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Microbiology presentation on West Nile Virus

Microbiology presentation on West Nile Virus



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    WNV WNV Presentation Transcript

    • By Linda Guzman
    • Preview of Main Points• What it is?• Its history• Pathology – transmission• Symptoms• Preventative measures
    • What is the WNV?• Flaviviridae family• Icosahedral envelope – RNA• 40-60 nm in size
    • WNV History• 1937 – West Nile District of Uganda• Africa, Middle East, Eastern Europe, West Asia• New York City 1999 – First case
    • WNV History• 1999 – 62 cases and 7 deaths
    • WNV 2004
    • WNV 2011• Every US state has reported a WNV case
    • WNV Global
    • Seasonal Disease• Active during mosquito breeding season• Spring till the end of August
    • Pathology• Zoonotic• Replicates in salivary glands• Culex pipiens mosquito - the common house mosquito
    • Transmission Cycle
    • Interesting Fact• Europe – two types of Culex pipien population• America – mosquito population has evolved• Spread faster in America
    • Transmission• Dead end host• Per CDC – OK to breast feed• Infected mosquito bites a human
    • Pathology• Keratinocyte and dendritic cell in basal layer• Dendritic cells travels to lymph nodes – 1st virus replication• Epithelial cells of visceral organs – 2nd virus replication
    • Pathology• Viremia triggers production of proteins & enzymes• Weaken tight junction of BBB
    • Pathology• Neurons and glial cells infected• Triggers cells narcosis = inflammation• Encephalitis – inflammation of brain• Meningitis – inflammation of meninges spinal cord
    • Who’s at Risk?• Children, elderly, compromised immune system• Over 50yo especially over 75yo – more at risk – morbidity and mortality
    • Symptoms• 3 to 14 days after infection• 80% show no symptoms• 20% show acute symptoms – mild, last couple of days – Fever, headache, body aches, nausea, vomiting, rash & swollen lymph glands
    • Symptoms• Out of 20% only 1% show severe symptoms – Tremors, stiff neck, high fever, severe headache, paralysis, muscle weakness, confusion, convulsion, coma, encephalitis or meningitis
    • Cure?• There is not cure for WNV• But there is one for horses• Best way to protect is prevention
    • Prevention• Stay indoors during dusk & dawn hours• Long sleeves and long pants• Insect repellent 10-30% DEET - mosquitoes can still bite thru thin material
    • Prevention• Dispose stagnant water
    • Works CitedByron E. E. Martina, et al. "West Nile Virus: Immunity and Pathogenesis." Viruses (1999-4915) 3.6 (2011): 811-828. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 28 Sept. 2011.Gerardi, Michael H., and Melvin C. Zimmerman. Wastewater Pathogens. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (US), 2005. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). EBSCO. Web. 28 Sept. 2011.Hoyle, Brian. "West Nile." Infectious Diseases: In Context. Ed. Brenda Wilmoth Lerner and K. Lee Lerner. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2008. 899-905. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web.Quick, Jennifer, and J. P. Saleeby. "The Mighty Mosquito-borne Killer." American Fitness 25.4 (2007): 26-29. Health Source - Consumer Edition. EBSCO. Web. 29 Sept. 2011."West Nile Virus." CRS - Pediatric Advisor (2010): 1. Health Source - Consumer Edition. EBSCO. Web. 29 Sept. 2011.