Fossil fuels

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Fossil fuels

  1. 1. Fossil FuelsCoal and Crude Oil
  2. 2. Coal Made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur Considered as a dirty form of fossil fuel Can be extracted by shaft mining(underground), or open pit mining(ground level) Combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock
  3. 3. Hilt’s Law Hilt’s Law is a geological term that states that, in a small area, the deeper the coal, the higher its rank (grade). The law holds true if the thermal gradient is entirely vertical, but metamorphism may cause lateral changes of rank, irrespective of depth.
  4. 4. Types Peat Lignite Sub-bituminous coal Bituminous coal Anthracite Graphite
  5. 5. Advantages andDisadvantages of Coal
  6. 6. Advantages Easily combustible, and burns in low temperatures Widely and easily distributed all over the world Comparatively inexpensive to buy on the open market Good availability for much of the world (coal is found in many more places than other fossil fuels)
  7. 7. Advantages Most coal is easy to mine – making it the least expensive fossil fuel to obtain A fossil-fuelled power station can be built almost anywhere
  8. 8. Disadvantages Lowest energy density of any fossil fuel High coal transportation costs due to the bulk of coal Coal dust is an extreme explosion hazard Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide It leaves behind harmful by-products upon combustion
  9. 9. Disadvantages Mining coal leads to irreversible damage to the adjoining environment Prices for al fossil fuels are rising Burning of coal releases oxides of sulfur and other volatile substances to the atmosphere. ◦ This can affect our health and miners are exposed to hazardous chemicals that may cause black lung disease.
  10. 10. Crude Oil A.k.a. Petroleum Natural occurring flammable liquid Product of the remains of marine plants and animals that lived million years ago Highly complex mixture of hydrocarbon compounds and minor amounts of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur Recovered usually using oil drilling
  11. 11. Advantages and Disadvantagesof Petroleum
  12. 12. Advantages Can withstand high heats without breakdown making it useful as lubricants Highly compact portable source of energy used for most forms of mechanical transportation Production of oil has much less impact and a smaller carbon footprint on earth than coal from strip mining
  13. 13. Advantages Certain components make excellent solvents for paint Other components make excellent compact source of portable cooking fuel
  14. 14. Disadvantages Much of the remaining oil in the world is in politically unstable areas including Africa, Middle East, Russia, and parts of Southeast Asia. Easily vaporizable components of oil can contribute to smog. Drilling for oil is getting more difficult and expensive because we are now drilling as deep or deeper than 20,000 feet to find new reserves.
  15. 15. Disadvantages Oil does contain some cancer causing compounds, benzene is one of those Our consumption of oil is increasing at the same time our production is falling. The world is currently consuming 83 million barrels of oil per day. We arent producing that much
  16. 16. Products derived from Crude Oil Asphalt(a  Nylon residue)  Stockings Lubricating oil  Enamel paint Paraffin wax  Detergent Diesel fuel  Plastics Kerosene  Synthetic rubber Gasoline  Photographic film Gas
  17. 17. Bad News Coal will eventually run out and can’t be recycled We are running out of petroleum. Estimates vary from 50 to 150 years before we run out of oil. ◦ This is impossible to predict, but most major oil companies have been failing to discover new reserves equal to the amount of oil they are producing for the last few years.
  18. 18. QUESTIONS
  19. 19. 1. What is coal made out of?2-3. Give the two ways of mining coal4. Give one advantage of coal5. Give one disadvantage of coal6. What is Petroleum also known as?7. How can you usually recoverPetroleum?8-9. Give two advantages of Petroleum10. Give one disadvantage ofPetroleum
  20. 20. ANSWERS
  21. 21. 1. Made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur2. shaft mining(underground)3. open pit mining(ground level)4. Answer5. Answer6. Crude Oil7. Oil Drilling8-9. Answer10. Answer
  22. 22. References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum
  23. 23. Advantages - Coal Easily combustible, and burns in low temperatures Widely and easily distributed all over the world Comparatively inexpensive to buy on the open market Good availability for much of the world (coal is found in many more places than other fossil fuels)
  24. 24. Advantages Most coal is easy to mine – making it the least expensive fossil fuel to obtain A fossil-fuelled power station can be built almost anywhere BACK
  25. 25. Disadvantages - Coal Lowest energy density of any fossil fuel High coal transportation costs due to the bulk of coal Coal dust is an extreme explosion hazard Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide It leaves behind harmful by-products upon combustion
  26. 26. Disadvantages Mining coal leads to irreversible damage to the adjoining environment Prices for al fossil fuels are rising Burning of coal releases oxides of sulfur and other volatile substances to the atmosphere. ◦ This can affect our health and miners are exposed to hazardous chemicals that may cause black lung disease. BACK
  27. 27. Advantages - Petroleum Can withstand high heats without breakdown making it useful as lubricants Highly compact portable source of energy used for most forms of mechanical transportation Production of oil has much less impact and a smaller carbon footprint on earth than coal from strip mining
  28. 28. Advantages Certain components make excellent solvents for paint Other components make excellent compact source of portable cooking fuel BACK
  29. 29. Disadvantages - Petroleum Much of the remaining oil in the world is in politically unstable areas including Africa, Middle East, Russia, and parts of Southeast Asia. Easily vaporizable components of oil can contribute to smog. Drilling for oil is getting more difficult and expensive because we are now drilling as deep or deeper than 20,000 feet to find new reserves.
  30. 30. Disadvantages Oil does contain some cancer causing compounds, benzene is one of those Our consumption of oil is increasing at the same time our production is falling. The world is currently consuming 83 million barrels of oil per day. We arent producing that much BACK

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