Gender and the digital divide


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This presentation will explore one aspect of the Digital Divide, discussed in recent literature with regards to gender differences in how information and communication technologies are utilised and accessed by both sexes. It has been found that women are underrepresented in information and communication technology (ICT) higher education courses as well as the Information Technology (IT) industry in Australia. This has the resultant effect of creating a skills shortage and gender inequality in an ever expanding knowledge & computer based society. Policies regarding the Australian economy are shifting their focus to creating green ICT related jobs which will require more technical computer skills. Therefore it is imperative that the IT sector considers leveraging all kinds of diversity, especially gender diversity, to not only increase their productivity but to facilitate innovation of ICT’s and market them to an equally diverse society. To exclude women whether intentionally or other from this important industry is to the detriment of not only that industry but all of society

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  • Hellens & Nielsen (2006) Facing and Changing Reality in the Australian IT IndustryHuang (2006) The Cross-Cultural Dimension of gender and information technology OECD (2012) ICT skills and Employment: New Competences and jobs for a Greener and smarter economy
  • 1st Statistic (VonHellens & Nielsen 2006 pg xxiv cited in Trauth 2006)Kelly (2008) cited in Stoilescu & McDougall (2011)Final Statistic (Participation Summit Sept 2005. Attachment B Statistics p5 )
  • Point 1: (Crump & Logan & McIlroy 2006 p 130 cited in Trauthed 2006)Point 2: (Warschaeur & Matuchniak 2010)Point 3: (Jackson& Zhao & Kolenic 2008;Crump & Logan & McIlroy 2006 p 130 cited in Trauthed 2006)
  • a)b) c) From Stoilescu& McDougall (2011) Computer Self Efficacy is thought to be affected by amount of experience with computers. (Beyer 2006 p111)d) Cooper (2006) Computer Anxiety is an affective response so that an “individuals avoidance of computer technology may be a function of fear, intimidation, hostility, and worries that they will look stupid, be embarassed or even damage the equipment” (Durndell & Miller 2006 p 696) The AMOUNT of computer experience an individual has and gender have a clear relationship with studies revealing females have higher levels of Computer anxiety than males. (Stoilescu & McDougalll 2011; Durndell & Miller 2006 cited in Trauth (2006) ; Cooper 2006) e) See Slide 12 : Jackson, Zhao & Kolenic ( 2008) p 438, 440, 441 ; Johnson-Yale & Millermaier (2009) p246
  • YOUTUBE URL Gender-based Digital Divide has been found to be somewhat of an International problem specific to Western Societies for example studies from Canada, UK, Spain have shown this (Cooper 2006p322) as well as USA, Germany, Netherlands (Craig 2006 p 755)Western societies tend to have an Individualistic socio-cultural worldview and Competitive work ethic causing a dilemma for many women entering this workforce. Lang & McKay (2006) p51Eastern/Asian countries & others – have a Collectivistic culture which values the group function of cooperation and outcomes of the group as a whole. (Lang & McKay 2006 p51) for example Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong (Craig 2006 p 755)For this reason research from other Western countries experiencing the same gender digital divide can be applied to the Australian context.
  • Stoilescu & McDougall (2011) have proposed a theoretical framework for the gender digital divide (pg 309 – 310)Using this model of the Digital Divide I will address the current education climate in ICT & the resulting workforce crisis of the Gender-based digital divide discovering at which levels the problem most pervasively exists, explain why it exists & show evidence that supports the presence or absence of the divide at these different levels.
  • Evidence for the Gender–based Digital divide in Australia. Fig 1. Lang & McKay 2006 (p50) – KEY : Info Syst = Information Systems; IT not else = Information Technology not elsewhere classified ; Inf tech = Information technology; Comp sci = Computer science.In Australia the trend of participation of women in ICT education is not only lower than males but on the decline despite womens participation rates in University courses in general being on the increase.
  • These statistics show that while the number of males employed in ICT is increasing slowly over 6 years the proportion of females employed in ICT is relatively equal over the last 6 years, however they make up a lesser proportion now of total persons employed in ICT - close to 15% females against 85% males in 2005-2006.ABS (2005) Australian Labour Market statistics Jan 2005 – Employment in ICT. In Thousands (000) ABS (2006) Australian Labour Market statistics Oct 2006 – Employment in ICT (Combined these statistics except for 2004-2005 Financial year)Australian research suggests that women are employed and concentrated in lower level, lower paid and lower skilled ICT related jobs and tend to have lower formal qualifications. (vonHellens & Nielsen 2006 pg xxiv) This has ramifications again for an imbalanced workforce and women may become dissatisfied with a lack of career opportunities in certain companies and feel locked in to specific job roles. (Webb & Young 2006 p161)
  • Daily Telegraph 4th June 2012
  • Daily Telegraph 4th June 2012
  • Daily Telegraph 4th June 2012
  • i) ii) iii) Stoilescu & McDougall 2011a) b) c) Cooper (2006) p321d) Clayton (2006) pg 44
  • ABS (2006) Internet access by Males by Age group; Internet access by Females by Age group. Vertical Access = % ; Horizontal access = age bracketWillis & Tranter (2006) make strong assertions as to the narrowing of the gender digital divide – in reference to Internet access – in Australia with a 7 percentage point difference from males down to females using the Internet as recently as 2000. But the current statistics of 2006 presented here suggest that the gap is closing with access to Internet however age continues to reflect a digital divide. The significance of ensuring access to Internet /Computers and the Digital Divide lies not only with past research “demonstrating a causal relationship between frequency of internet use and favourable academic outcomes” (Jackson Zhao 2008 p 441) but also in the value of giving all children & teenagers opportunities to experience a range of internet tasks, projects, software in order to help develop their technical computer skills. There is strong evidence to suggest that the Gender based problem of females being somehow steered away from both courses in ICT and the ICT industry itself are actually subtly appearing at a young age being connected to socio-cultural and stereotypal influences. (Cooper 2006, Stoilescu & McDougall 2011, Clayton 2006)
  • ABS (2010-2011) Persons aged over 15. Activities performed on the Internet at home in last 12months.Here we consider how men and women differ in their preferences for using the Internet.Research from ABS in Australia is problematic due to their use of categories which mix together highly differential subclasses of Internet uses. For example placing Online gaming and Social networking together as a category is not helpful when we know there can be such big differences in these separate categories when it comes to gender. Much of the Research in western nations has found that males use the Computer & Internet more for Online Gaming (Warschaeur & Matuchniak 2010 p 195-196) Women Interpersonal nature >>> leads them to use internet in more Communicative ways ie email, IM. Use Internet more than males for Educational purposes, create documents online. Males Information/Task oriented >>> leads them to use Internet in wider variety of ways Source of Entertainment -Spend many hours online with games & entertainment(Jackson, Zhao & Kolenic ( 2008 p 438, 440, 441) ; Johnson-Yale, Millermaier (2009 p246)
  • Livingstone & Helsper (2007 Fig 2 pg 30) Vertical access = number of opportunities to use Internet take up. It is also significant to note that females and males differ not only in how they prefer to use the Internet & Computers but also in the amount of opportunities they tend to take up in internet use. This Research conducted in the UK suggests that no gender difference occurs within the 9-11yrs age bracket however in the next 2 age brackets larger differences manifest and then taper off significantly for females aged 18-19yrs agreeing with the theories of a gendered culture that disadvantages teenage girls (Livingstone & Helsper 2007 p11). They also found that children & young people who have been online for more years and who use the Internet more often, take up more online opportunities as do those who have greater online skills & self-efficacy (Livingstone & Helsper 2007 Table 4 pg21). Their research also found that these characteristics were more attributable to boys. (Livingstone & Helsper 2007 Table 4 pg21)
  • All of these factors combine to influence females choices in ICT subjects & career choices in Primary/High School.Career advisors in schools are uncertain about ICT job descriptions & so not giving sound career advice. (Clayton 2006 p45)Female students from a young age (primary school) are being subjected to using male developed software that is more appealing to men than women & has been shown to affect female student performance. (Cooper 2005 p324-325)Curriculum coursework may be developed by male teachers & not engaging tasks for females. (Clayton 2006 p45) Students reject difficult subjects such as Computer classes out of concern for their academic results and university admission scores (Clayton 2006 p45)Teachers experience under-resourcing of computer classrooms affecting the delivery of ICT curriculum (Clayton 2006 p46)Underqualified ICT teachers lacking opportunities for professional development are developing the subjects & students have dissatisfaction with their content. (Clayton 2006 pg46)
  • Source from DEEWR - Ucube Chart reveals another unsettling & disturbing statistic about the Gender Digital divide. It shows that women have been enrolling in IT courses of study at a fairly stable rate over the period of 2007-2010 however, disturbingly, their completion rates have decreased over that same period . In fact as low as 7 & 6 respectively in the years 2009 & 2010. It also reflects much lower rates of completion for males also. This Chart & Statistics reveal the possibility that there may be problematic issues within the culture of these Higher Education IT courses themselves which are causing females to leave in large numbers. The question poses itself however as to what it is that is causing this loss of females from IT courses. If males are also dropping out are the courses too challenging for them all or is it an issue of curriculum ?
  • Points 1 – 5 Miliszewska(2006) pg501-502 cited in Trauth (2006). Research has shown that pairing females with males in Computer classrooms even from a very young age can lead to higher computer anxiety for females and sometimes even poorer performance in tutorial type software. (Cooper 2006 )Point Beyer (2006) pg 109
  • First 2 points (Clayton 2006 pg 44 cited in Trauth (2006) Gender & IT Encyclopedia)Last Point Lang & Mckay 2006 pg52All 3 Theories discussed in depth by Huang (2006 p147-153 cited in Trauth (2006) Gender & IT Encyclopedia
  • Cooper (2006) The Digital Divide : the special case of gender (p 331)This model falls under Social Construction Theories of the Gender Digital Divide and provides a comprehensive explanation of how this divide could be influenced by both Parents and teachers. (Clayton 2006 p44)
  • Cooper (2006) p 331
  • Figure from Adya & Kaiser (2005) – This Figure is a model presenting the inter-relationship of factors influencing a young girl’s (in Primary or High School) career choices and specifically relates to influence on IT career choice. The model represents the complexities inherent in any consideration of the Influences that exist in our western culture at a social or structural level. The model also takes into consideration the Trauth (2002) Theory of Individual Differences.Family – Family influences are known to have a strong bearing on what path a girl will choose both in choosing subjects in school through to choice of University Course. Children whose parents were working in IT or were highly educated, whose mothers have degrees or are working and where success is highly valued in the family unit will influence girls to choose either math, science or technology courses. (Adya & Kaiser 2006 p283 cited in Trauth 2006)Media – Media enhances the gender stereotypes that emphasize physical image & women may conform to them due to societal pressure (Adya & Kaiser 2006 p 283) Media tends not to portray women as active computer users nor does it portray any real or fictional role models which women can look up to ( Clayton 2006 p44)
  • actually offers a wonderful example of how a women like Kristin was influenced to take up a career in ICT. Watch as she speaks of her experience growing up in a home where her parents supported her in choosing challenging subjects and how her parents influenced her in career choices. She also speaks of positive role models especially teachers and how viewing ICT as a mechanism for innovation and change might help inspire women to work in the field.
  • All from Webb & Young ( 2006 p 160-163) cited in Trauth (2006) Gender ICT EncyclopaediaPoint 5 : Staehr & Byrne & Bell (2006p471) agrees with point 5
  • Point 2&3 : Von Hellen & Nielsen (2006) pg xxxv Gender and IT EncyclopediaPoint 5: Beekhuyzen & Clayton & vonHellens (2006) Gender & IT Encyclopedia discuss 2 Mentoring programs coordinated by Griffith University in 2 QLD High Schools (p890-895)
  • WinIT Project wesbite programs - Beekhuyzen, Clayton & Bell 2006 p890-895
  • from VonHellens & Nielsen (2006) pg xxxv & Craig (2006) pg 755 > Gender & ICT Encyclopedia
  • – no access unless a memberSourced from VonHellens & Nielsen (2006) pg xxv Gender & ICT Encyclopedia & Craig (2006) pg 755 Gender & IT Encyclopedia
  • Point 1 : Lang & McKay 2006 (p51)Point 2: Point 3: Trauth 2006
  • Gender and the digital divide

    1. 1. GENDER AND THEDIGITAL DIVIDEWomen in ICT Education &Industry in Australia
    2. 2. ABSTRACTThis presentation will explore one aspect of the DigitalDivide, discussed in recent literature with regards to genderdifferences in how information and communicationtechnologies are utilised and accessed by both sexes. It hasbeen found that women are underrepresented in informationand communication technology (ICT) higher educationcourses as well as the Information Technology (IT) industryin Australia. This has the resultant effect of creating a skillsshortage and gender inequality in an ever expandingknowledge & computer based society. Policies regarding theAustralian economy are shifting their focus to creating greenICT related jobs which will require more technical computerskills. Therefore it is imperative that the IT sector considersleveraging all kinds of diversity, especially gender diversity,to not only increase their productivity but to facilitateinnovation of ICT‟s and market them to an equally diversesociety. To exclude women whether intentionally or otherfrom this important industry is to the detriment of not onlythat industry but all of society.
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION The ICT service industry is one of the fastest growing industries in Australia with an annual growth rate of 12% yet only 16% of women account for ICT roles and represent only 1% of the total female employed population”. It is only logical to contend that diverse rangeof people should contribute meaningfully to this industry to help shape& influence applications of IT in business, health & education. However the underrepresentation of women in Higher Education courses involving ICT is a serious issue and presents as a digital divide (DD) at a number of levels. Kelly (2008) suggests the DD exists at three levels. Firstly we will explore any differences in access & uses of internet & computers between males & females in Australia. Secondly we will discover how females & males are educated in computers throughout school & higher education. Thirdly we understand the ways that socio- cultural influences shape both sexes but morseo females in regards to ICT career choices. ITCRA statistics show that 52% of IT professionals in Australia have an ICT related degree, 13% have Industry/Vendorcertificate, 13% have TAFE qualification & 9% have no ICT qualification. Yet women tend not to be holding those degrees & work in lower paid,lower level ICT jobs. If women are not actively encouraged & supported to enter these ICT degrees it is possible that the ICT industry or even the Australian workforce - with its focus on economic development through green ICT jobs -will become so male dominated as to create a majorly imbalanced & diminutive workforce.
    4. 4. WHAT DIGITAL DIVIDE ? Early definitions referred to GAP that existedbetween the “haves & “have nots” who did/didn’t haveACCESS to Computers and Internet. This ACCESS divide was actively addressed throughnational interventions and funding grants but then asecondary divide began to appear along socialstratification lines such as class, race, gender,education level, household income.Now also refers to a GAP in intensity and nature of ITuse OR “inequalities in the degree to which it is used,knowledge of how to extract/evaluate information &the variety of uses to which it is put”. It is this GAPthat has been especially significant for WOMEN.
    5. 5. GENDER DIGITAL DIVIDE – MALES VS FEMALESThey behave & perform differently causing a GAP in relation to:a) Confidence & computer self-efficacy – females lower levelsb) Computer & Programming experience – males higher levelsc) Selecting Computer subjects as a major in High School & University – males choose this mored) Levels of Computer anxiety – females highere) Preferences in how they use the Computer & Internet - somewhat differently
    7. 7. THREE LEVELS OF DIGITAL DIVIDE –FRAMEWORK FOR THIS DISCUSSION1. Level 1 Digital Divide - Physical access to computational resources and internet2. Level 2 Digital Divide - Effect of instruction on students use of computers3. Level 3 Digital Divide - Influence of Socio-cultural background in shaping behaviour & perspectives toward computer use
    9. 9. VISUALISING THE DIVIDEEMPLOYED PERSONS, ICT OCCUPATIONS 1999 –2006 AUSTRALIA 350.000 300.000 250.000 200.000 150.000 Males 100.000 Females 50.000 0.000
    10. 10. “BROGRAMMERS” CODE: GENDER GAP A CHILDHOOD ISSUESILICON Valley companies portray themselves as inventors of the future, but theyre afflicted by a longstanding problem.From board rooms to "brogrammers," men still dominate many corners of the tech industry, where the pantheon of famous founders - from Hewlett and Packard to Jobs to Zuckerberg - is still a boys bastion.The gender-imbalance issue came to the forefront again recently when a partner at the countrys most prominent venture capital firm filed a sexual harassment lawsuit alleging a former colleague retaliated against her for years after she cut off a brief relationship with him. The firm, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, has denied the allegations.Whatever the merits of the claim, the suit again has put a spotlight on the tech industrys gender gap.Jocelyn Goldfein, a director of engineering at Facebook, the math is stark.Less than 20 percent of the bachelors degrees in computer science go to women, according to US statistics. By comparison, nearly 60 percent of all bachelors degrees are awarded to graduating females.
    11. 11. “BROGRAMMERS” CODE: GENDER GAP A CHILDHOOD ISSUE The company wants to hire top engineers, but the talent pool in the US is growing thin, she said. Ms Goldfein said she doesnt look to hire female engineers specifically, just the best people. But she said shed have a lot more to choose from if women entered computer science at a rate anywhere near the average for all fields. She blames the lack of role models both in popular culture and in day-to- day life as a key reason for the disparity. "The reason there arent more women computer scientists is because there arent more women computer scientists," she said. Women in other professions such as medicine and law have become fixtures on television and in movies in recent decades, while portrayals of programmers still tend to follow the hacker stereotype of the lone guy sitting in his basement, she said. Unless their parents are engineers, girls also arent likely to encounter coders in their own lives the same way they would, for example, a doctor or a teacher. "We dont really have that same kind of interaction with software engineers as we go about our daily lives," Ms Goldfein said. "Sometimes it can be hard," said Serena Yeung, 23, a recent Stanford graduate who worked as a software engineer at a Silicon Valley start-up before returning for graduate school. Just walking into the classroom is one of the biggest hurdles for women thinking of entering the field, she said. "You go in and youre the only girl in it."
    12. 12. “BROGRAMMERS” CODE: GENDER GAP A CHILDHOOD ISSUE For Ms Yeung, having parents who were both engineers spared her the sense that computers werent for girls. She got her first job as a programmer at Mountain View-based Rockmelt, which makes a web browser with built-in social media features. She started working there even before she graduated with her degree in electrical engineering, another coding-intensive field where men heavily outnumber women. Rockmelt CEO Eric Vishria says the competition to hire qualified women software engineers has heated up as companies see that they need diverse perspectives to build products that attract the widest audience. He said startups that dont hire women early in their existence risk creating a male- dominated culture that will put off potential female hires. "It becomes a death spiral, it becomes self-fulfilling," Ms Vishria said. "You have 15 guys in a room, thats your company, and it becomes harder and harder to hire your first woman." Ms Yeung said a recent experience at a Stanford Society of Women Engineers event for elementary school students showed her that intervention needs to come early to steer girls toward tech. She said girls who had just come from a computer science workshop complained they didnt like it because the boys asked all the questions. Steeped in video game culture and barraged by positive male tech industry role models, boys tend to dominate conversations around computing early on, leaving girls feeling shut out, said Ms Yeung.
    13. 13. ECHOES FROM THE COMPUTERHe‟s always CLASSROOM looking over my Women aren‟t shoulder & adept at criticising my working hard When things go work (b) & find wrong with theComputer computers too Computer I feelscience is challenging ii) anxious (a) Computersdrier & more are a man‟sthinking (i) Women world & toys don‟t for boys (c) have good logic (iii) ICT is full of geeks & nerds & antisocial males (d)
    14. 14. LEVEL 1 DIGITAL DIVIDE – L1DD – AUSTRALIAACCESS TO INTERNET BY GENDER (2006) 70 Males Nil Net Males BB 60 Males Dialup 50 Females Nil Net Females BB 40 Females Dialup 30 20 10 0 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 54-64
    15. 15. L1DD: GENDER RELATED USES OF INTERNETAUSTRALIA - ABS – 2010-2011 Activities performed on home Internet by gender 100 90 80 70 Percentage (%) 60 50 40 Males Females 30 20 10 0 Buying/selling Creating online Listening/ Educational Emailing Paying bills Social content watching purposes networking/ multimedia gaming Activities performed
    16. 16. L1DD – ACCESS & USE - RELATIONSHIP BETWEENAGE, GENDER & OPPORTUNITY TAKING - UK 8 7 6 Male Female 5 4 9-11yrs 12-15yrs 16-17yrs 18-19yrs
    17. 17. L2DD – COMPUTER INSTRUCTION IN SCHOOL : A CONSTELLATION OF FACTORS Under- resourcing of low SES schools IT Students equip avoid ICT Unsound subjects School due to Careers grades Advice COMPUTER INSTRUCTION Tutorial Software Underqualified geared for ICT teachers males Unstimul- ating Coursework
    18. 18. LEVEL 2 DIGITAL DIVIDEINFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENROLMENTS TOCOMPLETIONS BY GENDER. AUSTRALIAN UNIVERSITIES 350 300 250 200 Males Enrol Females Enrol 150 Males Compl Females Compl 100 50 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
    19. 19. L2DD - REASONS WOMEN DON‟T ENTER ICT HIGHEREDUCATION OR LEAVE BEFORE COMPLETION o Negative Computer class experiences – when females are paired with males – males take over o Lack of Role models to encourage them into the field – High school & University o Inadequate institutional support o Lack of peer-support groups o Lack of gender-neutral but stimulating projects in course
    20. 20. L3DD – SOCIO-CULTURAL INFLUENCESTHEORIES OF GENDER DIGITAL DIVIDE  Essentialism – suggest females are biologically not suited to technical work.  Social Construction – suggests females have been nurtured to believe they aren‟t suited to technical work. Influenced by Gender Stereotypes.  Theory of Individual Differences (Trauth 2002) IT capability & interest spans the gender continuum & individual differences are a product of gender & socialisation within & between cultures
    21. 21. L3DD-A MODEL OF GENDER-BASED DIGITAL DIVIDE Stereotype Computer Threat attitudes Gender Computer Stereotype Anxiety Attribution patterns Computer performance
    22. 22. L3DD - MODEL OF GENDER-BASED DIGITAL DIVIDEWHATS HAPPENING FOR THE FEMALES Socio-cultural Gender Stereotypes appear at young age promoting what suits boys vs girls Leading to a level of Computer Anxiety for girls Computer software is more appealing to males so girls tend to dislike certain software Social Context - Mixed gender computer classes where males dominate leading to increased anxiety for girls Parents & teachers make attributions re students success/failure with computers = Attribution Patterns Girls develop more negative attributions as well as negative Computer Attitudes & this increases their anxiety A negative Stereotype Threat leads to poorer Computer Performance for females
    25. 25. THE NEGATIVES - REASONS WOMEN DON‟T ENTER OR LEAVE ICT INDUSTRY Connection versus Competition - Competitive culture – Many women Connections over Competition Lack of social support – fewer females to talk to or look up to Male dominated industry & culture – higher probability to experience male domination or sexual harassment. Long working hours where overtime is the norm Carer versus Career - Lack of flexibility to balance family & work commitments ICT may be a solitary & isolating career. Lower pay rates for women & lack of advancing career opportunities Difficulties returning to industry after short career breaks due to rapid rate of change in industry
    26. 26. WHAT IS BEING DONE TO ADDRESS GENDER DIGITAL DIVIDE IN AUSTRALIA Must be addressed at all levels of education given that socio-cultural & stereotyping influences begin from young age. Imperative for educators at all levels to negotiate innovation & interventions. Research & Innovation – at all levels where problem of Gender Imbalance exists Conferences & Organisations – AWISE. Support & Leadership – Mentoring programs in high school, higher education and ICT workplaces.
    27. 27. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Griffith University Queensland  WinIT Project  Mentoring programs in High Schools Action Research projects – to reflect & act on qualitative/descriptive/interpretive evidence in each unique contextual ICT domain. Gender & Information Technology Encyclopaedia  Trauth (2006) Comprehensively explores the intensive research conducted & issues related to Women & IT from varied perspectives & different countries.
    28. 28. CONFERENCES & ORGANISATIONSo Women in ICT summit held Sept 2005 in Australia – organised by Federal Minister for Communications, IT, and Arts – Helen Coonano Women in ICT Advisory Group also launchedo Summit addressed 4 main topics  How ICT professions should be represented  How to make ICT workplace attractive for women  How to ensure curriculum design & career advice address ICT needs in Australia  Coordinate a national approach to enhancing women‟s participation in ICT
    29. 29. CONFERENCES & ORGANISATIONS  AWISE (Australian Women in IT & Science Entity) offers:  A Collaborative voice connecting existing ICT networks of women working on the problem of women‟s under- representation in ICT studies & work  Entity has 5 Goals  A National single point of contact  Encourage more females into ICT  Share information & initiatives  A centralised national body to influence Govt & Media  Obtain National funding to support agreed upon initiatives
    30. 30. WHAT IS BEING DONE ? NOT BEING DONE ? Efforts to increase number of women into ICT Higher Education have not been successful on the whole Efforts to encourage women to participate in the ICT industry have been more focussed but as yet no clear outcomes or improvements have been realised. Efforts to adjust the way that Computer-based Instruction is conducted in Primary & High Schools is lagging.
    31. 31. REFERENCESABS (2005 & 2006) Australian Labour market Statistics: Employment in ICT cle5Jan%202005 cle2Oct%202006ABS (2006) Internet Access by Females by Age Group; Internet access by males by age group. ocumentABS (2010-2011) Household Use of Information technology: Activities performed on Internet at home in last 12 months, M. & Kaiser,K. 2005, „Early determinants of women in the IT workforce: a model of girls career choices‟. Information Technology & People, Vol 18 Iss 3 pp.230 - 259Cooper, J. 2006 ,The Digital Divide: „The Special case of Gender‟ Journal of Computer assisted learning, 22 , p320-324. Accessed via Summon 22/9/12DEEWR ( 2010) Ucube Higher Education Statistics,L.& Zhao, Y.& Kolenic, A & Fitzgerald, H. & Harold, R. & VonEye,A. 2008, „Race,Gender, & Information Technology use: The New Digital Divide‟. CyberPsychology & Behaviour, Vol 11 Iss 4 p437-442
    32. 32. REFERENCESLivingstone, S. & Helsper, E. 2007, „Gradations in digital inclusion : children, young people & the digital divide’ New Media & Society Vol 9 Iss 4 p671-696OECD 2012, ICT skills & Employment: New Competences & Jobs for a Greener & Smarter Economy. OECD Digital Economy Papers. No 198 Subject resourcePARTICIPATION Summit 2005, Women in ICT Attachment papers A&B. Accessed at, D. & McDougall, D. 2011, „Gender Digital Divide & challenges in Undergraduate Computer Science programs.‟ Canadian Journal of Education. Vol 34 Iss1 pp 308-333Trauth, E. ed 2006, Encyclopaedia of Gender & Information technology. Vol A-G & H-Z. Idea Group, Melbourne, AustraliaWarschauer, M. & Matuchniak, T. 2010 „New Technology in Digital worlds: Analysing Evidence of Equity in Access Use & Outcomes‟ Review of Research in Education. Vol 34 pp179-225 Subject ResourceWillis, S & Tranter, B. 2006 , „Beyond the Digital Divide: Internet Diffusion & Inequality in Australia‟. Journal of Sociology. Vol 42 Iss 1 pp43-59 Accessed via Summon 3/10/12Wohlsena, M. 2012. „Brogrammers” code: gender gap a childhood issue‟ The Daily Telegraph 4th June gap-a-childhood-issue/story-fn6b3v4f-1226383427877Youtube Clips: Cultural Dimension: Me or we Women in ICT
    33. 33. TRAUTH ED 2006, GENDER & IT ENCYCLOPAEDIAAdya, M. & Kaiser, K. 2006 „Factors influencing Girls choice of IT careers‟ Webb, P. & Young, J. 2006 Encyclopaedia of Gender and Information technology. Vol1 pp282-288Beekhuyzen, J.,Clayton, K., vonHellens, L. 2006 „Mentoring Girls in ICT‟s‟ , Encyclopaedia of Gender and Information technology Vol 2 pp890-895Beyer, S. 2006 „Comparing gender differences in Computer science & Management Information Systems Majors‟. Encyclopaedia of Gender and Information technology. Vol1 p109-115Clayton, K. 2006 „Attitudes towards ICT in Australian High Schools‟ Encyclopaedia of Gender and Information technology. Vol1 p44-49Craig, A. 2006 „A Historical Persepective of Australian Women in Computing‟ Encyclopaedia of Gender and Information technology. Vol2 pp752-758Crump, B., Logan, K., McIlroy, A. 2006 „Computing in A New Zealand Community‟ Encyclopaedia of Gender and Information technology. Vol1 pp129-133Durndell, A. & Miller, J. 2006 „Gender, IT, & Educational Choice in East &West Europe‟ Encyclopaedia of Gender and Information technology. Vol 1 pp693-698Miliszewska, I. 2006 „Gender Bias in Computer Courses in Australia‟ Encyclopaedia of Gender and Information technology. Vol 1 pp501-506Nielsen, S, & vonHellens 2006 The Social Construction of Australian Women in IT. , Encyclopaedia of Gender and Information technology. Vol 2 pp1105-1111Staehr, L., Byrne, G., Bell.E. 2006 „Gender & the Australian IT Industry‟ Encyclopaedia of Gender and Information technology. Vol1 pp467-473vonHellens, L. & Nielsen, S 2006, „Facing & Changing Reality in Australian IT Industry‟. Encyclopaedia of Gender and Information technology. Vol 1 pp xxxiv-xxxviWebb, P. & Young, J. 2006 „Cultural factors & Collective Identity of women in ICT‟ Encyclopaedia of Gender and Information technology. Vol1 pp160-165