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Organic Compound Foldable Entries
 

Organic Compound Foldable Entries

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    Organic Compound Foldable Entries Organic Compound Foldable Entries Presentation Transcript

    • Foldable #2 4 groups of organic compounds found in living things
    • (On the cover)
      • Organic Compounds
        • “ Contains Carbon ”
    • (Inside the front cover) Slide 1 of 4
      • “ Biomolecules ” = large organic compounds
        • Built by bonding small molecules together to form chains called “ polymers ”
        • Formed by a chemical reaction called “ condensation ”
    • (Inside the front cover) Slide 2 of 4
      • Condensation
      • Hydrolysis
      H OH + + + + H 2 0 H 2 0 H 2 0
      • ISOMER = Compounds with the same chemical formula, but different 3D structure
      (Inside the front cover) Slide 3 of 4 Chemical formula H 2 0 3D Structure H H O water is not an isomer!
      • ISOMER = Compounds with the same chemical formula, but different 3D structure
      Chemical formula C 6 H 12 0 6 = glucose C 6 H 12 0 6 = fructose 3D Structure O OH OH HO OH CH 2 OH O HOCH 2 OH OH OH CH 2 OH Slide 4 of 4
    • CARBOHYDRATES (SLIDE 1 of 2)
      • Made up of C, H, & O
      • Main source of energy
      • Used for structural purposes in plants (cellulose)
    • CARBOHYDRATES (SLIDE 2 of 3)
      • SIMPLEST = single sugar molecules = “ mono saccharide ”
        • Example: glucose, fructose, galactose
      glucose fructose Mono saccharide Mono saccharide + = Di saccharide + sucrose H 2 0
    • CARBOHYDRATES (SLIDE 3 of 3)
      • LARGEST = “ poly saccharide ”
        • Example: starch, fiber, cellulose, glycogen
      Poly saccharide
    • Lipids (Slide 1 of 3)
      • Aka “fats”
      • Made up of mostly C & H
      • Ex: fats, oils, waxes, steroids
      • Used to store energy (insulation, too)
      • Part of the cell membrane and waterproof covering
      • ALL are INSOLUBLE in water because they are NON POLAR
    • Lipids (Slide 2 of 3) CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 Long chain of CH is called “fatty acid chain” saturated fat Example: lard = maximum # of H + atoms CH 2 - O – CH 2 - O – CH 2 - O – CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH = CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 unsaturated “ double bond” Example: olive oil = at least 1 C = C (carbon-carbon double bond)
    • Lipids (Slide 3 of 3) CH 2 -CH = CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH = CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH = CH 2 -CH 2 Polyunsaturated “ double bond” Example: cooking oil = more than one C = C (carbon-carbon double bond) “ double bond” “ double bond”
    • Nucleic Acids (slide 1 of 3)
      • They contain C, H, O, N, P
      • Nucleic Acids = polymers (made up of nucleotides)
      nucleotide nucleotide nucleotide N N N “Nucleic Acid” + + = monomer
    • Nucleic Acids (slide 2 of 3)
      • 3 parts of a nucleotide
        • A) 5 carbon sugar
        • B) Phosphate group
        • C) Nitrogenous base
      A B C
    • Nucleic Acids (slide 3 of 3)
      • Store and transmit hereditary (genetic info)
      • 2 types
        • DNA sugar = deoxyribose
        • RNA sugar = ribose
    • Proteins (slide 1 of 3)
      • Contain C, H, O, N and some S
      • Basic building block = Amino acid (AA)
      AA AA AA + + = AA AA AA Peptide bond "protein"
    • Proteins (slide 2 of 3)
      • 3 parts of an amino acid
        • A) amino acid (-NH2)
        • B) carboxyl group (-COOH)
        • C) R group (always different)
      N – C – C OH O H H H R B A C
    • Protein (slide 3 of 3)
      • Each protein has a specific role
        • Control rate of reaction
        • Regulate cell processes
        • Form bones and muscles
        • Transport substances in/out of cell
      • Example : “enzymes” = “proteins” that change rate of reaction, increase pH and temperature