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research methodology (fyp)

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  • 1. Industrial Campus UTeM December 12, 2012Research Methodology Mohd Khairi Bin Mohamed Nor Nona Merry Merpati Mitan
  • 2. Outline• Part 1: Research process• Part 2: Writing a research proposal/report 2
  • 3. Outline• Part 1: Research process 3
  • 4. What is research?Research is systematic, because it follows certain steps that are logical inorder. These steps are:•Understanding the nature of problem to be studied and identifying therelated area of knowledge.•Reviewing literature to understand how others have approached or dealtwith the problem.•Collecting data in an organized and controlled manner so as to arrive atvalid decisions.•Analyzing data appropriate to the problem.•Drawing conclusions and making generalizations. 4
  • 5. Which of these can be classified as research?• Encik Samad prepared a paper on “computer usage in secondary schools” after reviewing literature on the subject available in his university library and called it a piece of research. 5
  • 6. Which of these can be classified as research?• Encik Muthu says that he has researched and completed a document which gives information about the age, of his students, their SPM results, their parents income and distance of their schools from the District Office. 6
  • 7. Which of these can be classified as research?• Encik Lim participated in a workshop on curriculum development and prepared what he calls, a research report on the curriculum for building technicians. He did this through a literature survey on the subject and by discussing with the participants of the workshop. 7
  • 8. Consider the following case which is an example of research• A general manager of a car producing company was concerned with the complaints received from the car users that the car they produce have some problems with rating sound at the dash board and the rear passenger seat after few thousand kilometers of driving. 8
  • 9. • He obtained information from the company workers to identify the various factors influencing the problem.• He then formulated the problem and generated guesses (hypotheses).• He constructed a checklist and obtained requisite information from a representative sample of cars.• He analyzed the data thus collected, interpreted the results in the light of his hypotheses and reached conclusions. 9
  • 10. • You will notice in the example above that the researcher went through a sequence of steps which were in order and thus systematic.• • Secondly, the researcher did not just jump at the conclusions, but used a scientific method of inquiry in reaching at conclusions.• • The two important characteristics of research are : it is systematic and secondly it follows a scientific method of enquiry. 10
  • 11. Research concepts• A way of thinking.• Hunting for facts or truth about a subject.• Organized scientific investigation to solve problems, test hypotheses, develop or invent new products. 11
  • 12. Research process• Phase 1: Deciding what to research• Phase 2: Planning a research study• Phase 3: Conducting a research study 12
  • 13. Research Process THE RESEARCH PROCESSPhase PHASE I PHASE II PHASE IIIMain task DECIDING PLANNING UNDERTAKING WHAT HOW COLLECTING (research (to gather evidence to (the required questions to answer the research information) answer?) question)Operationalsteps/research 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8journey 13
  • 14. Details Research Process• Phase I: Deciding what to research Step 1 Formulating a research problem• Phase II: Planning a research study Step 2 Conceptualising a research design Step 3 Constructing an instrument for data collection Step 4 Selecting a sample Step 5 Writing a research proposal• Phase III: Conducting a research study Step 6 Collecting data Step 7 Processing and displaying data Step 8 Writing a research report 14
  • 15. Proses Penyelidikan Kenalpasti masalah Kajian Literatur Hipotesis, Objektif dan Experimen Skop Penulisan Reka Bentuk Analisis 15
  • 16. Interactions with Supervisors• Relying heavily on our supervisor – step by step supervision• Relying everything on ourselves – no interaction with supervisor• Supervisor provides the initial basic knowledge for the student and student continue to develop new ideas on the subject – then continue regular discussions with supervisor to overcome research problems. 16
  • 17. Supervisors and StudentsRole of Supervisors• Determine topic and scope. Role of Students• Confirm the research or project • Write a research/project proposal proposal. • Get relevant literature on the• Specify the correct literature to be research topic read by students. • Study and formulate• Provide the necessary hardware or (mathematical eqns., techniques, Laboratory apparatus. etc.)• Verify whether proposed algorithm • Develop simulations (write or methodology is correct. • programs)• Determine the results given are • Develop hardware (if relevant) enough or not. • Carry out experiments• Read students thesis and feedback • Write a thesis the necessary modifications or improvement• Give the relevant marks and grades. 17
  • 18. OutlinePart 2: Writing a research proposal/report 18
  • 19. Writing report …• Most crucial step.• Communicate the findings to the readers.• A badly written report can spoil all your hard work you have done. 19
  • 20. Format umum Introduction (Pengenalan) Methodology (Kaedah) Results (Keputusan) Analysis (Analisis) Discussion (Perbincangan) Conclusion (Kesimpulan) 20
  • 21. Komponen tesis 1. Awalan 2. Abstrak dalam bahasa Melayu dan Inggeris 3. Pendahuluan - Pernyataan Masalah - Objektif - Skop 4. Kajian Kepustakaan 5. Metodologi (Bahan dan Kaedah) 6. Hasil Kajian, Keputusan dan Perbincangan 7. Kesimpulan 8. Rujukan 9. Lampiran 21
  • 22. Abstract• Summary highlight of your own research.• Cover briefly your introduction, objective, methodology and conclusion.• Include implication.• Passive verbs and past tenses.• The third person (he, she, they) should not be used.• No abbreviations.• Standard nomenclature.• No citations. 22
  • 23. Introduction• Develop an outline (`chapterisation`).• Try to make a link for each paragraph. • Narrow down your idea. • Remember the citation. 23
  • 24. Objective(s)• The goals you set out to attain your project.• Inform a reader of what you want to achieve through your project.• Clearly and specifically.Objectives should be listed under two headings:1. Main objectives2. Subobjectives 24
  • 25. A Script for Writing Qualitative Objective(s)The purpose of this (strategy of inquiry, such as ethnography, case study, orother type) study is (was? will be?) to (understand? describe? develop?discover?) the (central phenomenon being studied) for (the participants, suchas the individual, groups, organization) at (research site). At this stage in theresearch, the (central phenomenon being studied) will be generally definedas (provide a general definition). 25
  • 26. A Script for Writing Quantitative Objective(s)The purpose of this (experiment? survey?) study is (was? will be?) to testthe theory of (theory name) that (compares? relates?) the (independentvariable) to (dependent variable), controlling for (control variables) for(participants) at (the research site). The independent variable(s) will bedefined as (provide a definition). The dependent variable(s) will be definedas (provide a definition), and the control and intervening variable(s) will bedefined as (provide a definition). 26
  • 27. Literature Review• Integral part of the research process and make valuable contribution to almost every operational step.• Time consuming• Daunting• Frustrating• Rewarding 27
  • 28. Literature Review (2) •Functions: a. It provides a theoretical background to your study. b. It helps you to establish the links between what you are proposing to examine and what has already been studied. c. It enable you to show how your findings have contributed to the existing body of knowledge in your profession. It helps you to integrate you research findings into the existing body of knowledge. 28
  • 29. Literature Review (3) Help in four ways: 1.Bring clarity and focus to your research problem. 2.Improving your research methodology. 3.Broadening your knowledge base in your research area. 4.Enabling you to contextualize your findings. 29
  • 30. How to review the literature? (4) 1. Searching the existing literatures in your area of study. 2. Define your idea in as general terms as possible by using general sources. 3. Search through the secondary sources. 4. Search through the primary sources. 5. Organize your notes. 30
  • 31. Sources (5) 1. Books 2. Journals 3. Internet 31
  • 32. Sources (6)Journals 32
  • 33. Internet resources (7)Online journal
  • 34. Internet resources (8)Web Search EngineOthers
  • 35. Literature Review (Previous studies) Table 1-2 The previous studies on the pyrolysis of bromine containing plasticsSamples Types of brominated flame retardants Techniques Results ReferencesABS Decabromobiphenyl and tetrabromobisphenol-A Macro pyrolysis 10 ppb of Br dibenzofuran at 400 oC in R. Luijk and H. A. J. nitrogen atmosphere Govers (1992) [49]Printed circuit board Unknown Fixed bed reactor 72.3% of Br in product gas and mainly as Y. C. Chien, et al. wastes HBr and bromobenzene (2000) [53]ABS Epoxy type flame retardant Pyrolysis at 450 oC with PP FeC removed bromine compounds in oil. T. Bhaskar et al. and ironoxide-carbon (2002) [54] composite catalystElectronic scrap Epoxy resin and brominated polystyrene Pyrolysis GC-MS at 450 oC 1.4-5.2% Br-methane, 0.8-5% Br- M. Blaszó, et al. and 600 oC phenols, 0.1-1.6 Br2-phenols. 29- (2002) [55] 70 (peak area/mass sample) of Br2 styrene, 21-106 (peak area/sample mass) of Br3 styrene.ABS Epoxy type flame retardant Pyrolysis at 450 oC 7120 ppm and 6150 ppm in oil T. Bhaskar, et al. (2003) [56]ABS Epoxy type flame retardant Pyrolysis at 450 oC with PE, 1000-4000 ppm bromine in oil M. Brebu, et al. (2004) PP, PS, PVC and/or [21] PETHIPS DDO-Sb(5) Pyrolysis with calcium 1410 ppm decreased to 490 and 190 ppm T. Bhaskar et al. hydroxide-carbon (or 7 mg to 3 mg and 1 mg) (2006) [57] composite sorbent with PE, PP, PS, PVDC and PETHIPS DDO-Sb(5), DDO-Sb(0), DDE-Sb(5) Pyrolysis with ammonia More than 90 wt% of initial bromine in M. Brebu et al. (2007) And DDE-Sb(0) samples could be recovered. [45] 35
  • 36. Previous studiesThe presence of brominated compounds in the liquid products of pyrolysis ishighly undesirable. Some efforts to debromination of plastics have been doneby Fe-C catalyst [54] and Ca-C sorbent [57] and atmosphere modification withammonia [45].There are a lot of investigations of diantimony trioxide in brominated flameretardants [44-51] but no report exist on synergistic effect of diantimony trioxidein bromine containing high impact polystyrene with presence of polyolefinssuch as PE, PP and PS. 36
  • 37. Methodology• Procedures: Clear and concise.• Equipment/Tools: Specification, manufacturer series, capacity and software.• Materials: Specify all materials involved in your research, amount (if necessary with the manufacturer series). 37
  • 38. Example of Experimental setup Temperature program 450 0C 5 0C/min Materials : - Polycarbonate (PC) - CD and DVD disks RT- Vegetable cooking oil (VCO) Residue: XRD Gas: GC-TCD Liquid: GC-FID,GC-AED, GC-MSD 38
  • 39. Example of design process Product Project Product Conceptual ProductDiscovery Planning Definition Design Development Product Support 39
  • 40. Results and DiscussionMethods of communicating and displaying analyzeddata:1. Text2. Tables3. Graphs4. Statistical measures• Never fabricate data.• Validity and reliability of data.• Consistent (uniform) – Units: measurements; numbering: section/sub- sections; referencing.• All Figures & Tables must be referred to as close as possible in Text. 40
  • 41. Discussion (Text) • Should be thematic; • follow a logical progression of thought; in order to your methodology. • written around various themes of your report; • findings should be integrated into the literature citing references – using an acceptable system of citation; • layout should be attractive and please to the eye. 41
  • 42. Discussion (Tables) Tables present large amounts of detailed information in a small space*. A table has five parts: Table X.Y: Attitudes towards uranium mining by ageAttitude towards Age of respondent Totaluranium mining < 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+StronglyfavourableFavourableUncertainUnfavourableStronglyunfavourableTotalSource: ……Hypothetical data Supplementary notes 42 The Chicago Manual of Style (1993:21) in Ranjit Kumar, 2011.
  • 43. Graph 10Volume of liquid product , mL 8 6 4 DVD VCO 2 DVD/VCO exp DVD/VCO average 0 60 120 180 240 300 Degradation time , min Figure X.Y. Cumulative volume of liquid product from DVD 43
  • 44. Statistical measures • Use of statistical measures is dependent upon the type of data collected, your knowledge of statistics, the purpose of communicating the findings, and the knowledge base in statistics of your readership. 44
  • 45. Discussion (Figures) - Clear, following the sequencing. - Related to text (proper location). 45
  • 46. Ethical Issue• Personal disclosure.• Authenticity.• Credibility. 46
  • 47. References Consistent (uniform). Follow the standard. For internet sources, do not forget to put retrieve date.Four referencing system according to Butcher*:1. The short-title system;2. The author-date system;3. The reference by number system;4. The author-number system.* Butcher in Ranjit Kumar, 2011 47
  • 48. Tips to use grammatical tenses*Present tense when referring to previously published work.Past tense when referring to your present results (Normally, we go back & forthbetween the Present & Past tenses).ABSTRACTPast tense because you described what you did & what you found.INTRODUCTION/DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONPresent tense if you refer to previously published work.RESULTSPast tense if refer to Tabs & Figs (Ideas should be presented in Present tense).*Kamaruzaman Jusoff, 2012 48
  • 49. References: 1.Mohd Noor, M. Jailani. , Mohd Nopiah, Z. and Mohd Ihsan. A. K. A., 2004, Kaedah Penyelidikan Kejuruteraan, Malaysia, Thomson. 2.Kumar, R., 2011, Research Methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners, Singapore, Sage. 3.Creswell, J. W., Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (3rd edn), 2009, USA, Sage. 4.Jusoff, K., High Impact/IF Journal Writing Workshop: Made Easy. AKEPT-KPT/UTHM Writing High Impact Journal Workshop, 26-27 September 2012, Johor, Malaysia. 5.Khalid, M. B., Kursus Kaedah Penyelidikan UTM, 26 March 2003, UTM, Malaysia. 49
  • 50. 50
  • 51. Problem statementObjective 51
  • 52. 52
  • 53. Thank you 53
  • 54. Types of tables test 54
  • 55. Jadual Jadual X.X: Peratus Ketumpatan,  untuk sampel No. Sampel  Peratus  (%) 55
  • 56. Research1. Research: a way of thinking2. Research process3. Reviewing literature4. Formulating research problem5. Identifying variable6. Constructing hypothesis7. Writing a research report 56

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