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  • 1. By Linda Guzman
  • 2. Preview of Main Points• What it is?• Its history• Pathology – transmission• Symptoms• Preventative measures
  • 3. What is the WNV?• Flaviviridae family• Icosahedral envelope – RNA• 40-60 nm in size
  • 4. WNV History• 1937 – West Nile District of Uganda• Africa, Middle East, Eastern Europe, West Asia• New York City 1999 – First case
  • 5. WNV History• 1999 – 62 cases and 7 deaths
  • 6. WNV 2004
  • 7. WNV 2011• Every US state has reported a WNV case
  • 8. WNV Global
  • 9. Seasonal Disease• Active during mosquito breeding season• Spring till the end of August
  • 10. Pathology• Zoonotic• Replicates in salivary glands• Culex pipiens mosquito - the common house mosquito
  • 11. Transmission Cycle
  • 12. Interesting Fact• Europe – two types of Culex pipien population• America – mosquito population has evolved• Spread faster in America
  • 13. Transmission• Dead end host• Per CDC – OK to breast feed• Infected mosquito bites a human
  • 14. Pathology• Keratinocyte and dendritic cell in basal layer• Dendritic cells travels to lymph nodes – 1st virus replication• Epithelial cells of visceral organs – 2nd virus replication
  • 15. Pathology• Viremia triggers production of proteins & enzymes• Weaken tight junction of BBB
  • 16. Pathology• Neurons and glial cells infected• Triggers cells narcosis = inflammation• Encephalitis – inflammation of brain• Meningitis – inflammation of meninges spinal cord
  • 17. Who’s at Risk?• Children, elderly, compromised immune system• Over 50yo especially over 75yo – more at risk – morbidity and mortality
  • 18. Symptoms• 3 to 14 days after infection• 80% show no symptoms• 20% show acute symptoms – mild, last couple of days – Fever, headache, body aches, nausea, vomiting, rash & swollen lymph glands
  • 19. Symptoms• Out of 20% only 1% show severe symptoms – Tremors, stiff neck, high fever, severe headache, paralysis, muscle weakness, confusion, convulsion, coma, encephalitis or meningitis
  • 20. Cure?• There is not cure for WNV• But there is one for horses• Best way to protect is prevention
  • 21. Prevention• Stay indoors during dusk & dawn hours• Long sleeves and long pants• Insect repellent 10-30% DEET - mosquitoes can still bite thru thin material
  • 22. Prevention• Dispose stagnant water
  • 23. Works CitedByron E. E. Martina, et al. "West Nile Virus: Immunity and Pathogenesis." Viruses (1999-4915) 3.6 (2011): 811-828. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 28 Sept. 2011.Gerardi, Michael H., and Melvin C. Zimmerman. Wastewater Pathogens. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (US), 2005. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). EBSCO. Web. 28 Sept. 2011.Hoyle, Brian. "West Nile." Infectious Diseases: In Context. Ed. Brenda Wilmoth Lerner and K. Lee Lerner. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2008. 899-905. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web.Quick, Jennifer, and J. P. Saleeby. "The Mighty Mosquito-borne Killer." American Fitness 25.4 (2007): 26-29. Health Source - Consumer Edition. EBSCO. Web. 29 Sept. 2011."West Nile Virus." CRS - Pediatric Advisor (2010): 1. Health Source - Consumer Edition. EBSCO. Web. 29 Sept. 2011.