Greet hofstede cultural dimensions


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Greet hofstede cultural dimensions

  1. 1. Greet Hofstede Cultural Dimensions “Culture is more often conflict than of synergy” Name: Eka Darmadi NRP: 3094802 KP: Y Universities Surabaya Faculty of Business and Economics International Business Networking
  2. 2. 1 Power Distance Vs Large: Is how society deals with the fact that people are unequal. People are unequal in physical and intellectual capacities. Some societies let these inequalities grow over time into inequalities in power and wealth; the latter may become hereditary and no longer related to physical and intellectual capacities at all. Other societies try to play down inequalities in power and wealth as much as possible. Surely, no society has ever reached complete equality, because there are strong forces in society that perpetuate existing inequalities. All societies are unequal, but some are more unequal than others. This degree of inequality is measured by the Power Distance scale, which also runs from 0 (small Power Distance) to 100 (large Power Distance). Large Power Distance societies are characterized by: • centralized authority • autocratic leadership • paternalistic management style • many hierarchical levels • large number of supervisory staff • acceptance that power has its privileges • an expectation of inequality and power differences Small Power Distance societies are characterized by: • decentralized authority and decision making responsibility • consultative or participative management style • flat organizational structures • small proportion of supervisory staff • lack of acceptance and questioning of authority • rights consciousness • tendency toward egalitarianism In organizations, the level of Power Distance is related to the degree of centralization of authority and the degree of autocratic leadership. This relationship shows that centralization and autocratic leadership are rooted in the "mental programming" of the members of a society, not only of those in power but also of those at the bottom of the power hierarchy. Societies in which power tends to be distributed unequally can remain so because this situation satisfies the psychological need for dependence of the people without power. We could also say that societies and organizations will be led as autocratically as their members will permit. The autocracy exists just as much in the members as in the leaders: the value systems of the 2 groups are usually complementary.
  3. 3. 2 Uncertainty Avoidance Vs Strong: is how society deals with the fact that time runs only one way; that Avoidance is, we are all caught in the reality of past, present and future, and we have to live with uncertainty because the future is unknown and always will be. Some societies socialize their members into accepting this uncertainty and not becoming up-set by it. People in such societies will tend to accept each day as it comes. They will take risks rather easily. They will not work as hard. They will be relatively tolerant of behavior and opinions different from their own because they do not feel threatened by them. Such societies can be called "weak Uncertainty Avoidance" societies; they are societies in which people have a natural tendency to feel relatively secure. Other societies socialize their people into trying to beat the future. Because the future remains essentially unpredictable, in those societies there will be a higher level of anxiety in people, which becomes manifest in greater nervousness. (The degree to which members of a society are able to cope with the uncertainty of the future without experiencing undue stress. According to Hofstede & Bond, 1988, this is a uniquely Western value.) Weak UA characterized by: • Risk taking • Tolerance of differing behaviors and opinions • Flexibility • Organizations with a relatively low degree of structure and few rules, promotions based on merit Strong UA characterized by: • Avoidance of risk • Organizations that have clearly delineated structures, many written rules, standardized procedures, promotions based on seniority or age • Lack of tolerance for deviants • Strong need for consensus • Need for predictability
  4. 4. 3 Individualism Vs Collectivism: The fundamental Individualism mental issue involved is the relation between an individual and his or her fellow in- Collectivism individuals. At one end of the scale we find societies in which the ties between individuals are very loose. Everybody is supposed to look after his or her own self-interest and maybe the interest of his or her immediate family. This is made possible by a large amount of freedom that such a society leaves individuals. At the other end of the scale we find societies in which the ties between individuals are very tight. People are born into collectivities or in-groups which may be their extended family (including grandparents, uncles, aunts, and so on) INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURES • foster contractual relationships that are based on the principles of exchange. They calculate profit and loss before engaging in a behavior. • focus on self or at most on close loved ones, are concerned with the relationship between their behaviors and their own needs, interests & goals. • value independence & self-sufficiency place self-interests above collective interests accept confrontation as an attribute • emphasize pleasure, fun & personal enjoyment more than social norms and duties belong to many in-groups that exert little influence on their lives • believe that their beliefs are unique • give precedence to horizontal relationships (e.g. spouse-spouse) over vertical relationships (e.g. parent child) COLLECTIVISTIC CULTURES • behave according to social norms that are designed to maintain social harmony among members of an in-group • consider implications of their actions for wider collective • share resources and are prepared to sacrifice personal interest for collective interests • favor certain in-groups (e.g. family, friends). The Chinese culture, for example, believes that one’s elf esteem and future are tied to one’s in-groups such as parents, siblings, friends. • belong to a small number of in-groups that influence their lives have a greater tendency toward conformity than individualists • are very concerned about in-group members and are indifferent or hostile toward out-group members • Emphasize hierarchy and harmony within
  5. 5. 4 Masculinity Vs Feminine: Some societies allow both men and women to take many different roles. Others make a sharp division between what men should do and what women should do. In this latter case, the distribution is always such that men take the more assertive and dominant roles and women the more service-oriented and caring roles. I have called those societies with a maximized social sex role division "Masculine," and those with a relatively small social sex role division "Feminine." In Masculine societies, the traditional masculine social values permeate the whole society even the way of thinking of the women. These values include the importance of showing off, of performing, of achieving something visible, of making money, of "big is beautiful." In more Feminine societies, the dominant values-for both men and women-are those more traditionally associated with the feminine role: not showing off, putting relationships with people before money, minding the quality of life and the preservation of the environment, helping others, in particular the weak, and "small is beautiful." In a masculine society, the public hero is the successful achiever, the superman. In a more Feminine society, the public sympathy goes to the anti-hero, the underdog. Individual brilliance in a Feminine society is suspect. CAREER SUCCESS (Masculine) CULTURES: 1. gender roles are clearly distinct 2. men are supposed to be assertive, tough and focused on material success 3. do not place great importance on benevolence 4. places importance on the value of mastery (of job, nature, people, etc) 5. the women considered health, wealth & understanding as desirable characteristics of a husband 6. the women considered personality, affection, intelligence & sense of humor as desirable characteristics of a boyfriend QUALITY OF LIFE (Feminine) CULTURES: 1. Social gender roles overlap 2. Both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender and concerned with the quality of life 3. Desired traits in husbands were the same as desired traits in boyfriends (Hofstede, September, 1996, Journal. Cross Cultural Psychology) 4. Emphasize non-materialistic aspects of success
  6. 6. 5 Long term Vs Short term: Based upon the teachings of Confucius: 1. The stability of society is based up unequal relationships between people. 2. The family is the prototype of all social organizations. 3. Virtuous behavior toward others consists of treating others as one would like to be treated oneself: a basic human benevolence (which is not extended to one’s enemies). 4. Virtue with regard to one’s tasks in life consists of trying to acquire skills and education, working hard, not spending more than necessary, being patient and persevering. HIGH CONFUCIAN VALUES (long-term orientation): 1. Reflects a dynamic, future-oriented mentality 2. Emphasizes persistence (perseverance) 3. Emphasizes ordering of relationships based upon status and observing this order 4. Emphasizes thrift 5. Emphasizes having a sense of shame 6. Supports interrelatedness through sensitivity to social contacts 7. Positively associated with economic growth (Hofstede & Bond, 1988 - 22 countries) LOW CONFUCIAN VALUES (short-term orientation): 1. Oriented toward present and past, 2. reflects a relatively static, tradition-oriented mentality 3. Emphasizes personal steadiness 4. Emphasizes stability 5. emphasizes protecting face 6. emphasizes respect for tradition 7. emphasizes reciprocation of greetings, favors and gifts 8. negatively associated with economic growth (Hofstede & Bond, 1988 - 22 countries)