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  1. 2. <ul><li>After viewing this presentation, students will be able to properly identify the different types of graphics and which graphics work best with different educational styles. </li></ul><ul><li>Students will be able to properly identify the proper use of the contiguity principle. </li></ul><ul><li>Students will be able to answer at least 90% on the assessment at the end of the presentation. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>According to Clark and Mayer, in e-Learning and the Science of Instruction, e-learning courses should include words and graphics, rather than words alone. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Words” can mean printed text on the screen, or spoken text that people can listen to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics can mean static illustrations, which includes drawings, graphs, charts, maps, or photos, or dynamic graphics, which means animations or video. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Decorative </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretive </li></ul><ul><li>Relational </li></ul><ul><li>Representational </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Serve to decorate the page without enhancing the message of the lesson, such as a photo or a video of a person. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for aesthetic appeal or for humor. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Portrays a single element. </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate the appearance of an object. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes photographs. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Show relationships among elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagrams with labeled parts. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Portray a quantitative relation among two or more variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Example could be a line graph, bar graph, or pie chart. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Show changes in an object over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Step-by-step static images of a process </li></ul><ul><li>Video of a process taking place. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Illustrates invisible relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Visuals that make intangible phenomena visible and concrete. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Content Types Description Useful Graphic Types Examples Facts Unique and isolated information such as specific application screens, forms, or product data Representational Organizational A screen capture of a spreadsheet A table of parts’ names and specifications Concepts Groups of objects, events, or symbols designated by a single name Representational Organizational Interpretive Diagrams of a database table A tree diagram of biological species Process A description if how something works Transformational Interpretive Relational Animations of how blood pumps blood An animation of how a virus invades a cell Procedure A series of steps resulting in completion of a task Transformational An animated illustration of how to use a spreadsheet A diagram with arrows showing how to install a printer cable Principal Guidelines that result in completion of a task; cause and effect relationship Transformational Interpretive A video showing two effective sales approaches An animation showing genes passing from parents to offspring
  11. 12. <ul><li>When text and graphics are used together in e-learning, they should be placed near each other so that the viewers can easily make sense of what they see. </li></ul><ul><li>When voice animations and video are used together in e-learning, they should play at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>If the words and graphics are placed too far apart, they lose the impact of the learner. </li></ul>The labels for the parts of the plant correspond with the parts they label.
  12. 13. <ul><li>Now it is time to test your knowledge…. </li></ul><ul><li>What did you learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Click on the answer that you think is correct…. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>1. What type of graphic may add humor to a presentation, but do not enhance the lesson? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Representational </li></ul><ul><li>B. Interpretive </li></ul><ul><li>C. Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>D. Decorative </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>2. What type of graphic is used to show relationships among two elements? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Decorative </li></ul><ul><li>B. Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>C. Relational </li></ul><ul><li>D. Representative </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>3. What is the type of graphic that shows changes over time? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Transformational </li></ul><ul><li>B. Relational </li></ul><ul><li>C. Interpretive </li></ul><ul><li>D. Decorative </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>4. The Contiguity Principle states that words that correspond to graphics do not have to remain close to the graphics that they represent. </li></ul><ul><li>True False </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Click here to go to question 2. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Click here to go to question 3. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Click here to go to question 4. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Click here to go to find out where all of this information came from! </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Click here to try again. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Click here to try again. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Click here to try again. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Click here to try again. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Clark, Ruth Colvin. Mayer, Richard E. e-Learning and the Science of Instruction . 2008. </li></ul>