Strategy and environment

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Strategy and environment

  1. 1. STRATEGY AND EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT 2–1
  2. 2. Two Most Important Premises 1. Strategy-Context Internal Environment External Environment Strategy 2. Strategy-Time Present Future Strategy 2–2
  3. 3. External Environment General Environment Industry Competitor External Environment 2–3
  4. 4. General Environment General Environment Industry Strategic Group Competitors 2–4
  5. 5. The External Environment 2–5 Figure 2.1
  6. 6. General Environment • Dimensions in the broader society that influence and industry and the firms within it – Economic – Sociocultural – Global – Technological – Political/legal – Demographic 2–6
  7. 7. Industry Environment • Set of factors directly influencing a firm and its competitive actions and competitive responses – Threat of new entrants – Power of suppliers – Power of buyers – Threat of product substitutes – Intensity of rivalry among competitors 2–7
  8. 8. Competitor Environment • All of the companies that the firm competes against. 2–8
  9. 9. Analysis of the External Environments • General environment – Focused on the future • Industry environment – Focused on factors and conditions influencing a firm’s profitability within an industry • Competitor environment – Focused on predicting the dynamics of competitors’ actions, responses and intentions 2–9
  10. 10. Opportunities and Threats • Opportunity – A condition in the general environment that if exploited, helps a company achieve strategic competitiveness • Threat – A condition in the general environment that may hinder a company’s efforts to achieve strategic competitiveness 2–10
  11. 11. General Environment (cont’d) • The Economic Segment – Inflation rates – Interest rates – Trade deficits or surpluses – Budget deficits or surpluses – Personal savings rate – Business savings rates – Gross domestic product 2–11
  12. 12. General Environment (cont’d) • The Socio-cultural Segment – Reservations – Women in the workplace – Workforce diversity – Attitudes about quality of work-life – Concerns about environment – Shifts in work and career preferences – Shifts in product and service preferences 2–12
  13. 13. General Environment (cont’d) • The Technological Segment – Product innovations – Applications of knowledge – Focus of private and government-supported R&D expenditures – New communication technologies 2–13
  14. 14. General Environment (cont’d) • The Political/Legal Segment – Antitrust laws – Taxation laws – Deregulation philosophies – Labor training laws – Educational philosophies and policies 2–14
  15. 15. General Environment • The Demographic Segment – Population size – Age structure – Geographic distribution – Ethnic mix – Income distribution 2–15
  16. 16. Industry Environment • Industry Defined – A group of firms producing products that are close substitutes • Firms that influence one another • Includes a rich mix of competitive strategies that companies use in pursuing strategic competitiveness and above-average returns 2–16
  17. 17. Threat of New Entrant- Entry Barriers • Airlines Industry • Retail Industry • Power Generation
  18. 18. Substitutes Tea and Coffee Aluminum and Copper Plastic and Glass Mobile and Landline Radio and TV Petrol to Non fossil fuel
  19. 19. Bargaining Power of Suppliers • PC Manufacturing • Metals
  20. 20. Bargaining power of Buyers • Retail • Bollywood Producer and Multiplex owners
  21. 21. Five Forces and Industry
  22. 22. The Five Forces of Competition Model 2–22 Figure 2.2
  23. 23. Threat of New Entrants: Barriers to Entry • Economies of scale • Network Effects • Product differentiation • Capital requirements • Switching costs • Access to distribution channels • Cost disadvantages independent of scale • Government policy • Expected retaliation 2–23
  24. 24. Bargaining Power of Suppliers • Supplier power increases when: – Suppliers are large and few in number -concentration E.g. PC vs. Microsoft – Suitable substitute products are not available. Plastic and steel, Pilots union, Doctors – Suppliers do not depend heavily on industry, E.g. Glass and Automobile, Rubber and Tyre, chip manufactures and PC, Coke and Steel, Gas and Power – Suppliers’ goods are critical to buyers’ marketplace success E.g. Pharma’s patented drugs to hospitals – Suppliers’ products create high switching costs. E.g. Bloomberg , Automobile ancillaries in J’pur, – Suppliers pose a threat to integrate forward into buyers’ industry Mfg vs. Retail 2–24
  25. 25. Bargaining Power of Buyers • Buyer power increase when: – Buyers are large and few in number (concentration)- E.g.PC vs Chip – Buyers purchase a large portion of an industry’s total output E.g. Multiplexes – Industry products are undifferentiated – Buyers can switch to another product without incurring high switching costs – Buyers pose threat to integrate backward into the sellers’ industry E.g. Retailers 2–25
  26. 26. Bargaining Power of Buyers • Buyer are price sensitive when: – Products purchased by them are significant part of cost structure E.g. Vermont Milk, Aviation fuel – Buyers earn lower profits (Airlines) – Quality of buyers’ products are not affected E.g. Camera for production house are very important 2–26
  27. 27. Threat of Substitute Products • The threat of substitute products increases when: – Price-Performance (Computer vs. Typewriter, Video rentals vs. YouTube, Flix vs. Rentals) – Buyers face few switching costs concentration (Patented to generic drug) – Players should be alert to different industry as threats are likely to come from unexpected spaces (Teachers-Search Engines, Airlines - Videoconferencing) 2–27
  28. 28. Intensity of Rivalry Among Competitors • Industry rivalry increases when: – There are numerous or equally balanced competitors E.g. Soft Drink – Industry growth slows declines E.g. Airline in India – There are high fixed costs and marginal costs low. – There is a lack of differentiation opportunities or low switching costs – When the strategic stakes are high E.g Committment – When high exit barriers prevent competitors from leaving the industry E.g. Aluminium – Perishable Products 2–28
  29. 29. Interpreting Industry Analyses 2–29 Low entry barriers Unattractive Industry Suppliers and buyers have strong positions Strong threats from substitute products Intense rivalry among competitors Low profit potential
  30. 30. Interpreting Industry Analyses 2–30 Attractive Industry High entry barriers Suppliers and buyers have weak positions Few threats from substitute products Moderate rivalry among competitors High profit potential
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