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  • 1. Chemical Recycling
  • 2. Biogeochemical Cycles
    • The cycling of nutrients in an ecosystem involves both the biotic and abiotic parts.
  • 3. Macronutrients
    • Elements required in large amounts
      • Carbon
      • Hydrogen
      • Oxygen
      • Nitrogen
      • Phosphorous
      • Calcium
      • Sulfur
      • Water
  • 4. Micronutrients
    • Elements needed on small amounts
      • Zinc
      • Molybdenum
      • Iron
      • Selnium
      • Iodine
    • For enzymes
  • 5. Reservoirs
    • Storage sites of nutrients
  • 6. The Cycles
    • Water
    • Carbon
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorous
    • Calcium
  • 7. The Water Cycle
  • 8. Why Water?
    • Best natural solvent
    • Most chemical reactions in body take place in water
    • Main transport medium
    • Stable
    • Ionise into hydrogen and hydroxyl (pH)
    • Resists rapid temperature changes
  • 9. The Cycle
  • 10. Precipitation
    • Movement of water from atmosphere to Earth
  • 11. Evaporation
    • Sun’s energy turns water to vapour
    • Vapour rises to the atmosphere
    • Greatest amount of evaporation from the sea
  • 12. Transpiration
    • Water stored in plant tissues moves up the plant to the leaves
    • Carries nutrients with it to the leaves
    • Leaves the plant as water vapour through stomata
  • 13. Metabolic Water
    • Cycled by
      • Photosynthesis and respiration
      • Drinking and excretion
      • Burning fossil fuels
      • Decay by micro-organisms
  • 14. Humans
    • Deplete surface and ground water
    • Wasteful use of water
    • Pollution
  • 15. Carbon Cycle
  • 16. Carbon
    • Key compound in
      • Carbohydrates
      • Fats
      • Proteins
  • 17. Reservoir
    • Limestone (CaCO 3 )
    • Atmospheric carbon dioxide
    • Carbon compounds dissolved in water
    • Fossil fuels
  • 18. The Cycle
  • 19. Humans
    • Burn forests
      • Stop photosynthesis
      • Increase CO 2 released by compustion
    • Burn fossil fuels
      • Coal and wood
      • Petrol, diesel
  • 20. Global Warming
    • Ozone layer reflects some radiation
    • CO 2 + water vapour reflect radiation back to Earth
    • Causes general warming of Earth
  • 21. Nitrogen Cycle
  • 22. Nitrogen
    • For proteins
      • Body structure
      • Enzymes
      • Hormones
      • Haemoglobin
  • 23. Reservoir
    • Air 78% nitrogen but largely unusable
    • Used as nitrate ion dissolved in soil water
    • Must be fixed by
      • Lightening
      • Bacteria in legumes
      • Free-living bacteria
      • cyanobacteria
  • 24. The Cycle
    • Nitrate absorbed by plant roots and turnid into proteins
    • Animals eat proteins
    • Leaves body as waste (urine, faeces)
    • Decomposers turn into ammonia (aminification)
    • Ammonia turned into nitrate by nitrifying bacteria (nitrification)
  • 25.
    • Nitrite absorbed by plants
    • Nitrogen in air fixed by lightening or Rhizobium
    • Rhizobium in mutualistic relationship with legumes
    • Denitrifying bacteria break down nitrates to nitrogen
  • 26. Humans
    • Use nitrogenous fertilisers
    • Add compost or sewage
    • Plant legumes
    • Remover plants or animals (remove nitrogen)
    • Plant removal causes nitrates to be released (leaching)
    • Remove oxygen (no nitrification)
    • Burn fossil fuels (nitrous oxide released)
  • 27. Phosphorous Cycle
  • 28. Phosphorous
    • For DNA, RNA, ATP, phospholipids, bones, teeth, photosynthesis, respiration
  • 29. Calcium Cycle
    • Similar to phosphorous cycle
    • Calcium for
      • Cell membranes
      • Enzymes
      • Bones, teeth, exoskeletons
  • 30. Humans
    • Fertilisers add phosphorous and increase the rate of calcium recycling
    • Seabird deposits accumulated over years mined for fertiliser
    • Fishing returns calcium from sea to land