐down
 orienta0on.
The
idea
evolved,
 both
in
music
and
across
a
range
 of
art
forms
in
the
mid‐twen0eth
 century,
all
sharing
a
common
 impetus
to
generate
the
 opportunity
for
mul0ple
readings
 defined
by
the
individual.

 The
element
that
is
mobile
in
a
 mobile
score
and
liberated
is
the
 Performers
In
the
mobile
score,
 the
final
ordering
and
distribu0on
 of
notated
musical
events
is
 deferred
by
the
composer
un0l
 the
performance.


  4. 4. The
Mobile
Score:
Precursors
 (Henry
Cowell’s
Mosaic
String
Quartet
1935)
was
 an
early
example
of
the
flexible
form.

(Rischitelli
 2005
p.
102‐3)
 The
first
Mobile
score
Morton
Feldman:
 Intermission
6
(1953).
(Right)
 Stockhausen’s
 first
 work
 in
 this
 medium
 was
 Klavierstück
XI
(1956).
He
developed
these
ideas
to
 encompass
two
different
kinds
of
Mobile
Score.
His
 term
for
this
structure
was
“Polyvalent
Music”.
 
(Coenen
1994
p.
218).
 Single
Page
Mobile
Score:
Notated
Elements
are
 separated
by
space
and
distributed
across
the
 page.
 MulIple
Page
Mobile
Score:
Notated
Elements
 separated
by
page
and
assembled
into
an
order
–
 usually
prior
to
the
concert.

  5. 5. Moment
Form
 Stockhausen
proposed
a
novel
formal
structure
to
account
for
this
approach
which
he
 called
Moment
Form.
 A
Moment
is
 a
formal
unit
in
a
par0cular
composi0on
that
is
recognizable
by
a
personal
and
 unmistakable
character.
Depending
on
their
characteris0cs,
they
can
be
as
long
or
 as
short
as
you
like"

(Stockhausen
1963
p.

200)
 A
 related
 technique
 he
 developed
 simultaneously
 was
 the
 “Einschub”
 (Insert):
 the
 interpola0on
 of
 material
 that
 has
 already
 been
 heard
 (memory)
 or
 of
 what
 will
 be
 heard
(premoni0on).
 The
whole
Einschub
'insert'
technique
is
based
directly
on
the
overwhelming
 experience
of
inner
sound
visions
which
are
stronger
than
your
own
will...
On
the
 other
hand,
you
are
an
engineer,
you
do
mental
work,
and
there
is
some0mes
a
 conflict
between
the
two:
you
have
overall
visions,
images
which
make
demands
 of
a
kind
you
cannot
yet
realize,
and
they
lead
to
the
inven0on
of
new
technical
 processes,
but
then
the
technical
processes
go
their
own
way
and
become
the
 star0ng
point
for
other
techniques
which
in
turn
provoke
new
inven0ons
and
you
 find
yourself
bombarded
with
images
again.”


 (Stockhausen
and
Maconie
1988
pp.
135‐6)

  6. 6. Stockhausen’s
Momente
(1962‐69)
 Stockhausen
expects
the
performer
to
vary
the
order
of
movements
at
will,
and
even
 provides
for
passages
from
one
movement
to
be
inserted
into
its
neighbors.
For
each
 concert
 the
 score
 may
 be
 re‐arranged,
 in
 accordance
 with
 certain
 instruc0ons;
 the
 extracts
or
"inserts"
may
be
glued
into
certain
slits
in
the
score,
and
their
dura0on
and
 volume
are
varied
depending
on
the
context,
as
indicated
by
a
long
list
of
rules
on
each
 sheet.
 Then
 the
 parts
 are
 prepared
 in
 whatever
 order
 has
 been
 selected
 for
 the
 par0cular
concert.

 (McElheran
1965
p.
37)



  7. 7. The
TransformaIve
Score
 In
the
transforma0ve
score
stable
materials
are
“acted
upon”
by

mobile
 transforma0ve
procedures.
Stockhausen
referred
to
this
approach
as
 “Variable”
Form.
(Coenen
1994
p.
218).
 Stockhausen’s
 first
 (and
 only)
 work
 exploring
 this
 technique
 was
 Refrain
 (1959).
 In
 the
 score
 the
 staves
 are
 laid
 out
 in
 a
 circular
 arrangement
 and
 a
 transparent
plas0c
“refrain”
‐
comprising
 a
range
of
ornaments
and
modifica0ons
 that
 “act
 upon”
 the
 materials
 that
 they
 overlay
‐
is
pinned
into
the
centre
of
the
 page
 allowing
 it
 to
 be
 swung
 into
 different
 orienta0ons
 in
 rely0on
 to
 the
 page.

  8. 8. The
TransformaIve
Score
 Stockhausen
also
created
transforma0ve
scores
that
are
not
variable
in
form‐
the
so‐ called
“plus‐minus”
composi0ons.
In
these
works
rather
than
stable
materials
that
are
 acted
upon
by
mobile
transforma0on,
here
its
is
the
transforma0on
that
is
stable
and
 the
materials
that
are
variable
–
provided
either
by
chance
(from
a
shortwave
radio
for
 example)
or
impulses
that
are

improvised
by
the
performer.

  9. 9. Stockhausen’s
Poles
(1969)

  10. 10. IntuiIve
Music
 "It is no longer sufficient to expand the musical work - the opus - to a process, to a growing, self-transforming thing which unfolds at every moment, in the Here and Now; we have realized instead that the multitude of discoverable processes also leads to yet more basic, higher powers of formation that are in fact superrational, intuitive in origin.” Stockhausen described this approach as: Opening one's mind in order to receive more vibrations from the universe than one normally does. (Coenen

1994
pp.
210‐211)
 There’s a story of a second violin player who said, “Herr Stockhausen, how will I know when I am playing in the rhythm of the universe?” Stockhausen said, with a smile, “I will tell you.” (Anthony Pay in Bailey 1992 p. 72)
  11. 11. IntuiIve
Music
 "It is no longer sufficient to expand the musical work - the opus - to a process, to a growing, self-transforming thing which unfolds at every moment, in the Here and Now; we have realized instead that the multitude of discoverable processes also leads to yet more basic, higher powers of formation that are in fact superrational, intuitive in origin.” “From the Seven Days” (1969)
  12. 12. Stockhausen’s
Adieu
(1966)
was
one
of
the
steps
on
the
 path
to
Intui0ve
music.
It
is
unusual
in
Stockhausen’s
 output
for
several
reasons:
it
contains
notated
tonal
 

 
 











fragments
in
a
quasi‐”Classical”
style,
it
 
 
 
 
juxtaposes
these
fragments
with
 
 
 
 
text‐based
instruc0ons
that
create
 
 
 
 
“sound‐mass”
style
improvisa0ons
 
 
 
 
from
the
performers.

  13. 13. Mobile
Score
 TransformaIve
 Scrolling
Score
 Text
Score
 Polyvalent/Moment
 Variable
 Transforma0on
 Intui0ve
 1956
 KLAVIERSTÜCK
XI

 1958
 KONTAKTE

 1959
 ZYKLUS
 REFRAIN
 1962‐4
 MOMENTE
 1963
 PLUS‐MINUS
 1964
 MIXTUR
and
 MIKROPHONIE
I
 1965
 MIKROPHONIE
II
 1965
 STOP
 1966
 SOLO
 ADIEU
 1967
 PROZESSION
 1968
 STIMMUNG
 SPIRAL
 1969
 POLE
and
EXPO

  14. 14. Actually Mobile Mobile Scores The implementation of mobile scores in a computer-based hypertextual medium may provide a more “natural” vehicle for their performance by: • creating a more practical, pragmatic medium for presenting information to the performer; • preventing performers from preparing a fixed order of the work’s materials; • allowing the choice of nonlinear materials based on aleatoric or other procedures; • reducing the need for unnecessary cues that create a non-musical distraction to the performers and/or the performance.
  15. 15. Technology and ideology are inextricably intertwined… what we are dealing with here is yet another example of the well-known phenomenon of the old artistic forms pushing against their own boundaries and using procedures which, at least from our retrospective view, seem to point towards a new technology that will be able to serve as a more “natural” and appropriate “objective correlative” to the life-experience the old forms endeavoured to render by means of their “excessive” experiments. Zizek, S., 2000. The Art of the Ridiculous Sublime. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 39
  16. 16. Karlheinz
Stockhausen:
Klavierstück
XI
 At
the
end
of
the
first
group,
the
performer
reads
the
 tempo,
 dynamic
 and
 aoacks
 indica0ons
 that
 follow,
 and
 looks
 at
 random
 to
 any
 other
 group,
 which
 he
 then
plays
in
accordance
with
the
laoer
indica0ons.
 As
a
result
the
average
length
 of
 performances
 of
 this
 work
 is
normally
between
20
and
39
 segments.
 The
 number
 of
 recordings
 required
 to
 make
 computer
version
of
the
work
 is
192
(361).

  17. 17. In the case of a paper score however, involuntary choice is the most pragmatic solution for achieving an aleatoric order of groups. Stockhausen’s stated motivation for this instruction is ‘that the performer will never link up expressly chosen groups or intentionally leave out others. Each group can be joined to any of the other eighteen’
  18. 18. Karlheinz Stockhausen: Klavierstück XI Scoreplayer
  19. 19. Stockhausen’s
MIXTUR
(1964)


  20. 20. I II 1 Mixtur 1 or 5 1 High C 1 or 6 2 Percussion 2 2 Pizzicato 2 3 Blocks 3 or 15 3 Layers 3 4 Direction 4 4 Dialogue 4 5 Change 5 , 14/15 5 Steps 5 6 Calmness 6 6 Concert pitch 6, 18 or 1 7 Vertical 7 7 Brass 6, 16 8 Strings 8 8 Tutti 8 9 Points 9 9 Translation 9 10 Wood 10 10 Mirror 10, 5 11 Mirror 11 or 16 11 Wood 11 12 Translation 12 12 Points 12 13 Tutti 13 13 Strings 13 14 Brass 14 or 5 14 Vertical 14 15 Concert pitch 15 , 3 or 20 15 Calmness 15 16 Steps 16 16 Change 16, 7/6 17 Dialogue 17 17 Direction 17 18 Layers 18 18 Blocks 18, 6 19 Pizzicato 19 19 Percussion 19 20 High C 20 or 15 20 Mixtur 10 or 16 I II 1 Mixtur 1 or 5 1 High C 1 or 6 2 Percussion 2 2 Pizzicato 2 3 Blocks 3 or 15 3 Layers 3 4 Direction 4 4 Dialogue 4 5 Change 5 , 14/15 5 Steps 5 6 Calmness 6 6 Concert pitch 6, 18 or 1 7 Vertical 7 7 Brass 6, 16 8 Strings 8 8 Tutti 8 9 Points 9 9 Translation 9 10 Wood 10 10 Mirror 10, 5 11 Mirror 11 or 16 11 Wood 11 12 Translation 12 12 Points 12 13 Tutti 13 13 Strings 13 14 Brass 14 or 5 14 Vertical 14 15 Concert pitch 15 , 3 or 20 15 Calmness 15 16 Steps 16 16 Change 16, 7/6 17 Dialogue 17 17 Direction 17 18 Layers 18 18 Blocks 18, 6 19 Pizzicato 19 19 Percussion 19 20 High C 20 or 15 20 Mixtur 10 or 16
  21. 21. PERC.
I
 CONDUCTOR
 PERC.
II
 PERC.
IIII
 Woodwind
 Brass
Strings
 Pizz.
Str
 Screen
1
 Screen
2
 Screen
3
 Screen
4
 Screen
7
 Screen
6
 Screen
5
 Performance
 set‐up
 for
 MIXTUR
 using
 networked
 computers
 to
 project
 the
 scores
 synchronously
 on
 6
 screens.
 Such
 a
 method
 could
 also
 automate
 the
 electronic
 component
 (Ring‐modula0on
 of
 the
 acous0c
 instruments)
 and
 perhaps
also
the
conductor
via
click‐tracks.

  22. 22. Stockhausen’s
Adieu
(1966)
ProporIons
 In
many
of
Stockhausen’s
works
he
employs
the
Fibonacci
series
to
govern
the

temporal
 propor0ons.

 ! " "#$#! "$% %$& &$' '$!% !%$"! "!$%( %($&& &&$') *##!"+,-!. /!", ! " # $ % !# "! #& $$ %' !&& *#012345#647815 Fibonacci
Series
Propor0ons
in
Stockhausen’s
Adieu
 (Diagram
from
Kramer
1988
p.
315)
 Kramer
claims
Fibonacci
propor0ons
to
be
perceivable
and
predictable
(Kramer
1988
p.
 315).
In
1990,
Clarke
and
Krumhansl
tested
this
claim
and
indeed
found
that
“the
 listeners
were
quite
veridical
in
judging
the
rela0ve
dura0ons
of
the
segments”
(Clarke,
E.
 F.,
Perceiving
Musical
Time,
Music
Percep0on,
7:3
p.
236).


  23. 23. Stockhausen’s
Adieu
(1966)
ScorePlayer

  24. 24. Stockhausen’s
Refrain
(1959)
 The
manipula0on
of
a
transforma0ve
 overlay
is
a
rela0vely

trivial
maoer
in
the
 digital
domain.

  25. 25. Stockhausen’s
Refrain
(1959)

  26. 26. Stockhausen’s
Refrain
(1959)

  27. 27. Stockhausen’s
Refrain
(1959)

  28. 28. Stockhausen’s
Refrain
(1959)
 Even
though
this
opportunity
was
available
 during
Stockhausen’s
life0me,
he
did
not
 take
advantage
of
it
himself.
In
fact,
in
2003
 he
releasde
a
new
version
of
this
piece
 with
the
the
overlay
fixed
in
only
two
 posi0ons.

  29. 29. Stockhausen’s
Poles
(1969)
 One
of
the
performa0ve
issues
with
the
Plus‐minus
composi0ons
is
the
“alien”
quality
of
 their
nota0on.
The
score
for
Poles
requires
two
pages
of
explanatory
notes
and
then
 refers
the
performer
to
a
further
11
pages
of
notes
and
exemplar
realisa0ons
of
the
work
 Spiral,
in
order
to
understand
the
nota0on.

  30. 30. Stockhausen
took
the
conserva0ve
view:
 It's
 extremely
 important
 to
 comprehend
 works,
 which
 were
 born
 to
 a
 parGcular
historical
moment,
for
their
uniqueness…
it
is
my
experience
of
 music
that
every
instrument,
every
item
of
equipment,
every
technique
 can
produce
something
unique,
which
can
be
achieved
in
no
other
way.
 Since
that
is
the
case,
then
we
can
speak
of
an
original
technique,
and
 thus
deal
with
an
original
instrument.
 Simon
Emmerson
takes
a
more
pragma0c
view.
 But
 are
 we
 aiming
 at
 ‘authenGcity’?
 Once
 we
 embark
 on
 such
 an
 enterprise,
the
regress
is
infinite.
Must
we
demand
original
instruments
 and
original
performance
pracGce
on
these
instruments?
The
composer’s
 original
intenGons
may
not
be
inscribed
in
any
single
document,
in
any
 medium.
The
same
arguments
apply
here
as
in
the
endless
debates
on
 ‘early
music
interpretaGon’
–
except
we
(may)
have
the
recorded
medium
 to
help
us.

 The
“authen0c
instruments”
debate
in
electronic
music.


  31. 31. Proposed
solu0ons
to
the
realisa0on
of
paper‐based
mobile
scores:
 
•

Dynamic,
mobile,
screen‐based
nonlinear
or
scrolling
score;
 
•

Use
of
visual
synchroniza0on
methods
such
as
on‐screen
0mers
or
 
metronomes;
 
•

Use
of
computer
controlled
click‐tracks
to
synchronise
and
transmit
 
formal
or
other
musical
parameters;
 
•

The
centraliza0on
of
the
score,
sound‐file
playback,
synchroniza0on
and
 
electronic
sound
processing. 

 
•

The
bundling
of
performance
materials,
score
sound‐files,
electronics
 
and
means
of
synchronisa0on
into
a
single
unit.

  32. 32. Proposed
reasons

for
the
realisa0on
of
paper‐based
mobile
scores
on
 computer:
 • 
Convenience
and
portability
 • 
Beoer
realisa0on
of
the
Composer's
inten0on
 • 
Real
randomness/explora0on
of
permuta0on

 • 
Performer
can't
prepare
in
advance
(cheat)
 • 
Representa0on
of
con0nuous
transforma0on

 • 
Coordina0on
temporal
propor0ons

 • 
Avoidance
of
fixity
and
repe00on

 • 
Score
and
recordings
for
teaching
purposes

  33. 33. Technological
“upgrades”
to
mobile
form
works
could
be
considered
in
the
 following
circumstances:

 
•

the
work
can
s0ll
be
performed
according
to
the
composer’s
 
inten0ons
 
•

the
original
work
would
operate
more
“naturally”
within
a

 
contemporary
medium
that
was
not
available
at
the
0me
of
 
composi0on.
 
•

the
“upgrade”
significantly
improves
the
performing
situa0on,
for
 
example:
facilita0ng
more
accurate
performance
or

improving
the
 
logis0cal
requirements
for
the
work.



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