Schools: Closing the Achievement Gap


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In 2005 an article stated that "the poor and disadvantaged have less cognitive ability than those from higher-status families." This is wrong and we can prove it. Learn how a 2005 summary can show that students of all levels, can close the achievement gap, even in a school setting.

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Schools: Closing the Achievement Gap

  1. 1. Closing the Achievement Gap IS Possible a 2005 Summary
  2. 2. <ul><li>Dr. Robert Pasternack, former Assistant Secretary, Office of Special Education, DOE— </li></ul><ul><li>A child who can’t read and/or comprehend language will not be successful in school. He or she may not be able to learn independently nor to his or her potential. </li></ul><ul><li>We have 6,500,000 students with learning disabilities across the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>We spend $70,000,000,000 to $80,000,000,000 annually on students with disabilities, primarily in special education and related services. </li></ul><ul><li>80-90% of the students in special education are there because they can’t read. </li></ul><ul><li>If we teach students how to read we will fundamentally redefine who gets put into special education. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Dr. Reid Lyon, former chief of the Child Development and Behavior Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)— </li></ul><ul><li>The development of reading skills serves as the major foundation for all school-based learning. </li></ul><ul><li>20,000,000 school-age children suffer from reading failure. </li></ul><ul><li>75% of children who drop out of school report difficulty learning to read. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately half of all children and adolescents with a history of substance abuse also have reading problems. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>38% of our nation’s fourth graders cannot read at a basic level. </li></ul><ul><li>In many low-income urban school districts that number approaches 70%. </li></ul><ul><li>The percent of 4th graders performing below grade level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White 27% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black 63% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanic 58% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor 60% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-poor 26% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Less Cognitive Ability? </li></ul><ul><li>In Forbes Magazine, December 2005, Dan Seligman stated: </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is not possible to close the achievement gap.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The reason that the gap will never be eliminated is that intelligence rises with socioeconomic status.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The poor and disadvantaged have less cognitive ability than those from higher-status families.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Less Cognitive Ability? This is wrong!
  7. 7. Clinical Intervention to Public Schools A Partnership: Lindamood-Bell and Pueblo District 60 Scaling up and Closing the Achievement Gap
  8. 8. <ul><li>Pueblo School District 60 </li></ul><ul><li>An urban district. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 17,000 predominately minority students and students of low socioeconomic status. </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily Title I schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic and students of other minority backgrounds. </li></ul><ul><li>62% and 61% of all students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunches. </li></ul><ul><li>1997 CSAP results were below the state average with more than 50% of students scoring in the unsatisfactory or partially proficient range. </li></ul><ul><li>The odds were against them. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Pueblo Teachers Taught, Pueblo Children Learned </li></ul><ul><li>Over an eight year period, nearly every school in the district involved in the partnership with Lindamood-Bell. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1,500 staff have been through Lindamood-Bell professional development workshops. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 25,000 children have instruction that directly develops imagery and verbal processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100 students have moved out of Special Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 9000 at-risk students have received intensive instruction. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Pueblo Children Outperform the State </li></ul><ul><li>State of Colorado has 30% minority status. </li></ul><ul><li>On the average, the state 3rd grade children improved 5 percentage points on the CSAP. The state is 71% proficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Pueblo 3rd grade children improved 16 percentage points. Pueblo children are 83% proficient. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Less Cognitive Ability? Nature-Nurture? Another way to answer the question regarding whether low socioeconomic and minority children have less cognitive ability is to look at the nature-nurture issue. Is the population mean lower as a result of low socio-economic status and high-minority? Will the midline (mean) be moved to the left because of these two variables?
  12. 12. Nature-Nurture Question? Two questions about genetic and environmental influences on the distribution of reading achievement and related skills in the population: Group Deficits and Individual Differences Population Mean Norman Geschwind Lecture Int’l Dyslexia Association Conference Denver, CO (Nov. 2005) Dr. Richard Olson, University of Colorado
  13. 13. 300 400 500 600 700 800 Pueblo 579 District? 530 Nature-Nurture Question? Overlapping 3 rd grade CSAP Distributions for Pueblo 60 and Comparable District Norman Geschwind Lecture Int’l Dyslexia Association Conference Denver, CO Dr. Richard Olson
  14. 14. Sadoski and Willson, 2006, American Educational Research Journal (AERJ): “ Scaling up” educational interventions has been a troubling issue in educational research.” “ Despite the ongoing national debate about improving reading achievement in schools, reading research has produced very few studies of the effects of specific instructional programs on student achievement scores on current large-scale assessments.” “ Still fewer of these studies have focuses on instructional programs with a specific theoretical base.” Effects of a Theoretically Based Large-Scale Reading Intervention in a Multicultural Urban School District*
  15. 15. “ The Lindamood-Bell programs explicitly employ the principles of dual coding theory.” “ The emphasis on associating language with multisensory mental images is a direct application of dual doing theory (i.e., instruction in mentally encoding information in both linguistic and imaginistic forms).” “ Unifying reading and writing under the aegis of a theory of general cognition is a timely and inevitable scientific step.” “ Any theory of reading or writing that does not eventually align with a broader theory of general cognition will not endure. Reading and writing are cognitive acts.”
  16. 16. Multisensory processing includes imagery. Directly developing dual coding of verbal and nonverbal processing improves language and literacy skills.
  17. 17. Children from low socio-economic status families can close the achievement gap. The poor and disadvantaged do not have less cognitive ability.
  18. 18. For additional information on closing the achievement gap and our school partnerships: 1-800-233-1819