BAIT1003 Chapter 6


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Chapter 6: Operating Systems and Utility Programs

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  • Define system software and identify the two types of system softwareDescribe the functions of an operating systemSummarize the startup process on a personal computerSummarize the features of several stand-alone operating systemsBriefly describe various server operating systemsSummarize the features of several embedded operating systemsExplain the purpose of several utility programs
  • BAIT1003 Chapter 6

    1. 1. BAIT1003 IT Fundamentals Chapter 6 Operating Systems and Utility Programs
    2. 2. Objectives System Software Operating System Operating System Functions Types of Operating System Utility Programs
    3. 3. System Software • When purchase a personal computer, it usually has system software installed on its hard disk. • System software consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices.  2 types of system software: 1. Operating systems 2. Utility programs
    4. 4. Operating Systems • An operating system (OS) is a set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources. • Different sizes of computers typically use different operating system because operating systems generally are written to run on a specific type of computer.
    5. 5. Operating System Functions start the computer provide a user interface manage programs administer security manage memory control a network provide file management and other utilities monitor performance establish an Internet connection schedule jobs and configure devices
    6. 6. Operating System Functions – Starting & Shutting Down a Computer • The process of starting or restarting a computer is called booting. Cold boot • Turning on a computer that has been powered off completely Warm boot • Using the operating system to restart a computer
    7. 7. Operating System Functions – Starting & Shutting Down a Computer • A boot drive is the drive from which your computer boots/ starts. – sometimes a hard disk becomes damaged and the computer cannot boot from the hard disk; in this case, you can boot from special disk called boot disk/ recovery disk. » A recovery disk contains a few system files that will start the computer
    8. 8. Operating System Functions – Starting & Shutting Down a Computer • An operating system includes various shut down options: Sleep mode saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off all unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a lowpower state To conserve power & let the computer “rest” Hibernate saves any open documents and programs to a hard disk before removing power from the computer To speeds up the boot-up time
    9. 9. Operating System Functions – Providing a User Interface • A user interface controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen. • Two type of user interfaces are: 1. Graphical user interface 2. Command-line user interface
    10. 10. Operating System Functions – Providing a User Interface Graphical user interface With a graphical user interface (GUI), you interact with menus and visual images Command-line user interface With a command-line interface, a user uses the keyboard to enter data and
    11. 11. Operating System Functions – Providing a User Interface Command line interface – A user types command or presses special keys on keyboard to enter data and instructions. – To configure devices, manage system resources, and troubleshoot network connections, network administrators and other advance users work. – Disadvantage: Difficult to use because they require exact spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
    12. 12. Operating System Functions – Managing Programs • How an operating system handles programs directly affects your productivity? Single user and multiuser Single tasking and multitasking Preemptive multitasking Foreground and background Multiprocessing
    13. 13. Operating System Functions – Managing Programs Single user/ single tasking – OS allows only one user to run one program at a time. – Example: • If you are working in graphics program and want to check e-mail message, you must quit the graphics program before you can run the email program.
    14. 14. Operating System Functions – Managing Programs Single user/ multitasking – OS allows a single user to work on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time. – When a computer is running multiple program concurrently, one program is in the foreground and the others are in the background. • Foreground is the active program, currently are using. • The other programs running but not in use are in the background.
    15. 15. Operating System Functions – Managing Programs
    16. 16. Operating System Functions – Managing Programs • Some OS use preemptive multitasking to prevent any one process from monopolizing the computer’s resources. • With the preemptive multitasking, the OS interrupts a program that is executing and passed control to other program waiting to be executes. Advantage OS regains control if one program stops operating properly.
    17. 17. Operating System Functions – Managing Programs
    18. 18. Operating System Functions – Managing Programs Multiuser • OS enables two or more users to run programs simultaneously. Example: Network, servers, mainframes, and supercomputers allow hundreds to thousands of user to connect at the same time.
    19. 19. Operating System Functions – Managing Programs fault-tolerant computer Has duplicate components such as processors, memory, and disk drives • A fault- tolerant computer continues to operate when one of its components fails, ensuring that no data is lost .
    20. 20. Operating System Functions – Managing Memory • Memory management is to optimizes the use of RAM. • Virtual memory is a portion of a storage medium functioning as additional RAM. – The area of hard disk for virtual memory is called a swap file. – A page is the amount of data and program instructions that can swap at given time. – The technique of swapping items between memory and storage is called paging. – When an OS spends much of its time paging, instead of executing application, it said to be thrashing.
    21. 21. Operating System Functions – Managing Memory
    22. 22. Operating System Functions – Coordinating Tasks The OS determines the order in which tasks are processed. Example: If the processor sends 5 documents to a printer, the printer can print only one document at a time and store as many documents as its memory can handle. • Buffer – is a segment of memory in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred from an input/ output. • Spooling – send documents to be printed to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer.
    23. 23. Operating System Functions – Coordinating Tasks When you enter a PRINT command The operating system copies your document to a print buffer (a free area in memory or on a disk). Document being printed.
    24. 24. Operating System Functions – Configuring Devices • A driver is a small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device.
    25. 25. Operating System Functions – Configuring Devices • Plug and Play automatically configures new devices as you install them
    26. 26. Operating System Functions – Establishing an Internet Connection • Operating systems typically provide a means to establish Internet connections
    27. 27. Operating System Functions – Monitoring Performance • A performance monitor is a program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices.
    28. 28. Operating System Functions – Providing File Management & Other Utilities • Operating systems often provide users with the capability of: Managing files Searching for files Viewing images Securing a computer Uninstalling programs Cleaning up disks Defragmenting disks Diagnosing problems Backing up files and disks Setting up screen savers
    29. 29. Operating System Functions – Updating Software Automatically • Automatic update automatically provides updates to the program.
    30. 30. Operating System Functions – Controlling a Network • Some operating systems are designed to work with a server on a network. • A server operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on a network • A network administrator uses the server operating system to: – Add and remove users, computers, and other devices – Install software and administer network security
    31. 31. Operating System Functions – Administering Security Each user has a user account – A user name, or user ID, identifies a specific user – A password is a private combination of characters associated with the user name
    32. 32. Types of Operating Systems
    33. 33. Types of Operating Systems – Stand-Alone Operating Systems • A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device Windows 7 Mac OS X UNIX Linux
    34. 34. Types of Operating Systems – Stand-Alone Operating Systems • Windows 7 is Microsoft’s fastest, most efficient operating system to date and is available in multiple editions: Windows 7 Starter Windows 7 Home Premium Windows 7 Ultimate Windows 7 Professional
    35. 35. Types of Operating Systems – Stand-Alone Operating Systems • Windows 7 provides programs such as: Windows Firewall Windows DVD Maker Windows Media Player Desktop Gadget Gallery
    36. 36. Types of Operating Systems – Stand-Alone Operating Systems • The Macintosh operating system has set the standard for operating system ease of use • Latest version is Mac OS X
    37. 37. Types of Operating Systems – Stand-Alone Operating Systems UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed in the early 1970s Linux is an open-source, popular, multitasking UNIXtype operating system.
    38. 38. Types of Operating Systems – Server Operating Systems • Server operating system typically resides on a server. The client computers on the network rely on the server(s) for resources. • Examples: Windows Server 2008 Linux Solaris UNIX Netware
    39. 39. Types of Operating Systems – Server Operating Systems Windows Server 2008 is an upgrade to Windows Server 2003 – Part of the Windows Server 2008 family – Multiple editions Most editions include Hyper-V, is a virtualization technology – Virtualization is the practice of sharing or pooling computing resources, such as servers
    40. 40. Types of Operating Systems – Embedded Operating Systems • An embedded operating system resides on a ROM chip on a mobile device or consumer electronic device Windows Embedded CE Windows Phone 7 Palm OS iPhone OS BlackBerry Google Android Embedded Linux Symbian OS
    41. 41. Types of Operating Systems – Embedded Operating Systems The sewing machine uses Windows Embedded CE to assist with stitching quilts, garments, crafts, decorations , and embroidery. The iPhone OS runs an Apple’s iphone.
    42. 42. Utility Programs • A utility program is a type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs.
    43. 43. Utility Programs – File Manager • A file manager is a utility that performs functions related to file management – Displaying a list of files – Organizing files in folders – Copying, renaming, del eting, moving, and sorting files and folders – Creating shortcuts
    44. 44. Utility Programs – Search Utility • A search utility is a program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify.
    45. 45. Utility Programs – Image Viewer • An image viewer allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphics file, such as photo
    46. 46. Utility Programs – Uninstaller • An uninstaller removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files
    47. 47. Utility Programs – Disk Cleanup • A disk cleanup utility searches for and removes unnecessary files – Downloaded program files – Temporary Internet files – Deleted files – Unused program files
    48. 48. Utility Programs – Disk Defragmenter • A disk defragmenter reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster
    49. 49. Utility Programs – Backup & Restore Utilities • A backup utility allows users to copy files to another storage medium • A restore utility reverses the process and returns backed up files to their original form
    50. 50. Utility Programs – Screen Saver • A screen saver causes a display device’s screen to show a moving image or blank screen if no activity occurs for a specified time
    51. 51. Utility Programs – Personal Firewall • A personal firewall detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions.
    52. 52. Utility Programs – Antivirus Programs A virus describes a potentially damaging computer program that affects a computer negatively. A worm copies itself repeatedly in memory or over a network A Trojan horse hides within or looks like a legitimate program An antivirus program protects a computer against viruses
    53. 53. Utility Programs – Antivirus Programs
    54. 54. Utility Programs – Spyware & Adware Removers Spyware is a program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user • A spyware remover detects and deletes spyware and other similar programs Adware displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window • An adware remover is a program that detects and deletes adware
    55. 55. Utility Programs – Internet Filters • Filters are programs that remove or block certain items from being displayed. Web filters Anti-spam programs Phishing filters Pop-up blockers
    56. 56. Utility Programs – File Compression • A file compression utility shrinks the size of a file(s). A compressing files frees up room on the storage media. • Two types of compression are lossy & lossless compression. 1. Lossy – quality of a file decreases slightly 2. Lossless – a compressed file can be returned to its exact original state. • Compressed files sometimes are called zipped files – Can be uncompressed or unzip, to restore it to its original form.
    57. 57. Utility Programs – Media Player • A media player allows you to view images and animation, listen to audio, and watch video files on your computer.
    58. 58. Utility Programs – Disc Burning • Disc burning software writes text, graphics, audio, and video files on a recordable or rewritable optical disc
    59. 59. Utility Programs – Personal Computer Maintenance • A personal computer maintenance utility identifies and fixes operating system problems, detects and repairs disk problems, and includes the capability of improving a computer’s performance
    60. 60. Summary System Software Operating System Utility Programs Operating System Functions Types of Operating System File Manager Starting & Shutting down Stand-alone Search Utility Providing user interface Server Image Viewer Managing Programs Embedded Uninstaller Managing Memory Disk Cleanup Coordinating Tasks Disk Defragmenter Configuring Devices Backup & Restore Establishing Internet connection Screen Saver Monitoring Performance Personal Firewall Providing file management Antivirus Programs Updating software automatically Spyware & Adware Controlling network Internet Filters Administering Security File Compression Media Player Disc Burning Personal Computer Maintenance