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Global Renewable Energy Perspectives


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  • REN21 was conceived in Bonn Germany at the Renewables2004 conference. The Political Declaration that came out of theRenewables 2004 conference called for a “global policy network” to “promote a comprehensive global exchange oflessons, and experiences in development and application of renewables” and to thereby facilitate a rapid global transition to renewables.To promote RE policies by providing objective policy guidance, high quality information, and a platform for exchange among relevant actorsMulti-stakeholder group: informal network; anyone can participate. This is very much reflected in the products and activities of REN21, incl. GSR.REN21 has a Steering Committee of about 40 experts and individuals that represent the various stakeholder groups, including governments, NGOs and relevant industry associations.The Bureau makes decisions between meetings of the Steering Committee.The Secretariat supports research and production of REN21 products and coordinates outreach.
  • The GSR first published 2005 (produced every year since except for one)holds a mirror to the current global RE situation and the key trends. In provide NO analysis, potentials or forecasting – but actual developments and trends.In this way, the aim is to contribute to understanding of current situation of RE, especially as the RE landscape changes so quickly, where the perception of the status of RE can often lag years behind the reality.Production of report = is a collaborative effort with input from many individuals:Several authors>150 researchers and reviewers from around world, including technology and regional contributorsMajor role of REN21 support team in research and production
  • Our most recent GSR showed that (latest data available) RE supplied an estimated 17% of global final energy consumption. Most of this comes from traditional biomass, followed by hydropower, but the share of other renewables has increased since 2005.In 2012, while RE faced challenges related to the economic crisis, low ng prices and policy instability , RE continued to grow strongly in all end-use sectors.The United Nations General Assembly declared 2012 asthe International Year of Sustainable Energy for All. And UNSecretary-General Ban Ki-moon has supported the Yearwith his new global initiative, Sustainable Energy for All, which calls to promote action around three inter-linked and complimentary objectives to be reached by 2030: Ensure universal access to modern energy services; Double the rate of improvement in energy efficiency;Double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix.  
  • Despite the difficult economic times, Europeinstalled more renewable energy capacity2011 than ever before, and, for the fourth year running,renewables accounted for more than half of all newlyinstalled electric capacity in the region—more than 71% of total additionsIn 2011, renewables provided 12.2% of Germany’s final energy consumption, 20% of electricity consumption (up from 11.6% in 2006), 10.4% of heating demand (up from 6.2%),In Germany, for example, Fukushima hasled to a commitment to rapid exit from nuclear energyuse by 2022 and complete reform of the nation's energysector. The “Energiewende” (Energy Transition), whichfocuses on energy efficiency and renewable energy sources,together with massive energy infrastructure investment, is Germany’s biggest infrastructure modernization projectwith beacon-like character for many other countriesaround the world.
  • As in previous years, about half of thenew electricity capacity installed worldwide was renewablebased. In the power sector, capacity reached an estimated 1360 GW in 2011, up about 8% relative to 2010.RE accounted for about 25% of total global power capacity (with hydro having largest share)And 20% of electricity production. Non hydro RE was 390 GW -- a 24% capacity increase over 2010New RE capacity added in 2011about 1/2 of all new electric capacity added worldwide in 2010: Wind accounted for the largest share of new RE capacity (40), and PV (40) moved ahead of hydro (25)
  • The heating and cooling sector is where there is a lot ofuntapped potential for renewable energy deployment. We already seeheat from biomass, solar, and geothermal sources Becoming a big share of energy derived from renewables, and the sector is slowly evolving as countries (particularly in the European Union) are starting to enact supporting policies and to track the share of heat derived from RE (%%)Heating (and cooling) sector trends include an increase in system size, expanding use of combined heat and power (CHP), the feeding of renewable heating and cooling into district network . Most solar thermal is used for water heating, but solar space heating and cooling are gaining ground, particularly in Europe. Heating capacity increased by an estimated 27% in 2011 to reach approximately 232 GWth, excluding unglazed swimming pool heating. China again led the world for solar thermal installations, with Europe a distant second. The year 2011 was difficult for parts of the solar thermal industry due to the economic situationin northern Mediterranean countries and the general negative outlook across much of Europe. China remained dominant in the global solar heating industry, a position that it has held for several years, and export of Chinese
  • During 2011, ethanol production remained stable or declined slightly for the first time in more than a decade, but biodiesel production continuedto rise globally. Several airlines began to operate commercial flights using various biofuels blends, and interest in advanced biofuels continued to increase, although production levels remain relatively low. Limited but growing quantities of gaseous biofuels (mainly bio-methane) are fuelling trains,
  • An estimated 25 GW of new capacity came on line in 2011, increasing capacity by 3% and continues to generate more electricity than any otherrenewable resource, with an estimated 3,400 TWhAsia was the most active region for new projects, while more mature markets focused on retrofits of existing facilities for improved output and efficiency. Hydropower is increasingly providing balancing services, including through expansion of pumped storage capacity, in part to accommodate the increased use of variable solar and wind resources. South Africa is expected to have 1332MW of pumped storage facility by 2013-2014
  • Total global capacity increased by 74% with addition of about 30 GW.Vast majority grid-connected (versus almost all off-grid in 2005 according to GSR 2005)Solar PVgrew the fastest during the period from end-2006 through 2011, with (operating) capacity increasing by an average of 58% annually, followed by concentrating solar thermal power (CSP), which increased almost 37% annually over this period from a small base (1760 Mw global capacity)Spain accounted for the vast majority of capacity additions, while several developing countries launched their first CSP plants. Parabolic trough plants continued to dominatethe market, but new central receiver and Fresnel plants were commissioned during 2011 and others were under construction. Although CSP faced challenges associated with rapidly falling PV prices and the Arab Spring, which slowed development in the Middle East and North Africa region, significant capacity was under construction by year’s endFor the 1st time, EU added more PV than any other technology (led by italy and germany). While Europe (followed by Japan and US) continues to lead the market, manufacture of PV cells continued shift to Asia, which is home to 10 of the top 15 producers (and most of these in China). The trend towards very large-scale ground-mounted systems continued,while rooftop and small-scale systems continued to play an important role. Although 2011 was a good year for consumers and installers, manufacturers struggled to make profits or even survive amidst excess inventory and falling prices, declining government support, slower market growth for much of the year, and significant industry consolidation. Cost reductions continued with module prices falling a further 14% in 2010 (after a reported drop of as much as 38% in 2009)
  • More wind power capacity was added in 2011 than any other RET (including hydro) (20% increase - )40GW installed for global total approaching 238 GW.As in 2010, more new capacity was added in developing countries and emerging markets than in OECD countries. China accounted for just under half of the world market 44% of theglobal market (adding 17.6 GW in 2011 /slightly less capacity than it did in2010/19GW) compares with 4% in 2005. Followed by the United States and India; Germany remained the largest market in Europe Although its market share remained relatively small, the offshore wind sector continued to expand, with the use of larger turbines and movement into deeper water, farther from shore. The trend towards increasing the size of individual wind projects and larger wind turbines continued; at the same time, the use of small-scale turbines is increasing, and interest in community wind power.
  • Data gathering is challenging due to diverse feedstock, conversion systems (type and scale)…Modern biomass use for heating in 2008 (most recent global data) was ~ 11,600 PJ, and estimated power capacity came to about 62 GW at end-2010.Markets expanding steadily in EU, China (power capacity +25% in 2010 to 4 GW), and in India.Notable trends include: significant growth in production and use of pellets for heat and power (exports from US and Canada to Europe doubled between 2008 and 2010); increase in use of biomethane (purified biogas) in Europe - injected into natural gas grid and used mainly in gas-fired CHP plants. Germany which didn’t begin development until 2006 is now leader. Increase in use of small-scale biogas plants, especially in India and China - an estimated 50 million Chinese households use biogas for cooking. Large companies, including utilities, are investing in biomass plantations across Africa
  • Geothermal energy provided an estimated 205 TWh (736 PJ) in 2011 1/3rd electricity –and 2/3rd heat At least 78 countries used direct geothermal energy.Most of the growth in direct use was associated with ground-source heat pumps (GHP), which can provide heating and cooling and have experiencedgrowth rates averaging 20% annually. Geothermal electricity saw only modest expansion in 2011, but the rate of deployment is expected to accelerate with projectsunder development in traditional markets and the move into east africa and elsewhere
  • Due to growing markets for RE, most industries experienced continued growth in manufacturing of equipment, as well as in sales and installations.Cost reductions contributed to growth in a number of sectors,(especially PV, but also wind turbines and biofuel processing technologies).At the same time, changing policy landscapes in some countries led to uncertainty for manufacturers and investors who were concerned about when and how policies might change and, in some cases, the potential for retroactive revisions. (e.g., reduction in FITs for solar PV, particularly changes in Spain.)Trends seen in 2010 include:Increasing internationalization of industries (as RET produced and installed in more countries); so they are no longer in a handful of co. the diversity helps boost confidence that RE is less susceptible to policy and market dislocations in any one country. As policies spread so does the geography of RE use is also changingConsolidation – most notably in the biomass and biofuel sectors – as traditional energy companies continued to move into RE;Development of vertically integrated supply chains; andExpansion by manufacturers into project development.On the jobs front, it’s estimated that jobs in RE industries exceeded 5 million globally in 2010, including jobs in manufacturing as well as installations, operations, maintenance, as well as biofuels feedstocks.
  • As capacity and production have increased, total global investment in RE has risen several fold since 2004 (6 fold) – to record $257 billion in 2011 (all BNEF data) up 17% from 2010. Including hydropower projects of over 50 megawatts, net investment in RE power capacity exceeded estimated netinvestment in fossil fuel power capacity in 2011 USD by 40 billion. For the first time Solar blew past wind, followed by
  • Total investment in new capacity of RE, not including large hydro = $203 billion. This includes:Utility-scale asset finance (large wind farms, solar parks, biofuel plants) – more than 1/2 of total;DG (mostly rooftop solar PV);hot water/heating capacity.Of these, wind accounted for the largest share of investment, followed by PV.
  • South Africa replaced its FiT system with a competitive bidding system in 2011The municipality of Ekurhuleni, SA launched a solar hot water systems for low cost homes programme in 2011
  • decentralised off-grid renewable electricity is less expensive than extending the power grid. At the same time, developing countries have begun deploying more and more grid-connected renewable capacity, which is in turn expanding markets and further reducing prices, potentially improving the outlook
  • What is our current thinking about the future of renewable energy?• What is the range of credible possibilities for renewable energy futures?• Tool for education and discussion – an objective framework for thinking about the future ofrenewables, not a specific vision or position• Four primary forms of source material have been employed:o Published long‐term scenarios and roadmapso Interviews with experts from around the world, including industry leaders and visionarieso Government policy targets, including regional, national, state/provincial, municipalo Long‐term action plans by local (city) governments
  • Local governments made increasing use of their authority to regulate; make expenditure and procurement decisions; provide for and ease the financing of renewable energy projects; and influence advocacy and information sharing to integrate RE in their diff. sectorsIn all cases, the mayor’s support was critical for the cities to pursue renewable energy. In some cities the mayor initiated RE policies, in others he/she has been supportive.The city has to allocate dedicated resources to enable the municipal departments to integrate renewable energy into the city’s master plan. populated
  • -Amsterdam, for example, opened new areas for development, with project selection based on energy saving and sustainability criteria, as the city pursued efforts to ensure all new developments will be “energy neutral” from 2015 onwards.Oregon /Portland-AustinVancouver is also a front-runner in the new trend towards “living” buildings– triple net zero - waste, water and energy – structures (ILBC_? Numerous cities in the US are also piloting triple net-zero buildings. The city of Portland which has also set the goal to achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions in all new buildings and homes by 2030, is currently constructing a seven-story 130 000 square-feet building which will meet all its energy needs through solar PV, geothermal heat and bifacial panels. Similarly, Seattle is running a pilot to develop 12 unique “living building” in its city over the next three years and to assess thereafter the adoption of the living building standard as the baseline for their city development.
  • Calgary (run on windenergy)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Global Renewable Energy Policy Perspectives Key Facts and Figures from the REN21 Renewables Global Status Report 2012 and the Global Futures Report 2013 Parliamentary Hearing: 100% RE in European Regions 6 October 2012, Thy, Denmark Lily Riahi Policy Advisor
    • 2. About REN21 Multi-stakeholder Policy Network grouping:  National governments: Brazil, Germany, Denmark, UK, Spain, Norway, India, UAE, US, Uganda, Morocc o, etc.  International organisations: EC, IEA, IRENA, UNEP, UNIDO, UNDP, ADB, GEF, etc  Industry associations: RENAlliance (WWEA, WBA, IGA, ISES, IHA), ARE, GWEC, EREC, etc  Science & Academia: SANEDI, IIASA, TERI, etc.  NGOs: WWF, Greenpeace, ICLEI, CURES, WRI, etc. Click to edit Master subtitle style Click to edit Master title style Objective: enable a rapid global transition to RE through:  objective policy guidance  high quality information  exchange among relevant actors 12/22/2013 2
    • 3. REN21 Renewables Global Status Report  Launched on June 11, 2012 along with UNEP’s Global trends in RE investment  Team of over 400 Contributors, researchers & reviewers worldwide  Lead author (Janet Sawin) & Chapter authors  Regional Contributors , Technology contributors & Rural energy contributors Click to edit Master title style  REN21 Secretariat research support team The report features:  Global Market Overview, Investment Flows, Industry Trends, Click to edit Master subtitle style Policy Landscape, Rural Renewable Energy  All renewable energy technologies  Sectors: power, heating/cooling, transport  New elements in 2012:  Rural renewable energy  Renewable energy & energy efficiency 12/22/2013 3
    • 4. Renewable Energy in the World Click to edit Master title style Click to 17% of global final energy consumption edit Master subtitle style  RE supplied an estimated  UN Secretary General’s goal : doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030  Renewable energy continued to grow strongly despite policy uncertainty in some countries, the geography of renewables is expanding as prices fall and policies spread 12/22/2013 4
    • 5. Top 5 in 2012  Germany continues to lead in Europe and to be in the forefront globally, remaining among the top users of many renewable technologies for power, heating, and transport.  China ended 2011 with more renewable power capacity than any other country, with an estimated 282 GW; one-quarter of this total (70 GW) was nonhydro.
    • 6. Global Market Overview – Power Markets  Renewables accounted for nearly half of the estimated 208GW of new electric capacity installed in 2011  Renewable title style electric capacity Click to edit Master reached powerGW (+8%) worldwide 1,360 in 2011 Click to edit  Renewable energy comprised more than subtitle power Master 25% of globalstyle generation capacity  20.3% of global electricity was produced from renewable energy 12/22/2013 6
    • 7. Global Market Overview – Heating & Cooling  Transition towards the use of larger systems, increasing use of CHP and district schemes. Clicktoto solar Master title style edit  Growing trend use resources to generate process heat for industry. Click to  Solar hot water used in over 200 million households and commercial buildings. edit Master subtitle style  Space Heating 12/22/2013 7
    • 8. Global Market Overview – Transport  RE used in form of electricity, hydrogen, biogas, liquid biofuels  Liquid biofuels provided 3% of global road transport fuel in 2011  Electric transport is being tied directly with renewable energy through policy directives in many countries  Johannesburg, South Africa introduced 25 ethanol buses into its public transportation fleet during 2011
    • 9. Hydropower  25GW of new hydropower was added in 2011, increasing capacity by nearly 3%, bringing installed capacity to 970GW  Globally hydropower generated Click to edit Master title style 3,400TWh of electricity in 2011. China alone produced 663TWh followed by Brazil (450TWh) Key role in balancing Click to edit Master subtitle styleservices  In late 2011, Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanzania announced plans to build a 90MW hydropower plant, with financing expected from the World Bank and AfDB 12/22/2013 9
    • 10. Solar Power  30GW of new solar PV capacity came into being in 2011, 80GW total  PV 58% increase in installed capacity annually (2006-2011) , CSP 37%  460 MW of CSP installed in 2011 bringing the total installed capacity to 1.760 MW Click to edit Master title style  EU added more PV than any other technology Click to edit Master subtitle style 12/22/2013 10
    • 11. Wind Power  In 2011, 40GW of wind power capacity was installed, increasing the total to 238GW.  Annual growth rate of cumulative wind power capacity between 2006-2010 averaged at 26% Click to edit Master title style  Wind power accounted for 30% of the total new renewable energy capacity Click to edit Master subtitle style 12/22/2013 11
    • 12. Biomass Energy  Biomass energy accounted for over 10% of global primary energy supply in 2011  The present global demand for biomass is 53EJ, mainly used for heating, cooking and industrial applications  Liquid biofuels production grew rapidly at 17% for ethanol and 27% for biodiesel  Most sugar producing countries in Africa generate power and heat with bagasse-based combined heat and power plants. Grid connected CHP exists in Kenya, Mauritius, Tanzania, Ugand a and Zimbabwe
    • 13. Geothermal Energy  205 TWh (736PJ) of district heat and electricity was provided by geothermal resources in 2011  Heat output from geothermal sources grew at 100%p.a. from 2005-2010; reaching 489PJ in 2011 Click to edit Master title style Click to edit  Geothermal power became more attractive due to flexibility offered by new technologies such as flash plants combined with binary Master subtitle style bottoming cycles for increased efficiency  Geothermal Power has taken hold in East Africa’s Rift Valley. Drought in the region has increased interest on geothermal to reduce reliability on hydropower 12/22/2013 13
    • 14. Industry Trends c  RE industry saw continued growth in manufacturing, sales and installation  Cost reductions (especially in PV and onshore wind) contributed to growth  Changing policy landscape in many countries  industry uncertainties, declining policy support, international financial crisis and barriers to trade Click to edit Master title style  Worldwide jobs in renewable energy industries exceeded 5 million in 2011; clustered primarily in bioenergy and solar industries Click to edit Master subtitle style  Green power markets are emerging in South Africa, with at least one company providing green power to retail customers in South Africa 12/22/2013 14
    • 15. Investment Flows  Total global investment in RE jumped in 2011to a record of $257 billion , up 17% from 2010 (15 % for Asia Oceania region).  This is 6 title style Click to edit Mastertimes the level of investment in 2004 and 94% more than the total investment in RE in 2007. Click to edit  Despite the rise in investment, the Master of growth of investment was rate subtitle style below the 37% rise in investment from 2009 to 2010. Source: UNEP/Bloomberg: Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011 12/22/2013  Total investment in the RE sector in the Middle East and Africa combined was USD 4.9 Billion. 15
    • 16. Investment Flows  The top 5 countries for total investment in 2011 were China, USA, Germany, Italy and India.  Investment in RE in China went up by 17% in 2011  Investment in RE in USA made a significant leap of 57% in 2011.  Investment in Germany (excluding R&D) dipped 12% from the 2010 levels  Investment in RE in India went up by 62% in 2011
    • 17. Policy Landscape  Targets in at least 118 countries up from the 96 reported in previous year; more than half are developing countries Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master  Some setbacks resulting from a lack of long-term policy certainty and subtitle style countries stability in many  South Africa introduced a new 20 year plan calling for renewables to account for 42% of all new capacity installed up to 2030 12/22/2013 17
    • 18. Policy Landscape  Renewable power generation policies remain the most common type of support policy; Feed-in-tariffs (FIT) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are the most commonly instruments. FIT policies were in place in at least 65 countries and 27 states worldwide by early 2012. Click to edit Master title style  Policies to promote renewable heating and cooling expanded. Click to edit Master subtitle style  Almost two-thirds of the world’s largest cities had adopted climate change action plans by the end of 2011, with more than half of them planning to increase their uptake of renewable energy. 12/22/2013 18
    • 19. Energy Access  UN Secretary General’s goal: Global action to achieve universal access to modern energy services by 2030  In order to achieve universal access for all, the current global investments on energy access of annual 9 billion USD need to be increased to 48 billion USD annually Click to edit Master title style  2.6 billion people still employed traditional cookstoves and open fires for heating and cooking in 2011  Large numbers of actors and programmes, with limited coordination, makes impact assessment and data collection in the region a big challenge Click to energy technology is allowing manufacturers to  Lower prices of renewable edit Master subtitle style diversify into emerging markets  Financial models in rural energy include: • Small retail markets • Public-Private micro financing initiatives • National/multi stakeholder programmes 12/22/2013 19
    • 20.  Tool to facilitate dialogue on the future of renewable energy  Aims at providing a simple overview on how the future of RE is currently seen by prominent experts, governments, and institutions  Based on more than 150 interviews conducted around the world  Emphasis on role of local governments and visions for cities of the future  First review draft available upon request REN21 Urban Energy Futures REN21 Global Futures Report (GFR)
    • 21. Green city Dynamics … By 2011  62% of the world’s largest cities had adopted climate change actions  57% had plans for GHG reductions with an emphasis on renewable energy Examples of renewable energy targets by cities:  Vaxjo, Sweden aims to be 100% renewable energy driven by 2030  City of Austin, USA met its target for 100% of own use electricity from renewables, and target of 30% RE by 2020  Hamburg, Germany plans to reduce 80% of their CO2 emissions by 2050 (base 1990)  Cape Town, South Africa to produce 10% of its primary energy supply from renewable energy sources by 2020  Seoul, South Korea has a renewable energy supply target of 20% by 2030 REN21 Urban Energy Futures Green Momentum: Thousands of cities have active policies, plans, or targets for RE and climate mitigation
    • 22. i) Using Municipal Utilities  Transforming production infrastructure to integrate greater share of renewable energy in the electric supply in Munich, Copenhagen, Vaxjo, etc where the city owns the energy utility. ii) Re-Municipalisation of Energy Utilities and The Grid  Modelled after the “Sustainable Energy Initiative” of Delaware, the city of Philadelphia has created a sustainable energy authority that will invest in RE . New York and Vermont are also going for the same approach.  Hamburg and Boulder are re-municipalising their utility. Hamburg for instance has set up Hamburg Energie that will invest in RE. iii) Renegotiating Contracts with Energy Utilities  Ithaca, New York has switched to 100 % RE electricity  Austin, Texas are powering their municipal facilities with 100% renewable. REN21 Urban Energy Futures Switching to Renewable Energy
    • 23.  Buildings currently account for 40% of the world energy consumption  Buildings around the world are considerably being transformed with the emergence of ‘passive buildings ’, ‘zero-energy buildings’, ‘net-zero buildings’, ‘carbon-neutral buildings’ and ‘living buildings’ All city buildings in Austin are to be carbon neutral by 2020 Oregon Sustainable Center in Portland All new developments in Amsterdam to be energy neutral from 2015 onwards. REN21 Urban Energy Futures Buildings- Consumers to Prosumers
    • 24.  Currently 85 % of energy used in urban transport comes from fossil fuels  Rebuilding the urban transportion system that are driven by renewables is the goal of many cities around the world. Hong Kong, Mexico City and Sydney are investing extensively in the electrification of their railway systems Conversion of Rail bound transport to 100% RE e.g Hamburg (by 2050) and Calgary Sao Paulo introduced 60 ethanol buses in 2011. 1200 buses are now using a B20 blend in the city of Sao Paulo. Johannesburg also introduced 25 ethanol buses in 2011 Mexico city is currently building solar powered charging stations in order to to put 100 EV’s on the road by the end of 2012 Austin, Texas is currently supplying 50 charging stations in the city with renewable electricity REN21 Urban Energy Futures Transportation- Electric Mobility
    • 25.  As buildings are being transformed, cities and local governments will be looking to use more renewables for their heating and cooling purposes  District heating system will be key to an effective and green heating system using biomass, geothermal or solar thermal collectors. Vaxjo, Sweden fulfills 90% of its heating demand from biomass Amsterdam district heating system uses biomass of biogas 98% of the homes in Copenhagen are connected to the district system fired by biomass Munich and Seoul are investing in geothermal; Munich plans to meet 80% of its heating needs via geothermal sources REN21 Urban Energy Futures Heating and Cooling- the Sleeping Giant
    • 26. The concept of smart cities is to make intensive use of ICT to enhance energy efficiency, maximise the integration and use of renewables in buildings and in local electricity grid and ensure the smooth roll out of EV`s. It enables intelligent energy management and creates a system of: Smart Grids Smart Buildings Smart Transport Currently there are 102 smart city project in the world including Amsterdam, Seoul, Boulder, Colorado, Johannesburg, Lagos and Delhi. REN21 Urban Energy Futures Smart Cities
    • 27. Enhanced energy security, more stable climate Right policy framework Increased productivity & growth Improved public health Creation of jobs REN21 Urban Energy Futures Enabling Frameworks
    • 28. REN21 facilitates global dialogue on RE transition Stay informed, Stay connected Contribute & Exchange… 15-17 January 2013 incl. Launch of REN21 Global Futures Report
    • 29. Thank – You! Further Information: REN21 Global Futures Report Lily Riahi Policy Advisor Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master subtitle style 12/22/2013 29