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Link between diabetes and Heart disease
 

Link between diabetes and Heart disease

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this ppt presents what are the link between diabetes and heart disease

this ppt presents what are the link between diabetes and heart disease

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    Link between diabetes and Heart disease Link between diabetes and Heart disease Presentation Transcript

    •  
    •  
    • Diabetes-CVD Facts
      • More than 65% of all deaths in people with diabetes are caused by cardiovascular disease.
      • Heart attacks occur at an earlier age in people with diabetes and often result in premature death.
      3
    • Diabetes-CVD Facts
      • Up to 60% of adults with diabetes have high blood pressure.
      • Nearly all adults with diabetes have one or more cholesterol problems, such as:
        • high triglycerides
        • low HDL (“good”) cholesterol
        • high LDL (“bad”) cholesterol
      4
    • What is Diabetes ?
      • Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism
      • After digestion, glucose enters the blood stream
      • Then Glucose goes to cell through out the body where it Is used for energy
      • However, a hormone called insulin must be present to allow glucose to entre the cells
      • Insulin is produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach
    • Continue…
      • In people who do not have diabetes, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells
      • However, diabetes develops when the pancreas does not make enough insulin , or the cells in muscle,liver,and fats do not use insulin properly, or both.
    •  
    • Continue…
      • As a result, the amount of glucose in the blood increases while the cells are starved of energy…………..
    • Complications
    • Complications
      • Over time, high blood glucose levels damage nerves and blood vessels , leading to complications such as heart disease and stroke, the leading causes of death among people with diabetes
      • Uncontrolled diabetes can eventually lead to other health problems as well, such as vision loss , kidney failure
    • What is pre-diabetes ?
      • Pre-diabetes is a condition in which blood glucose level are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes.
      • Also called impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance
      • Many people with pre-diabetes develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years
      • With modest weight loss and moderate physical activity , people with pre-diabetes can delay or prevent type 2 diabetes and CHD
      • What is the connection
      • between
      • diabetes, heart disease and stroke ?
    • Connection b/n diabetes and CHD
      • If you have a diabetes, you are at least twice as likely as someone who does not have diabetes to have heart disease or a stroke
      • People with diabetes also tend to develop heart disease or stroke at an earlier age than other people
      • If you are middle aged and have type 2 diabetes, some studies suggest that your chance of having a heart attack is as high as someone without diabetes who has already had one heart attack
    • Connection continue…
      • Women who have not gone through menopause usually have less risk of heart disease than men of the same age.
      • But women of all ages with diabetes have an increase risk of heart disease because diabetes cancels out the protective effects of being a women in her child-bearing years.
    • Connection continue...
      • People with diabetes who have already had one heart attack run an even greater risk of having a second one
      • Heart attacks in people with diabetes are more serious and more likely to result in death .
    • Connection continue…
      • High blood glucose levels over time can lead to increase deposits of fatty materials on the insides of the blood vessel walls.
      • These deposits may affect blood flow, increasing the chance of clogging and hardening of blood vessels(atherosclerosis).
    • Connection continue…
    • Heart disease and stroke
      • What are the risk factors
      • For
      • Heart disease and Stroke
      • in
      • people with diabetes ?
    • Risk factors in diabetes
      • Diabetes itself is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke
      • Many people with diabetes have other conditions that increase their chances of developing heart disease and stroke
      • This conditions are called ‘’ Risk factors’’ .
    • Risk Factors in diabetes patients
      • Having a family history of heart disease
      • Having central obesity
      • Having abnormal blood fat (cholesterol) levels
      • Having high blood pressure
      • Smoking
      • 1
      • Family History
    • 1. Having Family history
      • If one or more members of your family had a heart attack at an early age (before age 55 for men or 65 for women), you may be at increased risk
      • You can’t change whether heart disease runs in your family, but you can take steps to control the other risk factors
      • 2
      • Central obesity
    • 2. Having central obesity
      • Central obesity means carrying extra weight around the waist, as opposed to the hips
      • A waist measurement of more than 40 inches for Gentle men and more than 35 inches for women means you have central obesity
    •  
    •  
    • Central obesity continue…
      • Risk of heart disease is higher because abdominal fat increase the production of LDL (bad) cholesterol , the type of blood fat that can be deposited on the inside of blood vessel walls
    • Causes of central obesity
      • 3
      • Abnormal blood fat
      • (cholesterol) levels
    • 3. Abnormal blood fat levels
      • LDL cholesterol can build up inside your blood vessels, leading to narrowing and hardening of your arteries
      • Triglycerides are another type of blood fat that can raise your risk of heart disease when the level are high
      • HDL (good) cholesterol removes deposits from inside your blood vessels and takes them to the liver for removal
      • Low level of HDL increase your risk factors of heart disease
    • Plasma cholesterol levels
    •  
      • 4
      • Having high blood pressure
    • 4. Having high blood pressure
      • If you have high blood pressure, also called hypertension, your heart must work harder to pump blood
      • High blood pressure can strain the heart, damage blood vessels , and increase your risk of heart attack, stroke , eye problems and kidney problems
    • Complications of hypertension
    • Treatment of HPN
      • Anti hypertensive drugs
      • And…………….. On the following slide
    •  
      • 5
      • Smoking
    • 5. Smoking
      • Smoking doubles your risk of getting heart disease
      • Stopping smoking is especially important for people with diabetes because both smoking and diabetes narrow blood vessels
      • Smoking also increase the risk of other long-term complications, such as eye problems
      • What is Metabolic syndrome
      • and
      • How is it linked
      • to
      • Heart disease ?
    • Metabolic syndrome
      • Metabolic syndrome is a grouping of traits and medical conditions that puts people at risk for both heart disease and type 2 diabetes
      • It is defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program as having any three of the following five traits and medical conditions :
      • Conditions are on following slide
    •  
    •  
      • What can you do to prevent or delay
      • Heart disease and stroke ?
    • 1. Heart healthy diet
      • Make sure that your diet is ‘’heart healthy’’
      • - Include at least 14 grams of fibers daily for every 1,000 calories consumed
      • - Cut down on saturated fat
      • - Keep your cholesterol in your diet to less than 300 mg a day
      • - Keep the amount of Trans fat in your diet minimum
    • 2. Physical activity
      • 2. Make physical activity part of your routine
      • - Aim for at least 30 min of exercise most days of the week
      • - Think of ways to increase physical activity, such as taking the stairs instead of elevator .
      • 3. Reach and maintain a healthy body weight
      • - If you are over weight, try to be physically active for at least 1 hour a day
      • - Aim for a loss of no more than 1 to 2 pounds a week
      • If you smoke, quit
      • Ask your Doctor(if you are not) whether you should take aspirin
      • Get prompt treatment for transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)
      • - Early treatment for TIAs may help prevent or delay a future stroke
      • - Signs of a TIAs are ,
      • - Sudden weakness - Confusion
      • - Blindness in one or both eyes - Double vision
      • - Difficulty speaking - Severe headache
      • How will you know whether your
      • diabetes treatment
      • is
      • working ?
    • The Good News…
      • By knowing the ABCs in diabetes, people with diabetes can reduce their risk for heart disease and stroke.
        • A stands for A 1C
        • B stands for B lood pressure
        • C stands for C holesterol
      5
    • Ask About Your A1C
      • A1C measures average blood glucose over the last three months.
      • Get your A1C checked at least twice a year.
      A1C Goal = less than 7% 6
    • Key Steps for Lowering A1C
      • Eat the right foods.
      • Get daily physical activity.
      • Test blood glucose regularly.
      • Take medications as prescribed.
      7
    • Blood glucose targets
      • Before meals 90 to 130 mg/dL
      • 1 to 2 hour after the Less than 180 mg/dL
      • start of the meal
    • Beware of Your Blood Pressure
      • High blood pressure raises your risk for heart attack, stroke, eye problems and kidney disease.
      • Get your blood pressure checked at every visit.
      • Target BP = less than 130/80
      8
    • Key Steps for Lowering Blood Pressure
      • Eat more fruits and vegetables!
      • Reduce the amount of salt in diet.
      • Lose weight.
      • Lower alcohol intake.
      • Quit smoking.
      • Take blood pressure pills.
        • many people require more than one pill
      9
    • Check Your Cholesterol
      • Several kinds of blood fats:
        • LDL (“bad”) cholesterol - can narrow or block blood vessels
        • HDL (“good”) cholesterol - helps remove cholesterol deposits
        • Triglycerides - can raise your risk for heart attacks/stroke
      10
    • ADA Goals for Cholesterol Target LDL = less than 100 Target HDL = above 40 (men) above 50 (women) Target triglycerides = less than 150 11
    • Key Steps for Controlling Your Cholesterol
      • Eat less saturated fat
      • Foods high in saturated fat: fatty meats, high-fat dairy products, tropical oils
      • Eat foods high in fiber
      • Examples: oatmeal, beans, peas,
      • citrus fruits
      • Take cholesterol-lowering medication
      • Exercise regularly
      12
      • What type of heart and blood vessel
      • Disease occur in
      • The people with diabetes ?
    • Heart & blood vessel disease in diabetes
      • Two major type of cardiovascular disease are common in people with diabetes
      • Coronary artery disease (CAD)
      • Cerebral vascular disease
      • People with diabetes are also at risk for heart failure
      • Narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels in the legs , a condition called (PAD) also occurs in people with diabetes
      • Coronary Artery Disease
    • Coronary Artery Disease
      • CAD also called ischemic heart disease, is caused by hardening or thickening of the walls of blood vessels that go to the heart
      • If the blood vessels to the heart become narrowed or blocked by fatty deposits, the blood supply is reduced or cut off, resulting in the heart attack
      • Cerebral Vascular Disease
    • Cerebral Vascular Disease
      • Cerebral vascular disease affects blood flow to the brain, leading to strokes and TIAs.
      • It is caused by narrowing, blocking, or hardening of the blood vessels that go to the brain or by high blood pressure
      • Stroke
    • Stroke
      • A stroke result when the blood supply to the brain is suddenly cut off , which can occur when a blood vessel in the brain or neck is blocked or bursts
      • Brain cells are then deprived of oxygen and die
      • A stroke can result in problem with speech or vision or can cause weakness or paralysis and coma.
    • Stroke continue…
      • People with diabetes are at increase risk for strokes caused by blood clots
      • A stroke may also be caused by bleeding blood vessel in the brain Called an aneurysm, a break in a vessel can occur as a result of high blood pressure
      • Transient ischemic attacks
    • Transient ischemic attacks(TIAs)
      • TIAs are caused by a temporary blockage of a blood vessel to the brain
      • This blockage lead to a brief, sudden change in brain function , such as temporary numbness or weakness on one side of the body
      • However, most symptoms disappear quickly and permanent damage is unlikely
      • If symptoms do not resolve in a few minutes, rather than a TIAs, the event could be a stroke
      • TIAs means that a person is at risk for a stroke sometimes in future.
      • Heart failure
    • Heart failure
      • Heart failure is a chronic condition in which the heart can not pump blood properly – it does not mean that heart suddenly stop working
      • Heart failure develops over a period of years, and symptoms can get worse over time
      • People with diabetes have at least twice the risk of heart failure as other people
    • Heart failure continue…
      • One type of heart failure is congestive heart failure , in which fluid builds up inside body tissue
      • If the buildup is in the lungs, breathing becomes difficult
      • Blockage of the blood vessels and high blood glucose levels also can damage heart muscle and cause irregular heart beats
    • Heart failure continue…
      • People with damage to heart muscle, a condition called cardiomyopathy , may have no symptoms in the early stages, but later they may experience
      • - Weakness - Fatigue
      • - Shortness of breath - Swelling of the legs and feet
      • - Severe cough
      • diabetes also interfere with pain signals normally carried by the nerves
      • That is why a person with diabetes may not experience the typical warning signs of a heart attack. (Silent killer)
      • Peripheral Arterial Disease
    • Peripheral Arterial Disease
      • Common in people with diabetes
      • With this condition, the blood vessel in the legs are narrowed or blocked by fatty deposits, decreasing blood flow to the legs and feet
      • PAD increase the chances of a heart attack or stroke occurring
      • Some times people with PAD develop pain in the calf or other parts of the legs when walking , which is relieved by resting for few minutes
      • How will I know
      • whether
      • I have heart disease ?
    • Signs & symptoms of heart attack
      • Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
      • Pain or discomfort in your arms, back, jaw, neck, or stomach
      • Shortness of breathing
      • Sweating
      • Nausea
      • Light-headedness
    • Symptoms continue…
      • Symptoms may come and go
      • However, in some people, particularly those with diabetes, symptoms may be mild or absent due to nerve damage caused by diabetes
      • Women may not have chest pain but more likely to have SOB, nausea, or back and jaw pain
      • If you have symptoms like that call 911 right away
      • Because treatment is most effective if given within an hour of heart attack, if delay lead permanent damage of heart
      • What are the treatment options
      • For
      • Heart disease
    • Treatment for heart disease
      • Treatment for heart disease includes meal planning to ensure a heart-healthy diet and physical activity
      • In addition, you may need medications to treat heart damage or to lower your blood glucose, BP, and cholesterol
      • You also may need surgery or some other medical procedure
      • How will I know
      • Whether
      • I have had a stroke ?
    • Signs & symptoms of stroke
      • Sudden weakness or numbness of your face, arm, or leg on one side of your body
      • Sudden confusion, trouble talking, or trouble walking
      • Sudden trouble seeing out of one or both eyes or sudden double vision
      • Sudden severe headache
      • If you have any of these symptoms
      • call 911 right away
      • What are the treatment options
      • For
      • Stroke
    • Treatment for stroke
      • At the first sign of a stroke, you should get medical care right away
      • If blood vessels to your brain are blocked by blood clots, ‘’clot-busting’’ drugs is useful
      • The drug must be given soon after a stroke to be effective
      • Subsequent treatment for stroke includes medications and physical therapy , as well as surgery to repair the damage
      • Meal planning and physical activity may be part of your ongoing care
      • In addition, you may need medications to lower your blood glucose , blood pressure , and cholesterol and to prevent blood clots
    • Key Points Review
      • People with diabetes are at a very high risk for heart attack and stroke.
      • More than 2 out of 3 of people with diabetes die of heart disease or stroke.
      • Diabetes is more than managing blood glucose. It’s managing blood glucose and blood pressure and cholesterol.
      • Know the ABCs of Diabetes.
      • More treatments are available than ever before. Talk to your healthcare provider and learn what you can do to manage your ABCs.
      17
    • General Tips
      • Take steps to lower your risk of D-CVD complications:
        • A1C < 7.
        • Blood pressure < 130/80.
        • Cholesterol (LDL) < 100.
        • Cholesterol (HDL) > 40 (men) and > 50 (women).
        • Triglycerides < 150.
        • Get help to quit smoking.
        • Be active.
        • Make healthy food choices.
        • Talk to your doctor about medication .
      18
    • For More Information
      • Call: 1-800-DIABETES
      • Visit: www.diabetes.org/MakeTheLink
      • Email: [email_address]
      20
    •