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That syncing feeling early user experiences with the cloud

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"That syncing feeling early user experiences with the cloud."

"That syncing feeling early user experiences with the cloud."
Cathy Marshall와 John C. Tang의 DIS2012 논문의 발제입니다.

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That syncing feeling  early user experiences with the cloud That syncing feeling early user experiences with the cloud Presentation Transcript

  • That Syncing Feeling: Early User Experiences with the Cloud + DIS 2012 -Cathy Marshall, John C. Tang /임하진 x 2013 Autumn Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • That Syncing Feeling: Early User Experiences with the Cloud 임하진 20131016 Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • 저자들 DIS 2012 Designing Interactive Systems John.C.Tang Cathy. Marshall Microsoft Research Center in Silicon Valley Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • Overview ✤ ✤ Early-Adopter 군에 속하는 사용자들이 File sync와 File Sharing 시스템을 어떻게 사용하고 있고, Cloud와의 인터렉션을 어떤 식으로 개념화 하는지 알아보기 위한 연구 연구방법 ✤ ✤ ✤ 106명을 대상으로한 Survey 19명을 대상으로한 In-depth Interview 이를 통해 도출된 Use cases를 통해 사람들이 클라우드 서비스를 활용하는 방식에 대한 5개의 Pivot Concept를 도출 ✤ ✤ Shared file repository ✤ Personal replicated file store ✤ Shared replicated file store ✤ ✤ Personal file repository Synchronization mechanism 결과적으로 강력한 Cloud Service를 위한 “Process Transparency” 와 “Interface Scaffolding” 등 을 제안 Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • 연구의 필요성 ✤ Cloud Computing의 인기와, 성장세 ✤ ✤ 기존 연구들은 technical infrastructure (e.g. optimizing throughput, scaling up in capacity, maximizing uptime) 등에 집중하는 경향 클라우드 컴퓨팅이 End-user 레벨에서 더욱 많은 서비스를 제공하는 추세 → 실제 사용자들이 클라우드를 어떻 게 사용하고, 어떻게 받아들이고 있는지 연구해볼 필요가 있음 Exemplars Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • 연구 문제 A) Early Adopter들이 어떤 식으로 Cloud file sync / Sharing Service를 사용하 고 있는가? B) 사용자들이 이러한 서비스들을 더욱 더 사용하게 하는 / 혹은 그를 막는 Conceptualization과 Misconception들은 무엇인가? C) 클라우드 서비스의 전반에 대한 사용자들의 이해를 형성하고 적절히 사용하게 하기 위한 Interaction Design Implication은 무엇인가? Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • 연구방법론 1) 파일럿 스터디 2) 심층 인터뷰 (Skype 인터뷰 + 클라우드 폴더를 보여줌) Coding + Analyze Our interview data were first open-coded for recurring themes, then analyzed by comparing specific instances of those themes across participants. Our analysis focused on how they used syncing and sharing services, and on the conceptual models they were forming through their usage. Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • actually accomplish. We set out to study the early use of these services to understand the models users were developing as they interacted with the cloud. Participants STUDYING FILE SYNCING AND SHARING We conducted a two-phase study of cloud-mediated file syncing and sharing. First we piloted and administered a 106-person survey to gather background data and identify prospective participants for the second part of the study, which consisted of 19 in-depth interviews. The survey included 15 questions about respondents’ use of syncing and sharing software and services and six demographic questions, and took about fifteen minutes to complete. We recruited respondents for voluntary participation via posts in Facebook, Twitter, and email groups that spread beyond our personal contacts. Respondents ranged from computer themes, then analyzed by comparing specific instances of those themes across participants [1]. Our analysis focused on how they used syncing and sharing services, and on the conceptual models they were forming through their usage. Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of the interview participants from their survey responses. Participant IDs assigned based on the survey responses are used to identify quotations and stories from their interviews. Survey Results The 106 completed surveys provided background information about respondents’ current use of syncing and sharing services. Of the respondents, 60% were male, 37% were female. Many were in the 20-35 yr. range (39%), but several were under 20 (3%) and over 65 (2%). Each age/ gender/ software used/ level of technical sophistication/ satisfaction / ID S006 S007 S012 S014 S017 S018 S032 S038 S039 S051 S052 S055 S058 S062 S065 S078 S092 S102 S106 Gender F M F M M F M M F F M M F F M M M F M Age group 51-65 36-50 51-65 20-35 20-35 36-50 36-50 20-35 51-65 36-50 51-65 36-50 20-35 20-35 20-35 36-50 20-35 51-65 36-50 Technical level low medium medium high high low medium medium medium low high medium low low high high high medium high # of devices 2 2 3 3 6 6 5 4 6 3 6 4 8 3 4 3 4 4 6 Syncing Satisfaction 4 2 2 6 6 3 7 5 7 4 6 6 7 4 2 7 5 2 6 Table 1. Interview participant characteristics. Wednesday, October 16, 13 Extent of sharing 2-5 groups >5 groups 2-5 groups 2-5 groups 2-5 groups 2-5 groups 2-5 groups 2-5 groups none >5 groups 2-5 groups 2-5 groups 2-5 groups 2-5 groups 2-5 groups 2-5 groups >5 groups 1 main group 2-5 groups Sharing Satisfaction 6 2 6 3 5 6 7 4 7 4 5 5 7 5 4 7 5 5 5
  • A) USES OF SYNC AND SHARING SERVICES ✤ 인터뷰를 통해 사용자들이 어떻게 cloud-based file sync / sharing services를 그들의 개인 및 공적 업무를 위해 사용하고 있는지 알아봄 1) Transfer Between Devices 2) Transfer among People USB stick 처럼 이용하는 경우 E-mail 첨부파일 대신으로 이용하는 경우 (한 디바이스에서 다른 디바이스로 옮기기 위해) (비교적 용량이 큰 파일을 다른 사람에게 보내주기 위해서 ) 이들 Case는 특정한 사용자 Needs들을 충족 시키고 있지만 Cloud service에 특화된 기능을 사용하고, 배우는 데 도움이 되지 못함 Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • A) USES OF SYNC AND SHARING SERVICES C) Active File Backup 만약에 경우를 대비해서 적극적 으로 개인의 파일을 백업하는 용도로 사용 E) Syncing Files Among Personal Devices 개인 기기간에 분산된 파일들을 관리하기 위해서 (어느 정도 기간 이상의 학습기간이 흐른 후 에 인지되는 경우가 많음) Wednesday, October 16, 13 D) Cloud-Based File Sharing 기기간 싱크 기능을 인지하고 있지 못하고, 웹 사이트 특정 계정/폴더 자체를 파일 공유 플랫폼으로 사용하는 경우 (주로 Long-term project에서 사용됨 - 가장 최신의 / 관련된 문서를 협업에 사용하기 위해서- Google Docs) F) Using Synced Folders Collaboratively 구성원들 간에 공유되어 싱크되는 공용폴더로써 사용 - 구성원 중 어느 한 사람 이 폴더에 변경을 가할 경우 모든 구성원에게 영향을 미침 (These concepts are tricky to understand and enact. If collaborators had different models of how synced shared folders worked, surprising, even conflicting, behaviors often ensued. Beyond the negotiation of shared structure described in prior work, e.g., we focus on the propagation of changes and conflict resolution. )
  • worked around their collaborators’ misconceptions. They also performed informal experiments on the services (e.g., what happens when you delete a Google Doc you do not own?) to confirm various theories about how they work. might play for file transfer and manual backup, but does not understand file synchronization. S051 is an accountant who uses a service called FilesAnywhere to transfer files to a colleague (but not vice-versa), to back up important workrelated files, and for ubiquitous access. She adopted the service because she thought a paid service would give her better security, because her Quickbooks files were getting too large to mail to her colleague, and because it was easier to use a cloud store than a USB stick. When prompted to tell us how FilesAnywhere works, S051 said: B) UNDERSTANDING THE CLOUD - Conceptualization ✤ Key ✤ ✤ ✤ ✤ The interviews identified five major use cases that contribute to fully understanding cloud-based syncing and sharing services. They are (in order of increasing Questions complexity): personal cloud repository, shared cloud repository, personal replicated store, shared replicated store, “당신의 기기가 인터넷에 연결되어 있지and synchronizationreplicated storage—the ideaa that local 않을 때between mechanism. We make nuanced distinction 어떻게 파일에 접근하나요?” folders (and, potentially, the cloud) hold identical copies of a set of files—and synchronization, the mechanism by “만약 당신이 클라우드 폴더에 있는 파일을 지운다면 어떤 일이 생기나요?” which the replication takes place, versions are created, and conflicts are reconciled (or reflected to the users). “파일들의 싱크가 언제 이루어 진다고 생각하시나요?” These use cases identify 사용자들이 클라우드 서비스를 이해하고 a basic conceptual framework, Shared Cloud Repository shown in Table 2. Assimilating the elements of this All participants understood the idea of synchronous access framework enables a user to have a truly robust 사용하는데 가지고 있는 일종의 Mental-Model과 개념화 cloud repository, e.g., Google Docs, as long as 경향을 조사 to a shared understanding of file sync and sharing tools, and the they used the Google Docs applications to access the files. confidence to use them in the face of imperfect bandwidth Far fewer participants understood Google Docs as a more general cloud repository where they could upload and store use cases concepts user actions other file types. This frequently led to Google Docs being cloud repository ubiquitous transfers files to the used in task-driven way: “it’s almost in the moment, as access cloud and accesses soon as that day is gone or that moment is gone, I don’t them from any device care about the files anymore.” [S014] shared cloud synchronous edits shared content repository personal replicated store shared replicated store access disconnected access deletion synchronization mechanism sync triggers; resolving conflict in the cloud edits content on any device, even offline understands how own actions affect content on others’ devices Ensures sync completion, avoids conflicts Table 2. Conceptual framework for user-facing cloud storage services Wednesday, October 16, 13 I’ll save the backup file, and then copy it from my laptop over to them… And then pretty much I can sign in from anywhere I want to. Anywhere I can get a browser…Then I can create a link that I can send it to anybody…and that link will last for however many days I set it. Concurrent access helped participants understand shared cloud repositories; many of them had witnessed collaborators’ keystrokes as they concurrently updated a file (although the synchronous access had a bit of a magic quality to it). S006 said, “I just assume that the version of the file that’s being maintained by Google gets updated and saved and that becomes the new document that everybody’s working from.… I’ve actually been on a Google Doc when I can actually see somebody typing something. So, it happens in real time, but I don’t know how they make that work.”
  • These use cases identify a basic conceptual framework, shown in Table 2. Assimilating the elements of this framework enables a user to have a truly robust understanding of file sync and sharing tools, and the confidence to use them in the face of imperfect bandwidth Shared Cloud Repository B) UNDERSTANDING THE CLOUD - Conceptualization use cases ubiquitous access shared cloud repository personal replicated store shared replicated store synchronous access disconnected access deletion synchronization mechanism Wednesday, October 16, 13 user actions cloud repository Complexity concepts sync triggers; resolving conflict transfers files to the cloud and accesses them from any device edits shared content in the cloud edits content on any device, even offline understands how own actions affect content on others’ devices Ensures sync completion, avoids conflicts Table 2. Conceptual framework for user-facing cloud storage services All participants understood to a shared cloud repository they used the Google Docs Far fewer participants unde general cloud repository wh other file types. This frequ used in task-driven way: “ Replicated storage—the ideagone o soon as that day is that local folders (and, potentially, the care about the files anymore cloud) hold identical copies of a set ofConcurrent access helped files cloud repositories; by many Synchronization mechanismcollaborators’ keystrokes which the replication takes place, a file (although and versions are created, the synchrono conflicts are reconciled (or said, “I quality to it). S006 reflected to the users). the file that’s being maintai saved and that becomes the working from.… I’ve actual can actually see somebody t in real time, but I don’t know
  • I set it. These use cases identify a basic conceptual framework, shown in Table 2. Assimilating the elements of this framework enables a user to have a truly robust understanding of file sync and sharing tools, and the confidence to use them in the face of imperfect bandwidth Shared Cloud Repository All participants understood the idea of s B) UNDERSTANDING THE CLOUD - Conceptualization Googl to a shared cloud repository, e.g., ✤ use cases concepts user actions cloud repository ubiquitous access shared cloud repository personal replicated store shared replicated store synchronous access disconnected access deletion synchronization mechanism sync triggers; resolving conflict transfers files to the cloud and accesses them from any device edits shared content in the cloud edits content on any device, even offline understands how own actions affect content on others’ devices Ensures sync completion, avoids conflicts Table 2. Conceptual framework for user-facing cloud Wednesday, October 16, 13 storage services ✤ they used the Google Docs applications Far fewer participants understood Goog Cloud Repository general cloud repository where they coul ✤ 파일 전송과 Manual 백업에 대한 개념 other file types. This frequently led to G 은 알고 있으나 Sync에 대해 이해하지 used in task-driven way: “it’s almost 못한 상태 soon as that day is gone or that mome care about the files anymore.” [S014] Shared Cloud Repository Concurrent access helped participants 주로 Google Docs에서 이루어 지는 cloud repositories; many 접 them Concurrent한 작업으로 Cloud를 of 한 User군 collaborators’ keystrokes as they concu file (although the synchronous access ha ✤ 실시간으로 업데이트되는 파일로서 이 quality to it). S006 said, “I just assume 해 the file that’s being maintained by Googl ✤ saved and that becomes the new docume (X) "구글닥스 스프레드 시트에 계획을 올려놓고 그를 다시 이메일로 보내주 working from.… I’ve actually been on a G 는 경우 " can actually see somebody typing someth in real time, but I don’t know how they m ✤
  • I set it. These use cases identify a basic conceptual framework, shown in Table 2. Assimilating the elements of this framework enables a user to have a truly robust understanding of file sync and sharing tools, and the confidence to use them in the face of imperfect bandwidth Shared Cloud Repository All participants understood the idea of s B) UNDERSTANDING THE CLOUD - Conceptualization Googl to a shared cloud repository, e.g., use cases concepts user actions cloud repository ubiquitous access transfers files to the cloud and accesses them from any device edits shared content in the cloud edits content on any device, even offline understands how own actions affect content on others’ devices Ensures sync completion, avoids conflicts shared cloud repository personal replicated store shared replicated store synchronization mechanism synchronous access disconnected access deletion sync triggers; resolving conflict Table 2. Conceptual framework for user-facing cloud Wednesday, October 16, 13 storage services ✤ they used the Google Docs applications Far fewer participants understood Goog Personal replicated store general cloud repository where they coul 클라우드 상의 파일은 복제되고, Offline상황에서도 other file types. This frequently led to G 접근이 가능하다는 것을 인지하고 있는 상태 used"인터넷이 연결되지 않으면way: “it’s almost in task-driven 클라우드 상에 파일 (X) soon as 수 없다고 생각하는gone or that mome 에 접근할 that day is 경우" care"어떤 다바이스에서 클라우드 상의 특정 파일을 (X) about the files anymore.” [S014] ✤ ✤ ✤ 지우고 다른 디바이스에서 그 파일을 다시 찾아보는 Concurrent access helped participants 경우" ✤ cloud repositories; many of them collaborators’ keystrokes as they concu 공용 클라우드 상에 올리는 파일들은 구성원들의 기 file (although the 것을 인지하고 있는 상태 기에도 복제될 것이라는 synchronous access ha quality to it). S006 said, “I just assume 공용 클라우드 폴더에 가하는 모든 변화들이 다른 the file that’s being maintained by Googl 구성원에게 영향을 미칠 것이라는 것을 이해하고 있 는 상태 saved and that becomes the new docume (X) "다른 from.… 없이 actually been working 구성원과 상의I’vePM이 해당 폴더를 on a G cleanup해버린 경우" can actually see somebody typing someth in real time, but I don’t know how they m Shared replicated store ✤ ✤ ✤
  • I set it. These use cases identify a basic conceptual framework, shown in Table 2. Assimilating the elements of this framework enables a user to have a truly robust understanding of file sync and sharing tools, and the confidence to use them in the face of imperfect bandwidth Shared Cloud Repository All participants understood the idea of s B) UNDERSTANDING THE CLOUD - Conceptualization Googl to a shared cloud repository, e.g., ✤ use cases concepts user actions cloud repository ubiquitous access shared cloud repository personal replicated store shared replicated store synchronous access disconnected access deletion synchronization mechanism sync triggers; resolving conflict transfers files to the cloud and accesses them from any device edits shared content in the cloud edits content on any device, even offline understands how own actions affect content on others’ devices Ensures sync completion, avoids conflicts Table 2. Conceptual framework for user-facing cloud Wednesday, October 16, 13 storage services they used the Google Docs applications Far fewer participants Synchronization Mechanism understood Goog general cloud repository where they coul ✤ Version관리의 원리 other file types. This frequently led to G ✤ used in task-driven way: “it’s almost Delete의 의미 soon as that day is gone or that mome ✤ Selective Sync 기능 care about the files anymore.” [S014] ✤ Concurrent access helped participants cloud Does it sync at regular intervals?of them repositories; many Is it triggered by a specific action collaborators’ keystrokes asit)? (e.g., closing a file or saving they concu file (although the synchronous access ha Can you ever just shut your laptop quality and it). S006 said, “I just assume to trust that the files are in a the file consistent state?maintained by Googl that’s being saved 사용자들은 자신의 컨셉 모델을new docume and that becomes the 어떤 working from.… 위해 실험을 하기도 함 / on a G stable하게 만들기 I’ve actually been 혹은 경험에서 배워감 can actually see somebody typing someth in real time, but I don’t know how they m ✤ ✤ ✤ When does a file sync?
  • B) UNDERSTANDING THE CLOUD - Conceptualization ✤ Security & Privacy Issue 참가자들에게 "만약 당신의 Desktop 전체를 클라우드 서버 상에 올리게 된다면 어떨 것 같은가요?"라고 물음 ✤ ✤ → 어떤 종류의 파일/폴더를 클라우드에 올릴 것인가 ? (올리고 있는가?) ✤ ✤ 사람의 태도에 따라 천차만별 (Convenience vs. abstract notions of vulnerability) → 어떤 종류의 파일/폴더를 클라우드에 절대 올리지 않을 것인가 ? (올리지 않고 있는가?) ✤ 재무 정보, 성적, 기밀 자료, 인적사항이 들어가 있는 자료 또한 ✤ ✤ 회사의 Name Value [Google vs. Dropbox vs. FileAnywhere vs. SkyDrive] ✤ 무료/유료 옵션 ✤ 광고의 유무 등이 Security와 Privacy 인식에 영향을 미침 Security/Privacy 인식이 각각의 사용자의 Concept model에 영향을 미치진 않지만, 특정 클라우드 서비스를 사용하는 방식 및 Adoption에 영향을 미침 Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • DESIGN IMPLICATIONS ✤ "어떻게 하면 사용자들에게 좀 더 나은 Concept Model을 형성할 수 있도록 할까?", ✤ "클라우드 서비스의 다양한 기능을 최대한 잘 활용할 수 있게 하려면 어떻게 해야할까?" ✤ 등의 물음에 답을 하기 위한 3가지 Design Implication이 도출됨 ✤ a) 과정의 투명성 (Process Transparency) ✤ b) Interface 재 구조화 (Interface Scaffolding) ✤ c) 사용자 Concept Model의 재구축 (Reconciling Conceptual Model) Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • DESIGN IMPLICATIONS - a) Process Transparency ✤ Sync 과정에 대한 Cue가 부족하다는 점이 시적됨 ✤ 다른 사람이 특정 파일을 추가 혹은 update했다는 Notification + Sync의 시작과 완료 했다는 Notification 이 이루어 져야 함 ✤ ✤ 공용폴더 상에서 매번 각각의 사용자가 어떤 파일을 열어보거나/ 변경을 했을 때 어떤 유저가, 어떤 파일을, 어떤 디바이스를 통해, 언 제 접근/변경되었는지 알려줄 필요가 있음 ✤ ✤ → 싱크가 일어나는 중간에 Offline으로 변경할 경우 싱크가 완료 되지 못했다는 warning/alert를 줄 필요가 있음 → 이는 사용자가 접근하기 원하는 가장 최신의 파일에 접근할 수 있게 해주며, 어떤 이가 동시에 한 파일을 통해 일하고 있는 경우 생길 수 있는 문제 들을 방지해 줄 수 있음 Network 연결 표시창 처럼 sync 상태를 알려주는 Indicator가 필요함 → 대부분 개선됨 (특히 Dropbox에서) Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • DESIGN IMPLICATIONS - b) Interface Scaffolding ✤ Google Docs에 있는 공용 문서를 지우면 어떻게 될 것 같아요? ✤ “I would assume, if I’m the owner, it’s deleted, but if I’m not the owner, it stays”. ✤ 내가 Owner인 문서를 지울 때 : ✤ ✤ Trash for everyone -- Choose new owner -- Cancel 내가 Owner가 아닌 경우 문서를 지울 때 : Remove from my document list ? YES ----- NO Dropbox에 있는 공용 문서를 지웠을 때는 어떨 것 같아요? ✤ 파일을 지웠을 때 그저 '지워졌다'는 결과만 보여짐 ✤ 공용 폴더에서 Drag out은 'copy'가 아니라 'move'로 동작함 Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • DESIGN IMPLICATIONS - c) Reconciling Conceptual Models ✤ 대부분의 주요 클라우드 서비스 업체들은 '친숙한 컨셉'(local file storage)을 최대한 대로 유지하려고 함 ✤ 하지만 이는 Cloud Computing이라는 새로운 컨셉과 충돌하는 경우가 생길 수 밖에 없음 ✤ 친숙한 컨셉을 유지 하는 것의 장점은 분명 존재하지만, 이는 사용자들의 정확한 컨셉 모델을 발전시키는 데 저해하는 요소일 수도 있음 ✤ ✤ ✤ Dropbox의 경우 친숙한 컨셉을 잘 활용하고 있으나 그만큼 많은 confusion을 발생시키고 있음 (5가지의 컨셉 모델의 이해 필요) GoogleDocs의 경우 Web-based의 컨셉 모델을 받아들여 cloud의 sync기능을 자연스럽게 받아 들일 수 있도록 하게 하였으나, 다른 확장된 기능에 대해 사용자들이 인지하지 못하는 경우가 많았음 (2가지 컨셉 모델의 이해 필요) Apple iCloud의 경우 Sync 기능을 전면으로 내세우지 않고 어플리케이션 단위에서 진행시킴으로써 충돌을 최소화 하 려 하고 있으나 해당 어플리케이션을 벗어나 사용하려는 경우나, 다른 사람과 공유하려고 할 때 기능적인 한계가 발생함. Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • Conclusion, Contribution ✤ ✤ ✤ 사용자의 관점에서 Cloud Sync/File Sharing 서비스가 어떤 방향으로 발전되어야 하는지 밝혀 냄 사용자에 따라 잘 못 설정된 혹은 충분치 못하게 설정된 '컨셉 모델'은 사용자들에게 혼란을 줄 뿐만 아니라 기능을 제대로 사용하지 못하는 결과를 초래할 수 있음 3가지의 Design Implication 제안 ✤ 이는 End-user을 대상으로 한 다른 Cloud 기반 서비스 개발에도 적용 될 수 있 을것 Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • Lessons ✤ 퍼스널 클라우드 파일 스토리지 서비스에 대한 관심.... ✤ Design Implication에서 나온 개선사항들을 실제로 구현해 보고 싶음 ✤ 앞으로 더 확대되어갈 분야.... ✤ 앞단의 연구 방법에 대해 배울 부분이 많은 것 같음 Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • Following Studies Turbulence in the Clouds: Challenges of Cloud-Based Information Work Amy Voida, Judith S. Olson & Gary M. Olson CHI 2013 ABSTRACT We report on a qualitative study of the user experience of cloud-based information work. We characterize the information work practices and challenges that exist largely at the different intersections of three constructs— cloud- based services, collaborations, and digital identifiers. We also demonstrate how the misalignment of these three constructs is experienced as a “losing battle” that has led to miscommunication among collaborators, the abandonment of cloud-based services, and the irreparable blurring of digital identities. Wednesday, October 16, 13
  • Thank you :p Wednesday, October 16, 13