Principles of Effective Communication
Principles of Effective Communication
• To compose effective written or oral messages, you must apply
certain communicatio...
Principles of Effective Communication
• There is no special kind of writing to which the business
correspondence should co...
Principles of Effective Communication
Completeness
A business message is complete when it contains all
facts the reader or...
Principles of Effective Communication
Completeness offers numerous benefits. First, complete
messages are more likely to b...
Principles of Effective Communication
Provide All Necessary information
When a message is initiated, you need to check to ...
Principles of Effective Communication
Answer All Questions asked
Whenever you reply to an inquiry, try to answer all quest...
Principles of Effective Communication
In one example, a software distributor, when replying to a
dealer’s letter, answered...
Principles of Effective Communication
Give Something Extra, When Desirable
Sometimes you must do more than answer the
cust...
Principles of Effective Communication
• If you answered only this one question, your letter would be
incomplete. Realizing...
Principles of Effective Communication
If you answered only this one question, your letter would be
incomplete. Realizing t...
Principles of Effective Communication
Checklist for Completeness
–
–
–

Remember the five W’s: Who? What? When?
Where? Why...
Principles of Effective Communication
To achieve both the specific purpose of your message
and the long-term purpose – mai...
Principles of Effective Communication
Let us suppose you are ordering shirts by mail.
Your communication must include all ...
Principles of Effective Communication
Incomplete: “Thank you for the confidence you’ve shown us by
the account you recentl...
Principles of Effective Communication
Conciseness
Conciseness is saying what you have to say in the fewest possible
words ...
Principles of Effective Communication
Eliminate Wordy Expressions
The following are some concrete suggestions you can use ...
Principles of Effective Communication
6.
7.
8.

Omit “which” and “that” clauses whenever possible.
Wordy: The receipt that...
Principles of Effective Communication
Include Only Relevant Material
The effective, concise message should omit not only
u...
Principles of Effective Communication
4. Avoid long introductions, unnecessary explanations,
excessive adjectives and prep...
Principles of Effective Communication
• Avoid Unnecessary Repetition
Sometimes repetition is necessary for emphasis.
But w...
Principles of Effective Communication
• Use pronouns or initials rather than repeat long
names. Instead of citing “America...
Principles of Effective Communication
•

•

Cut out all needless repetition of phrases and
sentences. Sometimes it is poss...
Consideration
Consideration
Consideration means preparing every message with the
message receivers in mind; try to put yourself in their...
Consideration
In a broad but true sense, consideration
underlies the other six C’s of good business
communication. You ada...
Consideration
Consideration
Focus on “You” Instead of “I” or “We”
To create considerate, audience-oriented messages,
focus on how messag...
Consideration
We-Attitude: I am delighted to announce that
we will be extending our hours to make
shopping more convenient...
Consideration
• Showing consideration for the audience involves more than just
using “you” instead of “I” or “we.’ Message...
Consideration
Insensitive: you failed to enclose your check in
the envelope.
Considerate: the check was not enclosed.
(pas...
Consideration
Show Audience Benefit or Interest in the Receiver
Whenever possible and true, show how your receivers
will b...
Consideration
Receivers will be more likely to react favorably and do what you
suggest if you show that benefits are worth...
Consideration
Emphasize Positive, Pleasant Facts
A third way to show consideration for your receivers is
to accent the pos...
Consideration
Checklist for Consideration
• See your material from your reader’s point of view.
• “You” is more desirable ...
Consideration
• Consideration means that you prepare every
message with the recipient in mind and try to
put yourself thei...
Consideration
In four specific ways you can indicate you are
considerate:
• Focus on “you” instead of “I” and “we”.
• Show...
Consideration
• When a reader receives a business letter, he assesses
how it affects him and his business and what action ...
Consideration
If you glance through the pages of any newspaper or
magazine, you’ll find that good advertisements reflect
t...
Concreteness
Concreteness
• Communicating concretely means being specific,
definite, and vivid rather than vague and general.
Often it ...
Concreteness
• The benefits to business professionals of using concrete facts
and figures are obvious: your receivers know...
Concreteness
Use Specific Facts and Figures
It is desirable to be precise and concrete in both written
and oral business c...
Concreteness
• Put Action in Your Verbs
• Verbs can activate other words and help make
your sentences alive, more vigorous...
Concreteness
Use the Active Voice
When the subject performs the action described
by the verb, the verb is said to be in th...
Concreteness
• A passive verb has three characteristics:
• The subject doesn’t do the acting in a sentence.
• The verb con...
Concreteness
• Active verbs help make your sentences more
• Specific. “The dean decided” is more explicit than “A
decision...
Concreteness
Put Action in Verbs, not in Nouns
Verbs propel thought; they move ideas in place of
slower-moving nouns. Seve...
Concreteness
• Choose Vivid, image-Building Words
• Among the devices you can use to make your
messages forceful, vivid, a...
Concreteness
Sensory appeal
Concrete language often evokes a sensory response in
people; it appeals to one or more of the ...
Concreteness
• Comparisons
Analogies either figurative or literal) or comparisons
can make an unclear idea clear or make a...
Concreteness
• Checklist for Concreteness
Were you precise in using figures wherever possible?
Did you use the active voic...
Concreteness
Communicating concretely means being specific,
definite, and vivid rather than vague and general.
The followi...
Concreteness
• Put action in your verbs so as to make your sentence
definite. To compose strong sentences, you should (i)
...
Concreteness
The following examples will illustrate the point:
This computer reproduces sales campaign – letter fast.
(Vag...
Principles of Effective Communication
Principles of Effective Communication
Out of seven principles of communication, the
first three i.e., correctness, concise...
Clarity
Clarity means to get the message across in such a
manner that the receiver understands what you
want to convey. He...
Clarity
• (i) Use short familiar and conversational words, (ii)
Keep the sentences simple and short, (iii) Use short
parag...
Clarity
• (i) Choose Precise, Concrete and Familiar Words
• Clarity is achieved in part through a balance between
precise ...
Clarity
• Although it is appropriate to use technical terms
and business jargon in some professional
situations, avoid it ...
Clarity
Construct Effective Sentences and Paragraphs
At the core of clarity is the sentence. This grammatical
statement, w...
Clarity
• Unity: In a sentence – whether simple, compound, or
complex – unity means that you’ve one main idea, and
any oth...
Clarity
• Emphasis: The quality that gives force to
important parts of sentences and paragraphs is
emphasis. Writers must ...
Clarity
The following points about the choice of words deserve
attention: (a) Use simple words; (b) Use concrete
expressio...
Clarity
• (g) Avoid ambiguity – If your message can mean
more than one thing, it is ambiguous, and (h)
Use short sentences...
Clarity
• Clarity demands that the business message should be
correct, concise, complete, concrete & with
consideration. T...
Clarity
Checklist for Clarity
Choose as precise or as concrete a word as possible.
• Select words that have a high sense o...
Courtesy
Courtesy
• Courtesy is more important and advantageous in
business writing than it is in face-to-face
communication or con...
Courtesy
• True courtesy involves being aware not only of the
perspective of others, but also their feelings. Courtesy
ste...
Courtesy
• We may lose both friend and business. It always
pays to be courteous in business. If you get a
rude letter, don...
Courtesy
• Sometimes courtesy is confused with brevity.
However, brevity should not result in curtness.
Curtness implies t...
Courtesy
• It would have been better to explain to the employee
reasons for refusing leave and also to suggest some time
i...
Courtesy
• Sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and Appreciative:
Tact: Though few people are intentionally abrupt or
blunt, the...
Courtesy
• More Tactful: I’m sorry the point was not clear;
here is another version.
• E-mail messages are short or often ...
Courtesy
Thoughtfulness and Appreciation: Writers who send
cordial, courteous messages of deserved
congratulations and app...
Courtesy
• Use Expressions That Show Respect:
No reader wants to receive messages that offend. Such
expressions may be cla...
Courtesy
• Omit Questionable Humor: Laughter to one person
is disgust for another; each of us has a different
sense of hum...
Courtesy
• Choose Nondiscriminatory Expressions:
Another requirement for the courtesy is the use of
nondiscriminatory lang...
Courtesy
Checklist for Courtesy
• Ask yourself. Does the communication have a sincere
you-attitude?
• Have someone else lo...
Correctness
Correctness
• Correctness of expression makes the writing
clear, free from ambiguity and helps the readers
in easy underst...
Correctness
• At the core of correctness is proper grammar,
punctuation, and spelling. However, a message
may be perfect g...
Correctness
• Use the Right Level of Language:
There are suggested three levels of language: formal,
informal, and substan...
Correctness
More Formal:
interrogate
Less Formal: join
question

participate

ascertain

find out

utilize
use

Avoid subs...
Correctness
• Check Accuracy of Figures, Facts, and Words:
It is impossible to convey meaning precisely, through
words, fr...
Correctness
(iv) Have someone else read your message if the topic
involves data, and invite him to comment on the
validity...
Correctness
Words That Confuse: Our English language is constantly
changing. In fact, even dictionaries cannot keep up wit...
Correctness
• Maintain Acceptable Writing Mechanics:
Careful attention should be given to the mechanical
part (mechanics, ...
Correctness
So you should be sure that you’re using correct
facts and expressing them in correct language. In
fact, you sh...
Correctness
• The term correctness, as applied to a business
message, means the writer should: (a) use the
right level of ...
Correctness
(e) Apply the following qualities: (i) avoid
switching from third person to 2nd person. If
you are writing in ...
Correctness
Written message must be accurate. A wrong figure in an
account muddles up records, annoys customers and
leads ...
Correctness
• Agree to, Agree with: You agree to proposal, and
agree with a person. All ready, already: All ready
means en...
Correctness
Checklist for Correctness
• Select the right level language for your communication
either formal or informal.
...
Correctness
Correctness
• Correctness of expression makes the writing
clear, free from ambiguity and helps the readers
in easy underst...
Correctness
• At the core of correctness is proper grammar,
punctuation, and spelling. However, a message
may be perfect g...
Correctness
• Use the Right Level of Language:
There are suggested three levels of language: formal,
informal, and substan...
Correctness
More Formal:
Less Formal:

participate

join

ascertain

find out

use

utilize

interrogate

question

Avoid ...
Correctness
• Check Accuracy of Figures, Facts, and Words:
It is impossible to convey meaning precisely, through
words, fr...
Correctness
(iv) Have someone else read your message if the topic
involves data, and invite him to comment on the
validity...
Correctness
Words That Confuse: Our English language is constantly
changing. In fact, even dictionaries cannot keep up wit...
Correctness
• Maintain Acceptable Writing Mechanics:
Careful attention should be given to the mechanical
part (mechanics, ...
Correctness
So you should be sure that you’re using correct
facts and expressing them in correct language. In
fact, you sh...
Correctness
• The term correctness, as applied to a business
message, means the writer should: (a) use the
right level of ...
Correctness
(e) Apply the following qualities: (i) avoid
switching from third person to 2nd person. If
you are writing in ...
Correctness
Written message must be accurate. A wrong figure
in an account muddles up records, annoys customers
and leads ...
Correctness
Agree to, Agree with: You agree to proposal, and
agree with a person. All ready, already: All ready
means enti...
Correctness
Checklist for Correctness
• Select the right level language for your communication
either formal or informal.
...
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Principles of Effective Communication

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Principles of Effective Communication can be described as basic principles that help an individual communicate in an effectiveness way by focusing on others. Some of these principles include; being friendly, honest and sincere.

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Principles of Effective Communication

  1. 1. Principles of Effective Communication
  2. 2. Principles of Effective Communication • To compose effective written or oral messages, you must apply certain communication principles. These principles provide guidelines for choice of content and style of presentation, adapted to the purpose and receiver of your message. Called the “seven C’s,” they are completeness, conciseness, consideration, concreteness, clarity, courtesy, and correctness. These seven C’s are applicable to all forms of communication (oral & written) from mere utterances and sentences to complete documents or presentations. To some extent the principles overlap because they are based on a common concern for the audience, whether the audience consists of listeners or readers.
  3. 3. Principles of Effective Communication • There is no special kind of writing to which the business correspondence should conform. It should observe the rules of good writing, free from the jargon and phraseology; it should reflect the writer’s personality and the sincerity of purpose. Such writing should have a style reflecting the background, training and experience of the writer in simple and clear form. To this must be added an adequate vocabulary, as it is not possible to weave the elements of style into the fabric of a good letter without competent knowledge of words since they are the symbols for expressing ideas. The saying “Take care of the sense and the sounds will take care of themselves” should be adhered to for effective communication. Once a writing proposal has been planned, the principles that should be followed comprise the famous seven C’s (i) completeness, (ii) correctness, (iii) conciseness, (iv) clarity, (v) concreteness, (vi) consideration and (vii) courtesy
  4. 4. Principles of Effective Communication Completeness A business message is complete when it contains all facts the reader or listener needs for the reaction you desire. Remember that communicators-senders and receivers – differ in their mental filters; they are influenced by their backgrounds’ viewpoints, needs, experiences, attitudes, status, and emotions. Because of these differences, communication senders need to assess their messages through their eyes of receivers to be sure they have included all relevant information.
  5. 5. Principles of Effective Communication Completeness offers numerous benefits. First, complete messages are more likely to bring the desired results without the expense of additional messages. Second, they can do a better job of building goodwill. Messages that contain information the receiver needs show concern for others. Third, complete message can help avert costly lawsuits that may result if important information is missing. Last, communications that seem inconsequential can be surprisingly important if the information they contain is complete and effective. As you strive for completeness, following guidelines should be kept in mind: • Provide all necessary information • Answer all questions asked • Give something extra, when desirable
  6. 6. Principles of Effective Communication Provide All Necessary information When a message is initiated, you need to check to make sure you have provided all the information the reader needs for thorough, accurate understanding. One-way to help make your message complete is to answer the five W questions – who, what, when, where, why – and any other essentials such as how. The fivequestion method is especially useful when you write requests, announcements, or other informative messages. For instance, to order (request) merchandise, make clear what you want, when you need it, to whom and where it is to be sent, and how payment will be made. To reserve a hotel banquet room specify he accommodation needed (what), location (where), sponsoring organization (who), date and time (when), event (why) and other necessary details (how).
  7. 7. Principles of Effective Communication Answer All Questions asked Whenever you reply to an inquiry, try to answer all questions – stated and implied. A colleague or prospective customer’s reaction to an incomplete reply is likely to be unfavorable. The customer may think the respondent is careless or is purposely trying to conceal a weak spot. In general, “omissions cast suspicions,” whether you are answering an inquiry about your product or recommending a former employee for a new job. If you have no information on a particular question, say so clearly. If you have unfavorable information in answer to certain questions, handle your reply with both tact and honesty.
  8. 8. Principles of Effective Communication In one example, a software distributor, when replying to a dealer’s letter, answered only four of seven questions. Because the original questions were unnumbered and somewhat buried in five long paragraphs, the respondent apparently overlooked or disregarded three of them. The reply, incomplete and unfriendly, caused the distributor to lose the business and goodwill of a potential customer. Sometimes before you can answer an inquiry, you need certain specific information from the inquirer. If so it is a good idea to list the needed details on a reply from that the inquirer can fill out and return to you. In this way both your answer and that of your respondent will be complete.
  9. 9. Principles of Effective Communication Give Something Extra, When Desirable Sometimes you must do more than answer the customers’ specific questions. They may not know what they need, or their questions may be inadequate. For example, suppose you are president of your local Rotary Club and receive the following inquiry from an out-of-town member: I’m new to the city and would like to consider joining your club. As I ‘ll be visiting your club within the month, will you please tell me where the next meeting will be held? .
  10. 10. Principles of Effective Communication • If you answered only this one question, your letter would be incomplete. Realizing that your reader is a newcomer to your city and to your Rotary Club, you should include in your reply a welcome plus such needed details as directions for reaching the building: parking facilities; day, date, and time of meeting and perhaps also the program for the next meeting. Your message will then has the “something extra” that a reader really needs and appreciates. In most cases the reason the communicator includes something extra will be obvious; whenever it’s not completely clear, explain why you’re including the additional information. You need to use your good judgment in offering additional material if the sender’s message was incomplete
  11. 11. Principles of Effective Communication If you answered only this one question, your letter would be incomplete. Realizing that your reader is a newcomer to your city and to your Rotary Club, you should include in your reply a welcome plus such needed details as directions for reaching the building: parking facilities; day, date, and time of meeting and perhaps also the program for the next meeting. Your message will then has the “something extra” that a reader really needs and appreciates. In most cases the reason the communicator includes something extra will be obvious; whenever it’s not completely clear, explain why you’re including the additional information. You need to use your good judgment in offering additional material if the sender’s message was incomplete.
  12. 12. Principles of Effective Communication Checklist for Completeness – – – Remember the five W’s: Who? What? When? Where? Why? Answer all questions (a) Stated questions from questioner. (b) Implied questions from questioner. Give extra information when desirable.
  13. 13. Principles of Effective Communication To achieve both the specific purpose of your message and the long-term purpose – maintaining goodwill – you need to consider carefully just how much information is enough for each person. Completeness is necessary for several reasons: (a) complete messages are more likely to bring the desired results without the expense of additional message; (b) they can do a better job of building goodwill; (c) they can help avert costly lawsuits; and (d) papers that seem inconsequential can be surprisingly important if the information they contain is complete and effective.
  14. 14. Principles of Effective Communication Let us suppose you are ordering shirts by mail. Your communication must include all the relevant facts – size, colour, catalogue number, quantity, mode of payment, mode of dispatch, the date by which you need shirts, etc. In the absence of any of these details, your order may not be filled to your satisfaction. You should organize your message in such a way that the receiver is not in doubt about anything contained in it.
  15. 15. Principles of Effective Communication Incomplete: “Thank you for the confidence you’ve shown us by the account you recently opened. All our facilities are at your disposal, and anytime we can be of service please feel free to call upon us. Our appreciation is best expressed by our being service to you.” Complete: “Thank you for the confidence you have shown in oriental Bank Ltd. By the profit and loss sharing account you recently opened. Our goal is to make all our services to you both pleasant and helpful. You may be especially interested in 15-days grace period each month Save-by-mail postage-paid service, Special purpose account. Free customers parking. “You are most welcome to come in whenever you need our assistance. Please consider this association a right place for the convenience of your savings and borrowing needs”.
  16. 16. Principles of Effective Communication Conciseness Conciseness is saying what you have to say in the fewest possible words without sacrificing the other C qualities. A concise message is complete without being wordy. Conciseness is a prerequisite to effective business communication. A concise message saves time and expense for both sender and receiver. Conciseness contributes to emphasis; by eliminating unnecessary words, you let important ideas stand out. When combined with a “you-view,” concise messages are inherently more interesting to recipients. Finally, concise messages show respect for recipients by not cluttering their professional lives with unnecessary information. To achieve conciseness, observe the following suggestions: • Eliminate wordy expressions • Include only relevant material • Avoid unnecessary repetition
  17. 17. Principles of Effective Communication Eliminate Wordy Expressions The following are some concrete suggestions you can use to reduce wordiness in your communication. • Use single-word substitutes instead of phrases whenever possible without changing meanings. E.g. At this time (Wordy) whereas Now (Concise) • Omit trite, unnecessary expressions. Wordy: Allow me to say how helpful your response was. Concise: Your last response was helpful. 3. Replace wordy conventional statements with concise versions. Wordy: Please find attached the list you requested. Concise: The list you requested is attached. 4. Avoid overusing empty phrases. Wordy: There are four rules that should be observed Concise: Four rules should be observed.
  18. 18. Principles of Effective Communication 6. 7. 8. Omit “which” and “that” clauses whenever possible. Wordy: The receipt that is enclosed documents your purchase. Concise: The enclosed receipt documents your purchase. Eliminate unnecessary prepositional phrases. Wordy: The issue of most relevance is teamwork. Concise: The most relevant issue is teamwork. Limit use of the passive voice. Wordy: The total balance due will be found on page 2 of this report. Concise: The balance due is on page 2 of this report. In all attempts to reduce wordiness, you must be careful to not distort meaning. Conciseness reflects the thoughtful elimination of unnecessary words.
  19. 19. Principles of Effective Communication Include Only Relevant Material The effective, concise message should omit not only unnecessarily wordy expressions but also irrelevant statements. To be sure you include only relevant facts, observe the following suggestions. 1. 2. 3. Stick to the purpose of the message. Delete irrelevant words and rambling sentences. Omit information obvious to the receiver; do not repeat at length what that person has already told you. If you feel it is important to remind the audience of known information, subordinate the familiar information.
  20. 20. Principles of Effective Communication 4. Avoid long introductions, unnecessary explanations, excessive adjectives and prepositions, pompous words, gushy politeness. 5. Get to the important point tactfully and concisely. Wordy: we hereby wish to let you know that our company is pleased with the confidence you have reposed in us. Concise: we appreciate your confidence.
  21. 21. Principles of Effective Communication • Avoid Unnecessary Repetition Sometimes repetition is necessary for emphasis. But when the same thing is said two or three times without reason, the message becomes wordy and boring. Here are three ways to eliminate repetition: • Use a shorter name after you’ve mentioned the long one once. Instead of the “ North Central Company,” use “North Central.”
  22. 22. Principles of Effective Communication • Use pronouns or initials rather than repeat long names. Instead of citing “American Association of Technical Analysts” again and again, use “it” or “they” or AATA. When using well-known initials or acronyms, give the full reference first with the initials in parentheses: The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is being debated in Congress.
  23. 23. Principles of Effective Communication • • Cut out all needless repetition of phrases and sentences. Sometimes it is possible to combine two or even more sentences by using subordinate clauses or phrases. Checklist for Conciseness • • • • Use one word in place of phrases; one sentence in place of two. Read out loud to “listen” for wordiness. Omit outdated trite expressions. Ask yourself: What material is really relevant? Look for unnecessary repetition. Does the same word or idea appear too often?
  24. 24. Consideration
  25. 25. Consideration Consideration means preparing every message with the message receivers in mind; try to put yourself in their place: You’re considerate, you don’t lose your temper, you don’t accuse, you don’t charge them without facts. You’re, foremost, aware of their desires, problems, circumstances, emotions and probable reactions to your request. Then handle the matter from their point of view. This thoughtful consideration is called “youattitude,” empathy, the human touch, and understanding of human nature.
  26. 26. Consideration In a broad but true sense, consideration underlies the other six C’s of good business communication. You adapt your language and necessary content to your receiver’s needs when you make your message complete. Three specific ways to indicate consideration are: • • • Focus on “you” instead of “I” and “we.” Show audience benefit or interest in the receiver. Emphasize positive, pleasant facts
  27. 27. Consideration
  28. 28. Consideration Focus on “You” Instead of “I” or “We” To create considerate, audience-oriented messages, focus on how message receivers will benefit, what they will receive, and what they want or need to know. In some cases, this can be accomplished by emphasis; you might downplay your own feelings and emphasize a point, make an explicit reference, or use a direct quotation in responding to the request of another individual. Creating a you-attitude may require avoiding telling others how they feel, assuming you know their needs
  29. 29. Consideration We-Attitude: I am delighted to announce that we will be extending our hours to make shopping more convenient. You-attitude: You’ll be able to shop evenings with the extended hours.
  30. 30. Consideration • Showing consideration for the audience involves more than just using “you” instead of “I” or “we.’ Messages that use “you” can be insensitive in negative situations. In fact, sometimes avoiding “you” can reduce potential defensiveness or allow the recipient to save face. An extreme example of a negative situation is the collection letter with “you” or “your” in almost every sentence, if those sentences are insulting, sarcastic, tactless, or untrue accusations and threats against the debtor; the letter surely lacks a you-attitude. The use of “you” in negative situations can be avoided by employing the passive voice, making the receiver part of a group, or depersonalizing the situation.
  31. 31. Consideration Insensitive: you failed to enclose your check in the envelope. Considerate: the check was not enclosed. (passive voice) Considerate: The envelope we received didn’t have a check in it. (Depersonalized)
  32. 32. Consideration Show Audience Benefit or Interest in the Receiver Whenever possible and true, show how your receivers will benefit from whatever the message asks or announces. Benefits must meet recipients’ needs, address their concerns, or offer them rewards. Most important, they must be perceived as benefits by the receivers. This means that you must identify the legitimate benefits of your position, policy, or product and then put yourself in the place of the receivers to assess their perspectives.
  33. 33. Consideration Receivers will be more likely to react favorably and do what you suggest if you show that benefits are worth the effort and cost you ask of them. In situations where actual direct benefit is impossible or irrelevant to the subject matter, the message should at least show interest in and concern for the recipient’s needs or viewpoints. Reader-benefit appeals help collect payments on bills, soften the blow in a turndown, and sell products. Such appeals are desirable also in job applications, favor requests, and announcements to your customers, prospective buyers, stockholders, and employees. Whether you’re writing to one person or to large numbers, try to personalize the reader benefits instead of stating them in a general way. Benefits that are realistic, inherent, and tailored to individuals help communicators achieve goals in effective, ethical ways.
  34. 34. Consideration Emphasize Positive, Pleasant Facts A third way to show consideration for your receivers is to accent the positive. This means stressing what can be done instead of what cannot be done, and focusing on words your recipient can consider favorably. Negative-Unpleasant: It is impossible to open an account for you today. Positive-Pleasant: As soon as your signature card reaches us, we’ll gladly open an account. Because of past connections with words, readers will react positively or negatively to certain words.
  35. 35. Consideration Checklist for Consideration • See your material from your reader’s point of view. • “You” is more desirable than “I” or “we” in most instances. • Readers like to see benefits. Be sure benefits are a prominent part of the message. • Consciously use positive words; readers will react more favorably.
  36. 36. Consideration • Consideration means that you prepare every message with the recipient in mind and try to put yourself their desires, problems, circumstances, emotions and probable reactions to your request. Then handle the matter from their point of view. This thoughtful consideration is called ‘you attitude”, empathy, the human touch, the understanding of human nature.
  37. 37. Consideration In four specific ways you can indicate you are considerate: • Focus on “you” instead of “I” and “we”. • Show reader benefit or interest in reader. • Emphasize positive, pleasant facts. • Apply integrity to your messages
  38. 38. Consideration • When a reader receives a business letter, he assesses how it affects him and his business and what action he needs to take on it. A direct personal approach which the you attitude ensures will transmit the message to him quickly and produce the desired response. • This, however, does not mean that the writer should completely suppress his own interests. He should instead show how their interests are common and how they can be promoted. An attempt to do so should not, lead to under praise, artificial cordiality and exaggerated claims. Sincerity and truthfulness convince most.
  39. 39. Consideration If you glance through the pages of any newspaper or magazine, you’ll find that good advertisements reflect the you attitude – You can achieve success by enrolling with us for a home study course; – Today you need more than an old-fashioned soap; – The success you deserve depends upon your training; – It cools so fast that you could have ice for the asking; – There’s always something special in the air when you fly with us.
  40. 40. Concreteness
  41. 41. Concreteness • Communicating concretely means being specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague and general. Often it means using denotative (direct, explicit, often dictionary-based) rather than connotative words (ideas or notions suggested by or associated with a word or phrase).
  42. 42. Concreteness • The benefits to business professionals of using concrete facts and figures are obvious: your receivers know exactly what is required or desired. Using concrete language has some additional, less obvious advantages. When you supply specifics for the reader or listener, you increase the likelihood that your message will be interpreted the way you intended. Moreover, concrete messages are more richly textured than general or vague messages: thus, they tend to be more vivid, dynamic, and interesting. The following guidelines should help you compose concrete, convincing messages. • Use specific facts and figures • Put action in your verbs • Choose vivid, image-building words
  43. 43. Concreteness Use Specific Facts and Figures It is desirable to be precise and concrete in both written and oral business communication. Whenever possible, use an exact, precise statement or a figure in place of a general word to make your message more concrete. Vague, General, indefinite: Eastern Europe is making progress in obtaining investments. Concrete, precise: In 1990 investments in Eastern Europe were about US $30 million; today that figure has increased by 12%.
  44. 44. Concreteness • Put Action in Your Verbs • Verbs can activate other words and help make your sentences alive, more vigorous. That is, to have dynamic sentences (i) use active rather than passive verbs and (2) put action in your verbs rather than in nouns and infinitives.
  45. 45. Concreteness Use the Active Voice When the subject performs the action described by the verb, the verb is said to be in the active voice. Usually the active voice puts the verb up front in the sentence. Conversely, when the subject receives the action of the verb, the verb is in the passive voice: (“The report by the financial officer was heard by the Board.”)
  46. 46. Concreteness • A passive verb has three characteristics: • The subject doesn’t do the acting in a sentence. • The verb consists of two or more words, one of which is in some form of “to be” (is, is being, am, are, was, were, will be, has, or have been, had been, or will have been). • The word “by” is expressed or implied (by whom or what)
  47. 47. Concreteness • Active verbs help make your sentences more • Specific. “The dean decided” is more explicit than “A decision has been made.” • Personal. “You will note” is both personal and specific; “It will be noted” is impersonal.” • Concise. The passive requires more words and thus shows both writing and reading. Compare “Figures show” with “It is shown by figures.” • Emphatic. Passive verbs dull action. Compare “The students held a contest” with “A contest was held by the students.”
  48. 48. Concreteness Put Action in Verbs, not in Nouns Verbs propel thought; they move ideas in place of slower-moving nouns. Seven verbs – be, give, have, hold, make, put, and take – (in any tense) might be designated as “deadly” when the action they introduce is hidden in a “quiet noun.” E.g. Action Hiding in a “Quiet” Noun: The function of this office is the collection of payments and the compilation of statements. Action in the verb: This office collects payments and compiles statements
  49. 49. Concreteness • Choose Vivid, image-Building Words • Among the devices you can use to make your messages forceful, vivid, and specific are sensory appeals, comparisons, figurative language, concrete nouns, and well-chosen adjectives and adverbs. But use these devices with caution: business writing uses fewer descriptors than does a magazine article or fictional writing.
  50. 50. Concreteness Sensory appeal Concrete language often evokes a sensory response in people; it appeals to one or more of the five senses. Such language tends to be more descriptive than conventional business language. For example, instead of saying “it was hot in the factory.” You might appeal to both sight and touch by saying “Sweat trickled down the arms of the line workers”. Although sensory appeals are used primarily in marketing products, they also have a limited place in providing color and specificity in other forms of business communication.
  51. 51. Concreteness • Comparisons Analogies either figurative or literal) or comparisons can make an unclear idea clear or make an idea more vivid. Figurative Language Use figures of speech with caution. When used sparingly they do make an idea more vivid. E.g. Literal (and Dull): Her work in groups was exemplary. More Vivid. Figurative: She could be called “the spark plug of the group.’
  52. 52. Concreteness • Checklist for Concreteness Were you precise in using figures wherever possible? Did you use the active voice more than the passive? Is there action in verbs rather than in nouns or infinitives? Did you try to occasionally use vivid, image-building words? But in business writing, use them sparingly.
  53. 53. Concreteness Communicating concretely means being specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague and general. The following guidelines should help you compose concrete, convincing messages: • Use specific facts and figures for a general word to make your message more concrete and convincing. Often vague general words are opinion words; they may have different meanings to the sender and the receiver.
  54. 54. Concreteness • Put action in your verbs so as to make your sentence definite. To compose strong sentences, you should (i) use active rather than passive verbs, and (ii) put action in your verbs instead of nouns or infinitives. • Choose vivid, image-building words to make your message forceful, vivid and specific and for this purpose you can use such devices as comparisons, figurative language, concrete instead of abstract nouns and well-chosen adjectives and adverbs.
  55. 55. Concreteness The following examples will illustrate the point: This computer reproduces sales campaign – letter fast. (Vague, general) This computer types 1000 personalized 200-word campaignletter in one hour. (concrete, convincing) Please send your cheque for amount soon (vague) Please send your cheque for Rs.5, 000 on or before December 31. (concrete, convincing) Our product has won several prices. (vague, general) Sunshine, as the most effective detergent, has won first prize in four national fairs within the past five years. (concrete, convincing)
  56. 56. Principles of Effective Communication
  57. 57. Principles of Effective Communication Out of seven principles of communication, the first three i.e., correctness, conciseness & completeness are also the essentials of good style; the remaining C’s i.e., courtesy, clarity, correctness & consideration relate to the utility and the effectiveness of writing or the art of composition.
  58. 58. Clarity Clarity means to get the message across in such a manner that the receiver understands what you want to convey. He interprets your words with the same meaning you have in your mind. Clarity makes the writing simple and readable for the persons for whom the letters or the report or the message is meant. It creates interest and accrues in easy response from them. The following are some useful hints for keeping your writing simple and clear.
  59. 59. Clarity • (i) Use short familiar and conversational words, (ii) Keep the sentences simple and short, (iii) Use short paragraphs, (iv) Avoid unwanted information in the message, and (v) Use positive language as far as possible. • Getting the meaning from your head into the head of your reader – accurately – is the purpose of clarity. However, we must keep this in mind that it is not simple as we all carry around our own unique interpretations, ideas, experiences associated with words.
  60. 60. Clarity • (i) Choose Precise, Concrete and Familiar Words • Clarity is achieved in part through a balance between precise language and familiar language. When you use precise or concrete language, you select exactly the right word to convey your meaning; precise words need not be pretentious. When you use familiar language, you select a word that is part of your personal repertoire (range of skills/aptitude), familiar to the audience, and appropriate for the situation. When you’ve a choice b/w a long word and a short one, use the short, familiar word that your reader or listener will quickly understand. In fact, when in doubt, use more familiar words, as the audience will understand them better.
  61. 61. Clarity • Although it is appropriate to use technical terms and business jargon in some professional situations, avoid it when you communicate with a person who is not acquainted with the terminology. If you must use such terms, define them briefly and clearly. Understanding the audience helps writers choose familiar words: those known by the speaker and the listener.
  62. 62. Clarity Construct Effective Sentences and Paragraphs At the core of clarity is the sentence. This grammatical statement, when clearly expressed, moves thoughts within a paragraph. Important characteristics to consider are length, unity, coherence, and emphasis. Length: Generally, short sentences are preferred. The suggested average sentence length should be about 17 to 20 words. Because variety in sentence length adds interest to writing, adopt a range of from 3 to 30 or more words. But when a sentence exceeds 40 words, try to rewrite it into more than one sentence.
  63. 63. Clarity • Unity: In a sentence – whether simple, compound, or complex – unity means that you’ve one main idea, and any other ideas in the sentence must be closely related to it. “I like Jim, and the Eiffel tower is in Paris” obviously isn’t a unified sentence. • Coherence: In a coherent sentence the words are correctly arranged so that the ideas clearly express the intended meaning. Place the correct modifier as close as possible to the word it is supposed to modify.
  64. 64. Clarity • Emphasis: The quality that gives force to important parts of sentences and paragraphs is emphasis. Writers must decide what needs emphasis and then choose correct sentence structure. In a complex sentence the main idea should be placed in the main clause; the less important points are in subordinate (dependent) clauses or phrases.
  65. 65. Clarity The following points about the choice of words deserve attention: (a) Use simple words; (b) Use concrete expressions; (c) Avoid jargon – ‘Jargon’ refers to the special language of a trade, profession, or field of study; (d) Avoid colloquialism – Colloquialisms are expressions common in speech but supposed to be unsuitable for written communication; (e) Use synonyms carefully; (f) Prefer active constructions – for they are easier to understand;
  66. 66. Clarity • (g) Avoid ambiguity – If your message can mean more than one thing, it is ambiguous, and (h) Use short sentences – Whether your communication is oral or written, use very short sentences.
  67. 67. Clarity • Clarity demands that the business message should be correct, concise, complete, concrete & with consideration. To accomplish these, we must:(a) Choose pithy, short, familiar & conversational words; (b) Proper punctuations making the writing clear; (c). Insert examples, illustrations, tables, graphs, & other visual aids, if necessary; (d). Make the message readable & understandable, and (e). Make correct sentences & divide the message in properly sized paragraphs.
  68. 68. Clarity Checklist for Clarity Choose as precise or as concrete a word as possible. • Select words that have a high sense of appropriateness for the reader. • Opt for the familiar word, the one that is not pretentious. • Limit average sentence length to 17 to 20 words. • Insert no more than one main idea into a sentence. • Arrange words so that the main idea occurs early in a sentence.
  69. 69. Courtesy
  70. 70. Courtesy • Courtesy is more important and advantageous in business writing than it is in face-to-face communication or conversation. Courtesy is more desirable while communicating through letters because the readers judge you not by actions but by words. A courteous message not only strengthens present business friendship but it also makes new friends. Courtesy is a goodwill builder. Courtesy may be achieved by being (i) Truly tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative, (ii) Omitting expressions that annoy, distress, or ridicule, (iii) Answering all your mail properly and promptly, and (iv) Apologizing candidly and being thankful.
  71. 71. Courtesy • True courtesy involves being aware not only of the perspective of others, but also their feelings. Courtesy stems from a sincere you-attitude. It is not merely politeness with mechanical insertions of “please” and “thank you,” although applying socially accepted manners is a form of courtesy. Rather it is politeness that grows out of respect and concern for others. In fact, courteous communicators generate a special tone in their writing and speaking. We should remember that writing discourteous letters is often very costly.
  72. 72. Courtesy • We may lose both friend and business. It always pays to be courteous in business. If you get a rude letter, don’t get angry and try to hit back. Send a courteous reply and the other person will respond more favorably than before. Goodwill is a great asset for an organization and courtesy in correspondence is one of the most natural and economical means of building it.
  73. 73. Courtesy • Sometimes courtesy is confused with brevity. However, brevity should not result in curtness. Curtness implies that the letter writer is impatient and lacks consideration for the reader. The following letter refusing leave to an employee would be regarded as curt: “With reference to your application of 18 August -----------, I am to inform you that you can’t be granted the leave applied for.”
  74. 74. Courtesy • It would have been better to explain to the employee reasons for refusing leave and also to suggest some time in future when it would be possible to grant him leave. The person who wrote this letter forgot that a letter is not just a piece of factual information but that it is also reflects the attitude of the writer. • Suggestions for generating a courteous tone: (i) Be sincerely tactful, thought, and appreciative; (ii) Use expressions that show respect, and (iii) Choose nondiscriminatory expressions.
  75. 75. Courtesy • Sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and Appreciative: Tact: Though few people are intentionally abrupt or blunt, these negative traits are a common cause of discourtesy. Sometimes they stem from a mistaken idea of conciseness, sometimes from negative personal attitude, sometimes from not knowing the culture of a country or even groups of people. E.g. Tactless, blunt: I rewrote that letter three times; the point was clear
  76. 76. Courtesy • More Tactful: I’m sorry the point was not clear; here is another version. • E-mail messages are short or often informal. Writing a letter to a customer outside the company requires more “niceties” than writing E-mail within your company
  77. 77. Courtesy Thoughtfulness and Appreciation: Writers who send cordial, courteous messages of deserved congratulations and appreciation (to persons both inside and outside the firm) help build goodwill. The value of goodwill or public esteem for the firm may be worth thousands (or millions) of dollars. Be especially thoughtful and courteous when communicating with Asian cultures: they like the soft, more polite approach in both oral and written communication.
  78. 78. Courtesy • Use Expressions That Show Respect: No reader wants to receive messages that offend. Such expressions may be classified under two groups: irritating expressions and questionable humor. Omit Irritating Expressions Advisable: Simply nonsense, Irritating: You should know/ Advisable: I’m sure you must realize Irritating: you didn’t tell us
  79. 79. Courtesy • Omit Questionable Humor: Laughter to one person is disgust for another; each of us has a different sense of humor. A flippant attitude can be in poor taste, and when you seem to be in doubt as to the relevance of humor, leave it out and be more formal
  80. 80. Courtesy • Choose Nondiscriminatory Expressions: Another requirement for the courtesy is the use of nondiscriminatory language that reflects equal treatment of people regardless of gender, race, ethnic origin, and physical features. Singular Pronouns: English lacks a neuter singular pronoun signifying “he” or “she.” Use good judgment. Some companies use the masculine he quite freely; know the culture of the company before making a final decision when writing. When using names, treat each gender with respect.
  81. 81. Courtesy Checklist for Courtesy • Ask yourself. Does the communication have a sincere you-attitude? • Have someone else look at your statement. If you’ve doubts about whether it is tactful. Another opinion may cause you to reconsider making a statement. • Be cautious in using humor in communication. Here too it pays to have someone else review your words. • Be careful in using discriminatory language; this means being aware of gender, race, age, color (nigger is an offensive word for a Negro/black person), creed (faith), sexual preferences, or ethnic origins.
  82. 82. Correctness
  83. 83. Correctness • Correctness of expression makes the writing clear, free from ambiguity and helps the readers in easy understanding and prompt response. Thus clarity and readability are closely related to accuracy. Correctness means that beside the correct punctuation, spelling and grammar used; the type of language and facts reported should also be correct. It also means that all other principles of business communication are also followed.
  84. 84. Correctness • At the core of correctness is proper grammar, punctuation, and spelling. However, a message may be perfect grammatically and mechanically but still insult or lose a customer. The term correctness, as applied to business messages, also means the following three characteristics: (i) Use the right level of language; (ii) Check accuracy of figures, facts, and words, and (iii) Maintain acceptable writing mechanics.
  85. 85. Correctness • Use the Right Level of Language: There are suggested three levels of language: formal, informal, and substandard. Formal writing is often associated with scholarly writing: doctoral dissertations, scholarly articles, legal documents, top-level government agreements, and other materials where formality in style is demanded. The style is unconversational usually impersonal, and often contains long and involved sentences. Informal writing is more characteristic of business writing – even more so if that writing occurs in an E-mail message. Here we use words that are short, well known, and conversational such as;
  86. 86. Correctness More Formal: interrogate Less Formal: join question participate ascertain find out utilize use Avoid substandard language: Using incorrect words, incorrect grammar, and faulty pronunciation all suggests an inability to use good English. Substandard: More Acceptable: ain’t isn’t, aren’t desirous to irregardless should of desirous of regardless should have
  87. 87. Correctness • Check Accuracy of Figures, Facts, and Words: It is impossible to convey meaning precisely, through words, from the head of the sender to a receiver. Our goal is to be as precise as possible, which means checking and double-checking to ensure that the figures, facts, and words you use are correct. Figures and Facts: (i) Verify your statistical data; (ii) Double-check your total; (iii) Avoid guessing at laws that have an impact on you, the sender, and your message receiver;
  88. 88. Correctness (iv) Have someone else read your message if the topic involves data, and invite him to comment on the validity of the material, and (v) Determine whether a “fact” has changed over time. In other words, there are accepted measures for statistical analysis just as there are rules for good grammar. We need to be alert to accuracy because of changing rates, regulations, laws, and conditions locally and even internationally.
  89. 89. Correctness Words That Confuse: Our English language is constantly changing. In fact, even dictionaries cannot keep up with the rapid change in our language. But the dictionary is still a major source for locating correct words and their intended meanings. E.g. accept, except –Accept is a verb and means to receive. Except is a verb or a preposition and relates to omitting or leaving out. Imply, infer - Imply means “to insinuate” or “suggest”; infer means “to conclude.” A writer implies; the reader infers.
  90. 90. Correctness • Maintain Acceptable Writing Mechanics: Careful attention should be given to the mechanical part (mechanics, word processing, and appearance of business messages) of every well-written document. Business communication often lends to expensive operations. Very often when you send important communication you’ll be putting at stake your reputation and goodwill. In internal communication, while preparing reports, you are perhaps collecting facts that will lead to important decisions.
  91. 91. Correctness So you should be sure that you’re using correct facts and expressing them in correct language. In fact, you should not transmit any message unless you’re absolutely sure of its correctness. If you aren’t, you should immediately verify it from an encyclopedia, an office file, a colleague, a dictionary, or even a grammar book; you should know the correct legal position before you commit anything.
  92. 92. Correctness • The term correctness, as applied to a business message, means the writer should: (a) use the right level of language; (b) include only accurate facts, words and figures; (c) maintain acceptable writing principles/mechanics; (d) choose nondiscriminatory expressions;
  93. 93. Correctness (e) Apply the following qualities: (i) avoid switching from third person to 2nd person. If you are writing in the third person don’t use I, me, we, us, you. (ii) Vary your sentence structure, (iii) There should be proper grammar, punctuation, spelling, and paragraphing, and (f) apply all other pertinent C qualities.
  94. 94. Correctness Written message must be accurate. A wrong figure in an account muddles up records, annoys customers and leads to problems. All statements must be doubly checked before they are released. Updating of facts and figures is also very essential. Good business writer must be alert to accuracy because of changing rates, laws, and conditions. Moreover, a language is alive and ever changing. So choose correct words to convey the intended meaning. The following few examples will explain the point:
  95. 95. Correctness • Agree to, Agree with: You agree to proposal, and agree with a person. All ready, already: All ready means entirely ready, already means previously. Amount, number: When you count units it is number. Amount refers to bulk or total
  96. 96. Correctness Checklist for Correctness • Select the right level language for your communication either formal or informal. • Realize that informal language is most often used in business communication. • Check – often by letting another person read your material – for correct figures, facts, and words. • Apply the principles of accepted mechanics to your writing.
  97. 97. Correctness
  98. 98. Correctness • Correctness of expression makes the writing clear, free from ambiguity and helps the readers in easy understanding and prompt response. Thus clarity and readability are closely related to accuracy. Correctness means that beside the correct punctuation, spelling and grammar used; the type of language and facts reported should also be correct. It also means that all other principles of business communication are also followed.
  99. 99. Correctness • At the core of correctness is proper grammar, punctuation, and spelling. However, a message may be perfect grammatically and mechanically but still insult or lose a customer. The term correctness, as applied to business messages, also means the following three characteristics: (i) Use the right level of language; (ii) Check accuracy of figures, facts, and words, and (iii) Maintain acceptable writing mechanics.
  100. 100. Correctness • Use the Right Level of Language: There are suggested three levels of language: formal, informal, and substandard. Formal writing is often associated with scholarly writing: doctoral dissertations, scholarly articles, legal documents, top-level government agreements, and other materials where formality in style is demanded. The style is unconversational usually impersonal, and often contains long and involved sentences. Informal writing is more characteristic of business writing – even more so if that writing occurs in an E-mail message. Here we use words that are short, well known, and conversational such as;
  101. 101. Correctness More Formal: Less Formal: participate join ascertain find out use utilize interrogate question Avoid substandard language: Using incorrect words, incorrect grammar, and faulty pronunciation all suggests an inability to use good English. Substandard: More Acceptable: ain’t isn’t, aren’t desirous to irregardless desirous of regardless should of should have
  102. 102. Correctness • Check Accuracy of Figures, Facts, and Words: It is impossible to convey meaning precisely, through words, from the head of the sender to a receiver. Our goal is to be as precise as possible, which means checking and double-checking to ensure that the figures, facts, and words you use are correct. Figures and Facts: (i) Verify your statistical data; (ii) Double-check your total; (iii) Avoid guessing at laws that have an impact on you, the sender, and your message receiver;
  103. 103. Correctness (iv) Have someone else read your message if the topic involves data, and invite him to comment on the validity of the material, and (v) Determine whether a “fact” has changed over time. In other words, there are accepted measures for statistical analysis just as there are rules for good grammar. We need to be alert to accuracy because of changing rates, regulations, laws, and conditions locally and even internationally.
  104. 104. Correctness Words That Confuse: Our English language is constantly changing. In fact, even dictionaries cannot keep up with the rapid change in our language. But the dictionary is still a major source for locating correct words and their intended meanings. E.g. accept, except –Accept is a verb and means to receive. Except is a verb or a preposition and relates to omitting or leaving out. Imply, infer - Imply means “to insinuate” or “suggest”; infer means “to conclude.” A writer implies; the reader infers.
  105. 105. Correctness • Maintain Acceptable Writing Mechanics: Careful attention should be given to the mechanical part (mechanics, word processing, and appearance of business messages) of every well-written document. Business communication often lends to expensive operations. Very often when you send important communication you’ll be putting at stake your reputation and goodwill. In internal communication, while preparing reports, you are perhaps collecting facts that will lead to important decisions.
  106. 106. Correctness So you should be sure that you’re using correct facts and expressing them in correct language. In fact, you should not transmit any message unless you’re absolutely sure of its correctness. If you aren’t, you should immediately verify it from an encyclopedia, an office file, a colleague, a dictionary, or even a grammar book; you should know the correct legal position before you commit anything.
  107. 107. Correctness • The term correctness, as applied to a business message, means the writer should: (a) use the right level of language; (b) include only accurate facts, words and figures; (c) maintain acceptable writing principles/mechanics; (d) choose nondiscriminatory expressions;
  108. 108. Correctness (e) Apply the following qualities: (i) avoid switching from third person to 2nd person. If you are writing in the third person don’t use I, me, we, us, you. (ii) Vary your sentence structure, (iii) There should be proper grammar, punctuation, spelling, and paragraphing, and (f) apply all other pertinent C qualities.
  109. 109. Correctness Written message must be accurate. A wrong figure in an account muddles up records, annoys customers and leads to problems. All statements must be doubly checked before they are released. Updating of facts and figures is also very essential. Good business writer must be alert to accuracy because of changing rates, laws, and conditions. Moreover, a language is alive and ever changing. So choose correct words to convey the intended meaning. The following few examples will explain the point:
  110. 110. Correctness Agree to, Agree with: You agree to proposal, and agree with a person. All ready, already: All ready means entirely ready, already means previously. Amount, number: When you count units it is number. Amount refers to bulk or total
  111. 111. Correctness Checklist for Correctness • Select the right level language for your communication either formal or informal. • Realize that informal language is most often used in business communication. • Check – often by letting another person read your material – for correct figures, facts, and words. • Apply the principles of accepted mechanics to your writing.
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