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Energising fiji islands
 

Energising fiji islands

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    Energising fiji islands Energising fiji islands Presentation Transcript

    • ENERGISING FIJI ISLANDS Atul Raturi The University of the South Pacific ADB Workshop 26-27th March 2009 The views expressed in this paper/presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.
    • Pacific Island Countries (PICs) Population density PNG - 8 persons/km2 Population Tuvalu - 363 persons/ km2 PNG – 7 Million Niue- 2150 (est) FSM Marshall Islands Palau Kiribati Tuvalu Tokelau PNG S.I. Samoa Cook islands Fiji Vanuatu Niue Tonga Land Area PNG – 462,243 km2 Nauru- 21 km2No. of islands/countryPNG > 1,400 Kiribati: North to South distance : 800SI~ 138 Kiribati km andKiribati- 33 East to West: 3,218 km (3 time zones)
    • FIJI No. of islands= 6 Main + >300 smaller Area= 18,333 km2 Population= 8,39000 (2008, Est.) Viti Levu pop.= 77% Urban population = 48.3% (2006 Est.) Tourism driven economy
    • Access to Electricity (PICs) From:Integrating Renewable Energy in the Pacific Islands, Marie Marconnet, Victoria University of Wellington
    • PICs Electricity per capita From:Integrating Renewable Energy in the Pacific Islands, Marie Marconnet, Victoria University of Wellington
    • Fuel for Electricity GenerationCook Islands All DieselFSM All DieselKiribati All DieselMarshall Islands All DieselNiue All DieselPalau All DieselTuvalu All DieselTokelau All DieselTonga All DieselVanuatu 93% DieselPNG 35% Hydro,39% oil,25% Natural gas
    • Fiji Electricity Authority (FEA) Electricity generation mixIn late 2008 ( drier season), Diesel contribution was almost 80%FEA operates 14 power stations with 194 MW of installedcapacity (2003) , including over 80 MW of hydro.FEA plans to generate 90 % of its requirements throughRE projects
    • Fiji Electricity TariffsFEA national tariff : 0.2059$F/kWhRural rates are being subsidized by urbanconsumers FEA actual costs (2001) Location Actual cost Viti Levu Urban 0.19 $F/kWh Viti Levu Rural 0.51$F/kWh Vanua Levu Urban 0.40$F/kWh Vanua Levu Rural 1.22$F/kWh Ovalau Urban 0.38$F/kWh Ovalau Rural 1.88$F/kWh
    • Climate Change Issues abc radio
    • CC and Fiji Islands Fiji climate change could result in a 100 per cent increase in cyclone damage, an increase in dengue fever cases of between 20 and 30 per cent and a decline in crop yields of up to 15 per cent. Not If But When : World Bank Report(2006) Coral Bleaching and a decrease in coral cover Reefs : 50% reduction Maynard,GEO109
    • Climate Changeeffects in PICs Carteret Islands, PNG By 2015: All 6 (7 now!!) Islands will be submerged. 2000 people displaced The sea has dissected the Huen Island into two. Similar stories in Kiribati, Tuvalu and others Photo: Times
    • Climate Changeeffects in PICs Mount Jaya , New Guinea Island Photo:www.rbgkew.org.uk Temperature increase on the Island ~ 0.3 Degrees every decade ; Among the fastest in the world Glaciers have receded more then 300 meters in the last 30 years Flora and fauna: waiting to be discovered ( if survive !!)
    • Pacific Year of Climate Change
    • Tackling the Double Whammy Through •Renewable Energy Development •Energy Efficiency Measures
    • Renewable Energy Lihir goldSOPAC
    • Solar Home Systems (DOE) Fiji times DOE SHS Electricity production 50 40 30 MWh 20 10 0 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003
    • Hydro Development: NadarivatuNew project FEA 2 X 22 MW Pelton Generators. 101 Million kWh annually Expected completion: Mid 2011
    • Navutu (Fiji): Grid Connected 10 kW PV system •Pilot project : BP Australia & FEA •Grid connected •Installed in 1997 •50 kVA grid interactive system •144 panels
    • Fiji: Butoni Wind Farm 37 turbines:10 MW, 11.5 GWH/year FEACommissioned October 2007 Ankita Raturi
    • Hybrid System: Nabouwalu 8 Wind Turbines (6.7 kW) 720 kWh/day , 60% expected from from RET 37.4 kW PV commissioned in 1998 Genset Photo: PICHTERCurrent situation: Running with Diesel , RE component ~0Problems with control systems, manpower shortage, componentsand maintenance issues
    • Biogas P.JohnstonKinoya Sewage Treatment Plant : 2003Possibilities for 240 kW – 1 MW electricity generation
    • Biofuel CNO, Ethanol and Biodiesel CNO usage in PNG Two Pilot projects in Fiji ( DOE) (2000-2001) : Dual fuel systems •80 kVA generator in Vanuabalavu, Lau •45 kVA generator in Welagi, TaveuniConcept worksSupply chain and management issuesInterest in all PICs
    • Biomass based systemsTropic Wood Fiji Sugar Corp. D.Robins on9.3 MW co-generation Plans for 25 MWFEA Grid connected 3.5% of FEA supply in 200320 MW plant underway Bagasse +wood waste
    • Kerosene for Lighting :The Numbers• Money spent on kerosene globally ; ~ 48 Billion USD/annum• Sub-Saharan Africa : ~17 Billion USD /annum• % of household budget on kerosene: 15%• People without electricity in PNG ; 4.5 Million• Money spent on kerosene in PNG ; ~100 Million USD/annum• Fiji: 37% kerosene/benzene lighting
    • The K-lamp: It is inefficient•Produces 1 lux (1 lumen/m2) at 1 m•Recommended light level for casualreading/kitchen work ; 300- 500 lux•Gives 0.1 lumen of light for 1 W ofpower used : incandescent bulb - 17lumens/W•Cost of lighting ($/lumen hour): 325times of a bulb and 1625 times that of aCFL Photo: SOPAC•Light produced in a year = lightproduced by a bulb in 10 hours
    • The K-lamp: It is unhealthy• Women and children in kerosene lamp lit kitchens are exposed to dangerous levels of Carbon mono oxide and particulate matters.• Children vulnerable to influenza and pneumonia.• Eye strain
    • The K-lamp: Bad for Environment• CO2 ( major Green House Gas) produced : 2.6 kg per liter of kerosene used• Fuel based lighting produces 244 Million MT of CO2 globally.
    • Solutions: simple and immediateSolar based lighting:Small systems incorporating CFL s and increasingly,White Light Emitting Diodes (WLEDs) Solar lanterns Solar Home Systems (SHS)
    • Monthly spending on lighting fuel & batteries in unelectrified Fiji householdsDepartment of Energy (DOE) threshold for SHSviability = FJ$ 20 per month (O&M costs)
    • LED based lighting: Cheap and Efficient Replace all K-lamps with PV based WLED lamps Micro financing Institutes
    • Energy Efficiency Measures SOPAC Cagle Cartoons
    • CFL Promotion in Fiji :DSM for Residential Sector• FEA initiated and private sector supported• Buy one and get one free scheme• 80,000 units distributed• FEA contributed F$1 per unit : payback period of one month• Evening peak reduction : 3.9 MW• Supplier contribution:F$0.82 per CFL , Profit: F$30,000• Retailer’s contribution:F$1.05 per CFL, Profit: F$47,500
    • 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 0: 30 1: 30 2: 30 3: 30 4: 30 5: 30 6: 30 7: 30 8: 30 9: 30 10 :3 0 11 :3 0 12 :3 0 13 :3 0 weekday 14 :3 0 15 :3 0 16 :3 0 17 :3 0 18 :3 0 19 :3 0 20 :3 0 21 :3 0 22 :3 0:FEA 23 :3 0 FEA CFL Promotion Outcomes 2005 2006
    • CFL promotion in Fiji
    • Barriers• Affordability; CFL Cost: 6-8 times the cost of an incandescent bulb• Information• Behavioural and preference• Technical issues
    • DSM programme Potential savings from DSM programme (1994-2013) 30 25 Energy 20 savings (% of 15 MWh 10generated) 5 0 Fiji PNG S.I. Palau Tonga Tuvalu
    • Standards and LabellingFiji government has approved the S & L regulations.Proposed standards for Fiji S&L programme• Energy labelling: All household refrigerating appliances should be tested under standard conditions, and ranked on a 6- star scale according to their energy consumption.• Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS):: set a legally enforceable level of energy efficiency Expected Benefit /cost ratio 4.2 Electricity use reduction: 8 % below BAU ( source : DOE)
    • Projected Energy SavingsWith Energy labelling and MEPS ( 1995 study) Energy savings ( Refrigerators + AC) 30 25 20 % 15 10 5 0 Fiji SI Palau Sam oa Tonga Kiribati Tuvalu PNG Source: SRCI
    • Labelling Awareness Radio, TV and newspaper advertisements FEA bills carry the message Retailers distribute broachers Photo: Ankita Raturi
    • Energy Efficiency initiatives in the PICs• ADB funded REEP :Opportunities for RE investment and EE project=institutional and capacity development• UNDESA supported SOPAC project on DSM• Promotion of environmentally sustainable transportation in the PICs: GEF funded SOPAC project• Pacific Power Association (PPA) :Supply side Management for its member utilities.• Australian Greenhouse Office and IIIE: MEPS & labelling Photo: Ankita Raturi
    • Fiji:CDM Project SEL•Small Scale and bundled projects•2 run-of-river hydro projects. Vaturu (3 MW) and Wainikasou (6.5 MW)-displace diesel generation•Developed by Pacific Hydro and FEA•Combine output: 35 GWh/year•CDM registration : October 2005•24,928 tonnes of CO2 reduction per year
    • THANK YOU FOR YOUR PATIENCE