The future of offshore wind power generation

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Offshore wind power is one of the newest major sources of renewable electricity generation to be developed and also one of the most interesting. Its history is short, no more than 20 years, and yet …

Offshore wind power is one of the newest major sources of renewable electricity generation to be developed and also one of the most interesting. Its history is short, no more than 20 years, and yet over that period the technology has been able to establish itself as both viable and potentially profitable.

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  • 1. The Future of Offshore Wind Power GenerationPublished:October 2011No.Of Pages:136Price:US $ 2875IntroductionOffshore wind power is one of the newest major sources of renewable electricity generationto be developed and also one of the most interesting. Its history is short, no more than 20years, and yet over that period the technology has been able to establish itself as bothviable and potentially profitable.Features and benefits* Realize up to date competitive intelligence through a comprehensive review of offshorewind power generation technologies concepts.* Assess the emerging trends in offshore wind power generation technologies.* Identify which key trends will offer the greatest growth potential and learn whichtechnology trends are likely to allow greaterOffshore Wind Power Generation market impact.* Compare how manufacturers are developing offshore wind power generation technologies.* Quantify costs of offshore wind power generation technologies, with comparisons againstforms of power, installation costs, and cost of electricity.Highlights* In Europe, by the middle of 2011, there were 1,247 offshore wind turbines across ninecountries, 49 wind farms with an aggregate capacity of 3,294MW. Based on satellite data,offshore wind energy could provide up to 15% of global energy demand.* Today most wind farms are built in water depths or around 25m or less and few exceed50m. Regions of highest wind energy can potentially provide between 500W/m2 and800W/m2.* Overall unconstrained wind energy potential in Europe including both onshore andoffshore was 70,000TWh, more than 20 times the expected energy demand in 2020. Ofthis, 25,000TWh was is offshore.Browse All Energy and Power Market Research ReportsTable Of ContentsDr Paul BreezeDisclaimer
  • 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYAn introduction to offshore wind power generationThe offshore wind resourceOffshore wind technologyGetting the power ashoreEnvironmental, legislative and political issuesThe cost of offshore wind powerThe future of offshore wind powerAn introduction to offshore wind powerSummaryAn introduction to offshore wind powerOffshore wind historyThe structure of the reportThe offshore wind resourceSummaryGlobal offshore potentialRegional offshore wind potentialOffshore wind technologySummaryIntroductionTypical offshore wind turbineTurbine sizeTurbine developmentDrive trains and nacellesTowersFoundations and underwater structuresAlternative floating wind turbine optionsArray issuesConstruction infrastructure developmentReliability and condition monitoringThe supply chainOffshore wind costsGetting the power ashoreSummaryThe grid problemThe farm-by-farm solutionFinancing offshore transmission linksOffshore gridsSupergridsThe shape of the North Sea supergridSupergrid components and technical requirementsExtension of the North Sea supergridEnvironmental, legislative and political issuesSummaryThe environmental impact of offshore wind farmsConstruction and sea bed effectsHuman impactImpact on marine and other animal lifeShipping and fishingHealth and safety issues
  • 3. Financial support for offshore wind farm constructionOffshore wind farm regulatory issuesThe offshore grid: funding and regulatory issuesThe cost of offshore wind powerSummaryCapital cost breakdownCapital costsThe levelized cost of electricitySupergrid costsThe future of offshore wind powerSummaryIntroductionThe capital cost of power generation technologiesLevelized cost comparisonsOffshore wind capacity growth potentialThe future of offshore wind powerAppendixBibliography/ReferencesLIST OF TABLESTable: Annual offshore wind capacity (MW), 2011Table: European offshore wind potential (TWh), 2009Table: European offshore wind potential by country, 2011Table: US offshore wind energy potential (GW), 2011Table: US offshore wind potential by region and sea depth (GW), 2009Table: China, offshore wind potential (TWh/y), 2010Table: Japanese offshore wind potential (GW), 2010Table: Average wind turbine size, including onshore and offshore, by year (kW), 2011Table: Average size of offshore wind turbines, by year (kW), 2011Table: Current and future offshore wind turbine parameters, 2011Table: Advanced turbine developments, 2011Table: Types of offshore foundation and platform, 2011Table: Offshore wind turbine manufacturers, 2011Table: Lifetime cost breakdown for typical offshore wind project (%), 2011Table: Offshore wind farm connection technologies, 2011Table: Cost allocation schemes for offshore wind transmission, 2011Table: Driving force for North Sea offshore grid, 2011Table: Supernodes for first phase of European supergrid (GW), 2011Table: Interconnections for first phase of European Supergrid (GW), 2011Table: Offshore wind environmental considerations, 2011Table: Support mechanisms for offshore wind energy, 2011Table: Models for supergrid financing, 2011Table: Cost breakdown for offshore wind projects (%), 2011Table: UK offshore wind farm capital costs, 2011Table: Predicted UK offshore wind farm capital costs to 2030 (round 3 projects), 2011Table: Predicted UK offshore wind farm operating costs to 2030 (round 3 projects) (£/kW),2011Table: Estimated capital cost for offshore wind in the US, 2011Table: Estimated current and future levelized costs of electricity for UK offshore wind farms(£MWh), 2011
  • 4. Table: Cost of energy from US offshore wind farms, 2011Table: Capital cost projections for renewable technologies in the UK (£/kW), 2011Table: Predicted capital cost for US generating technologies ($/kW), 2011Table: Comparative cost of renewable power generation in the UK(£/MWh), 2011Table: Comparative cost of renewable power generation in the UK (£/MWh), 2017Table: Comparative levelized cost of electricity in the UK 2010 – 2023 (£/MWh)Table: Comparative levelized cost of electricity in the US in 2016 ($/MWh)Table: Variation in the levelized cost of offshore wind for plants entering service in 2015($/MWh)Table: UK offshore wind development rounds, 2011Table: Predicted UK and EU offshore wind capacity (GW), 2011Table: Current offshore wind capacity and capacity under construction (MW), 2011Table: Planned offshore wind capacity (MW), 2011LIST OF FIGURESFigure: Annual offshore wind capacity (MW), 2011Figure: European offshore wind potential (TWh), 2009Figure: Europe, estimated wind resource size by country (TWh/y), 2011Figure: Europe, estimated wind resource size by country (MW), 2011Figure: US offshore wind energy potential (GW), 2011Figure: US offshore wind potential by region and sea depth (GW), 2009Figure: China, offshore wind potential (TWh/y), 2010Figure: Japanese offshore wind potential (GW), 2010Figure: Average wind turbine size, including onshore and offshore, by year (kW), 2011Figure: Average wind turbine size, including onshore and offshore, by year (kW), 2011Figure: Lifetime cost breakdown for typical offshore wind project (%), 2011Figure: Supernodes for first phase of European supergrid (GW), 2011Figure: Interconnections for first phase of European Supergrid (GW), 2011Figure: Cost breakdown for offshore wind projects (%), 2011Figure: Predicted UK offshore wind farm capital costs to 2030 (round 3 projects), 2011Figure: Predicted UK offshore wind farm operating costs to 2030 (round 3 projects) (£/kW),2011Figure: Estimated current and future levelized costs of electricity for UK offshore wind farms(£MWh), 2011Figure: Cost of energy from US offshore wind farms, 2011Figure: Capital cost projections for renewable technologies in the UK (£/kW), 2011Figure: Predicted capital cost for US generating technologies ($/kW), 2011Figure: Comparative cost of renewable power generation in the UK(£/MWh), 2011Figure: Comparative cost of renewable power generation in the UK (£/MWh), 2017Figure: Comparative levelized cost of electricity in the UK 2010 – 2023 (£/MWh)Figure: Comparative levelized cost of electricity in the US in 2016 ($/MWh)Figure: Variation in the levelized cost of offshore wind for plants entering service in 2015($/MWh)Figure: Predicted UK and EU offshore wind capacity (GW), 2011Figure: Current offshore wind capacity and capacity under construction (MW), 2011Figure: Planned offshore wind capacity (MW), 2011
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