12/4/2013

The concept of Shirkah &
Musharakah
Overview
o Terminology & Definition of Musharakah
o Types of Musharakah
o Structure of Musharakah
o Basic Rules in Mushara...
MUSHARAKAH
Musharakah

Hadees-e-Qudsi

“Allah (SWT) has declared that he will become a
partner in a business between two Mushariks
un...
Musharakah
Terminology & Definition of Musharakah
“Musharakah ” means “Sharing” and in the terminology of Islamic
Fiqh.

...
Musharakah
Contract of Musharakah
The contract of Musharakah can take
place between two or more persons
with the capital c...
Types of Musharakah

SHIRKAH

SHIRKAT-UL-MILK

IKHTIARI

SHIRKAT-UL-AQD

GAIR IKHTIARI

SHIRKATUL-AMWAL

SHIRKATUL-AAMAL

...
Types of Musharakah
Shirkat has been divided into two kinds:

1. SHIRKAT-UL-MILK
It means joint ownership of two or more p...
Shirkat-ul-Milk
It means joint ownership of two or more persons in a particular
property.
This kind of “Shirkah” may come ...
Shirkat-ul-Milk
2. UNOPTIONAL SHIRKAT-UL-MILK (Ghair Ikhtiari)
 There are cases where this kind of “Shirkah” comes to ope...
Shirkat-ul-’Aqd
This is the second type of Shirkah which means:

“A partnership effected by a mutual contract in which the...
Types of Shirkat-ul-’Aqd

Shirkat-ul-‘aqd is further divided into three
kinds:

1. Shirkat-ul-amwal (contractual partnersh...
Types of Shirkat-ul-’Aqd

1. Shirkat-ul-amwal:

 Where all the partners invest some Capital into
a Commercial enterprise....
Types of Shirkat-ul-’Aqd
2. Shirkat-ul-A’mal:


Where all the partners jointly undertake to render
some services for thei...
Types of Shirkat-ul-’Aqd
3. Shirkat-ul-wujooh
The word Wujooh comes from Wajahat meaning
goodwill




Hence this is a pa...
Musharakah
All these modes of “Sharing” or partnership are termed as
“Shirkah” in the terminology of Islamic Fiqh, while t...
BASIC RULES FOR MUSHARAKAH

17
Rules of Musharakah
Musharakah means relationship established under a
contract by the mutual consent of the parties for sh...
Rules of Musharakah

The existence of Muta’aqideen(Partners):
Capability of Partners:
Must be sane & mature and be able of...
MANAGEMENT OF MUSHARAKAH

20
Rules of Musharakah
Asset of Musharakah
All assets of Musharakah are jointly owned in proportion to the
capital of each pa...
DISTRIBUTION OF PROFIT

View of Muslim Jurists About RATIO OF
PROFIT
RATIO OF PROFIT
In the view of

Imam Malik & Imam Shafi'i

“it is necessary for the validity of musharakah that each
partn...
In the view of

Imam Malik & Imam Shafi'i
• EXAMPLE:
• If Mr.A has invested 40% of the total
capital, he must get 40% of t...
RATIO OF PROFIT
In the view of

Imam Ahmed
The ratio of profit may differ from the ratio of
investment if it is agreed bet...
In the view of
Imam Ahmed
• EXAMPLE:
• it is permissible that a partner with 40% of
investment gets 60% or 70% of the prof...
RATIO OF PROFIT
In the view of

Imam Abu Hainfah
The ratio of profit may differ from the ratio of
investment in normal con...
In the view of

Imam Abu Hainfah
• EXAMPLE:
• Sleeping Partner:

If a partner has decided to remain inactive
or to become ...
Rules of Musharakah
Distribution of Profit
• The ratio of profit distribution must be agreed at the time
of execution of t...
Profit Distribution
ILLUSTRATION

If A and B enter into a partnership and it is agreed between them
that A shall be given ...
Profit Distribution
OBSERVATIONS

If a lump sum amount or a certain percentage of the
investment has been agreed for any o...
View of Muslim Jurists About
RATIO OF LOSS
33
Rules of Musharakah

Rules for Loss
In the case of a loss, all the Muslim jurists are
unanimous on the point that each par...
TERMINATION OF
MUSHARAKAH

35
Termination of Musharakah
Musharakah is deemed to be terminated in any one of the
following events:
(1) Every partner has ...
Termination of Musharakah
(2) If any one of the partners dies during the
musharakah, the contract of musharakah with him s...
Mr. A

Mr. B

Mr. C

Musharakah

Mr. A

Wishes to Terminate
the contract

Mr. B

Mr. C

Wishes to continue

Mr. B & C can ...
Termination of Musharakah
• If one partner wants to terminate the Musharakah but other
partners want to continue this can ...
Termination of Musharakah
• If partners cannot arrive at consensus on value the
leaving partner can compel others to liqui...
APPLICATION

42
Application
Musharakah can be successfully used to in the following
areas:
• Project financing
• Working capital financing...
Project Financing
•

In the case of project
financing, the
traditional method of
Musharaka can be
easily adopted.

1
Share...
Exercise

45
Exercise
Setup a Musharakah company
Data

Case 1:
a. Setup
Jan 1

Partner A Invest 10 mn (working partner)
Partner B Inves...
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Musharkah CONCEPT

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Musharkah CONCEPT

  1. 1. 12/4/2013 The concept of Shirkah & Musharakah
  2. 2. Overview o Terminology & Definition of Musharakah o Types of Musharakah o Structure of Musharakah o Basic Rules in Musharakah o Termination of Musharakah o Constructive Liquidation of Musharaka o Security / Collateral in Musharaka o Musharaka Management and Liability o Application of Musharaka As a Mode o Problems and Risk for Banks in Musharaka Financing
  3. 3. MUSHARAKAH
  4. 4. Musharakah Hadees-e-Qudsi “Allah (SWT) has declared that he will become a partner in a business between two Mushariks until they indulge in cheating or breach of trust”
  5. 5. Musharakah Terminology & Definition of Musharakah “Musharakah ” means “Sharing” and in the terminology of Islamic Fiqh.  The word Musharakah has been derived from “Shirkah” which means being a partner  Musharakah is basically a kind of partnership in which the partners join together with different contributions, work or obligation for the common objective of undertaking business and trade in accordance with the principles of Shariah.  It is an ideal alternative for the interest based financing with far reaching effects on the economy 
  6. 6. Musharakah Contract of Musharakah The contract of Musharakah can take place between two or more persons with the capital contributed by the partners/shareholders and the profit to be distributed among them according to the rates agreed upon by the shareholders.
  7. 7. Types of Musharakah SHIRKAH SHIRKAT-UL-MILK IKHTIARI SHIRKAT-UL-AQD GAIR IKHTIARI SHIRKATUL-AMWAL SHIRKATUL-AAMAL SHIRKATUL-WUJOOH
  8. 8. Types of Musharakah Shirkat has been divided into two kinds: 1. SHIRKAT-UL-MILK It means joint ownership of two or more persons in a particular property/asset. 2. SHIRKAT-UL-’AQD This is the second type of Shirkah which means “a partnership effected by a mutual contract for ”.
  9. 9. Shirkat-ul-Milk It means joint ownership of two or more persons in a particular property. This kind of “Shirkah” may come into existence in two different ways: 1. OPTIONAL SHIRKAT-UL-MILK (Ikhtiari)  If two or more person purchase an equipment, it will be owned jointly by both of them and the relationship between them with regard to that property is called “Shirkat-ul-milk.”  Here this relationship has come into existence at their own option, as they themselves elected to purchase the equipment jointly. 9
  10. 10. Shirkat-ul-Milk 2. UNOPTIONAL SHIRKAT-UL-MILK (Ghair Ikhtiari)  There are cases where this kind of “Shirkah” comes to operate automatically without any action taken by the parties.  For example, after the death of a person, all his heirs inherit his property which comes into their joint ownership as an automatic consequence of the death of that person. 10
  11. 11. Shirkat-ul-’Aqd This is the second type of Shirkah which means: “A partnership effected by a mutual contract in which the partners join together with different contributions, work or obligation for the purpose of earning profit”. For the purpose of brevity(shortness) it may also be translated as “Joint commercial enterprise.” 11
  12. 12. Types of Shirkat-ul-’Aqd Shirkat-ul-‘aqd is further divided into three kinds: 1. Shirkat-ul-amwal (contractual partnership) 2. Shirkat-ul-A’mal (liability partnership) 3. Shirkat-ul-wujooh (vocational partnership) 12
  13. 13. Types of Shirkat-ul-’Aqd 1. Shirkat-ul-amwal:  Where all the partners invest some Capital into a Commercial enterprise.  It is the most important & commonly used form of Shirkat 13
  14. 14. Types of Shirkat-ul-’Aqd 2. Shirkat-ul-A’mal:  Where all the partners jointly undertake to render some services for their customers.  The fee charged from them is distributed among them according to an agreed ratio.  If two persons agree to undertake tailoring services for their customers on the condition that the wages so earned will go to a joint pool which shall be distributed between them irrespective of the size of work each 14 partner has actually done.
  15. 15. Types of Shirkat-ul-’Aqd 3. Shirkat-ul-wujooh The word Wujooh comes from Wajahat meaning goodwill   Hence this is a partnership in Goodwill Here the partners contribute in the business not through capital but through their goodwill and share profit at an agreed ratio  All they do is that they purchase the commodities on a deferred price and sell them at spot. The profit so earned is distributed between them at an agreed 15 ratio. 
  16. 16. Musharakah All these modes of “Sharing” or partnership are termed as “Shirkah” in the terminology of Islamic Fiqh, while the term “Musharakah” is not found in the books of Fiqh. The term Musharakah has been introduced recently by those who have written on the subject of Islamic modes of financing It is normally restricted to a particular type of “Shirkah”. That is, the Shirkat-ul-amwal, where two or more persons invest some of their capital in a joint commercial venture. However, sometimes it includes Shirkat-ul-a’mal also where partnership takes place in the business of services. 16
  17. 17. BASIC RULES FOR MUSHARAKAH 17
  18. 18. Rules of Musharakah Musharakah means relationship established under a contract by the mutual consent of the parties for sharing of profits and losses,arising from a joint enterprise or venture.  Investments come from all partners / shareholders hereinafter referred to as partners.  Profits shall be distributed in the proportion mutually agreed in the contract. 18 
  19. 19. Rules of Musharakah The existence of Muta’aqideen(Partners): Capability of Partners: Must be sane & mature and be able of entering into a contract.  The contract must take place with free consent of the parties without any fraud or misrepresentation.  19
  20. 20. MANAGEMENT OF MUSHARAKAH 20
  21. 21. Rules of Musharakah Asset of Musharakah All assets of Musharakah are jointly owned in proportion to the capital of each partner.  Capital of Musharakah All partners must contribute their capital in terms of money or species at an agreed valuation.  Share capital in a Musharakah can be contributed either in cash or in the form of commodities. In the latter case, the market value of the commodities shall determine the share of the partner in the capital. 22 
  22. 22. DISTRIBUTION OF PROFIT View of Muslim Jurists About RATIO OF PROFIT
  23. 23. RATIO OF PROFIT In the view of Imam Malik & Imam Shafi'i “it is necessary for the validity of musharakah that each partner gets the profit exactly in the proportion of his investment.”
  24. 24. In the view of Imam Malik & Imam Shafi'i • EXAMPLE: • If Mr.A has invested 40% of the total capital, he must get 40% of the profit. • Any agreement to the contrary which makes him entitled to get more or less than 40% will render the musharakah invalid in Shari'ah. 25
  25. 25. RATIO OF PROFIT In the view of Imam Ahmed The ratio of profit may differ from the ratio of investment if it is agreed between the partners with their free consent.
  26. 26. In the view of Imam Ahmed • EXAMPLE: • it is permissible that a partner with 40% of investment gets 60% or 70% of the profit, • While the other partner with 60% of investment gets only 40% or 30% 27
  27. 27. RATIO OF PROFIT In the view of Imam Abu Hainfah The ratio of profit may differ from the ratio of investment in normal conditions.
  28. 28. In the view of Imam Abu Hainfah • EXAMPLE: • Sleeping Partner: If a partner has decided to remain inactive or to become a sleeping partner throughout Musharakah, then he is not entitled to receive profit ratio more than the ratio of his investment 29
  29. 29. Rules of Musharakah Distribution of Profit • The ratio of profit distribution must be agreed at the time of execution of the contract • The ratio must be determined as a proportion of the actual profit earned by the enterprise - Not as percentage of partner’s investment - • Not in lump sum amount A sleeping partner cannot share the profit more than the percentage of his capital. 30
  30. 30. Profit Distribution ILLUSTRATION If A and B enter into a partnership and it is agreed between them that A shall be given Rs. 10,000/- per month as his share in the profit, and the rest will go to B, the partnership is invalid. Similarly, if it is agreed between them that A will get 15% of his investment, the contract is not valid. The correct basis for distribution would be an agreed percentages of the actual profit accrued to the business. 31
  31. 31. Profit Distribution OBSERVATIONS If a lump sum amount or a certain percentage of the investment has been agreed for any one of the partners, it must be expressly mentioned in the agreement that it will be subject to the final settlement at the end of the term, meaning thereby that any amount so drawn by any partner shall be treated as on account payment and will be adjusted to the actual profit he may deserve at the end of the term. But if no profit is actually earned or is less than anticipated, the amount drawn by the partner shall have to be returned. 32
  32. 32. View of Muslim Jurists About RATIO OF LOSS 33
  33. 33. Rules of Musharakah Rules for Loss In the case of a loss, all the Muslim jurists are unanimous on the point that each partner shall suffer the loss exactly according to the ratio of investment. There is a complete consensus of jurists on this principle. Profit is based on the agreement of the parties, but loss is always subject to the ratio of investment. 34
  34. 34. TERMINATION OF MUSHARAKAH 35
  35. 35. Termination of Musharakah Musharakah is deemed to be terminated in any one of the following events: (1) Every partner has a right to terminate the Musharakah at any time after giving his partner a notice to this effect, whereby the Musharakah will come to an end. In this case, if the assets of the musharakah are in cash form, all of them will be distributed pro rata between the partners. But if the assets are not liquidated, the partners may agree either on the liquidation of the assets, or on their distribution or partition between the partners as they are. 36
  36. 36. Termination of Musharakah (2) If any one of the partners dies during the musharakah, the contract of musharakah with him stands terminated. His heirs in this case, will have the option either to draw the share of the deceased from the business, or to continue with the contract of musharakah. (3) If any one of the partners becomes insane or otherwise becomes incapable of effecting commercial transactions, the musharakah stands terminated. 37
  37. 37. Mr. A Mr. B Mr. C Musharakah Mr. A Wishes to Terminate the contract Mr. B Mr. C Wishes to continue Mr. B & C can continue to run the business by purchasing Mr. A’s share Musharakah 38
  38. 38. Termination of Musharakah • If one partner wants to terminate the Musharakah but other partners want to continue this can be done by mutual Agreement • Termination of Musharakah with one partner does not mean termination with other partners • Price of leaving partner’s share must be determined • If assets are not liquid their valuation must be done to distribute shares 39
  39. 39. Termination of Musharakah • If partners cannot arrive at consensus on value the leaving partner can compel others to liquidate business • However, partners may agree at the start of the project that liquidation will require majority’s consent • If assets are not liquid their valuation must be done to distribute shares 40
  40. 40. APPLICATION 42
  41. 41. Application Musharakah can be successfully used to in the following areas: • Project financing • Working capital financing • Import Financing • Export Financing • Running finance • Saving/Deposit account • Certificates of Investments • Term finance certificates • Inter bank financing 43
  42. 42. Project Financing • In the case of project financing, the traditional method of Musharaka can be easily adopted. 1 Share in Capital Share in Capital THE PROJECT 2 PARTNER BANK Accruing Profits 3 Share of profits 44
  43. 43. Exercise 45
  44. 44. Exercise Setup a Musharakah company Data Case 1: a. Setup Jan 1 Partner A Invest 10 mn (working partner) Partner B Invest 5 mn (working partner) b. Operation Dec 31: Profit earned 3.0 mn c. Distribution of profit - Dec 31 d. Termination – Dec 31 46

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