M.SC 2ND SEM.
Packaging is an important part of the
product, which has to receive a lot of attention to
Packaging is concerned with designing &
producing of appropriate packages for a product.
Packaging also refers to the process of
design, evaluation, and production of packages.
Packaging can be described as a coordinated
system of preparing goods for
transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end
Packaging means wrapping, compressing, filling or
creating of goods for the purpose of protection of
goods and their convenient handling.
Packaging means a case, container, wrapper or
other receptacle for packaging goods. It can be made
metals, plastic, wood, paper, glass, laminates, polyest
The first packages used the natural materials
available at the time: Baskets of reeds, wineskins
boxes, potteryVases, wooden barrels, woven
Physical protection –protection from
mechanical shock, vibration, electrostatic discharge
Barrier protection – A barrier from oxygen water vapor, dust, etc.,
Information transmission – Packages and labels communicate how to
use, transport, recycle or dispose of the package or product.
Marketing –can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to
purchase the product.
Security – Packaging can play an important role in reducing the security
risks of shipment.
Convenience – Packages can have features that add convenience in
distribution, handling, stacking, display, sale, opening, reclosing, use, dis
pensing, reuse, recycling, and ease of disposal
The various materials used for packaging of apparel and allied
wood, paper, plastics, films, nail, rope, gum, tape, etc
Wooden boxes and crates- these are used in care of
bulky exports or rugged shipment in case of handling abuse.
The woods used mainly are sheets of ply wood or tongue or
grooved board. soft woods are basically used because of low
cost and have sufficient strength.
they are very popular packaging material.They are
very cheap but have very little strength as
compared to other packaging material except glass.
Paper cannot pack liquid material. However they
provide opportunity to present article in colorful &
attractive way. It can protect the contents from
moisture to some extent.
it has revolutionized the packaging industry.These types of
package are durable & air tight. they can carry liquid in them
and are not heavy & don’t absorb moisture as like paper.
Plastic packaging has gained popularity for packaging fruit
juice, ghee, cereals, and all daily uses, they can be reusable
after the content are take out.
it is distinguished by its wrinkled surface which is made in a range of
thicknesses and softness’s. Although creap paper are used basically
as shock insulation to prevent crushing, fine creep paper are available
for decorative merchandising of facts. Gummed crepe in strip roll is a
popular sealing tape for sealing wrappers and cartons. however
gummed Kraft striping is still the most popular seal tape for cartons
Thin paper sheets usually comes in sheets varying in size from
approximately 18’*24”.tissue are used for packaging both for shock
insulation and decoration.
Some of the policies concept to consider in respect of product packaging.
These include the following-
a company made the policy in order to
achieve one or more following purposes-
Change may flow from management desire to provide more
convenience in using that product.
Policies may be introduced to correct defects in the package. E.g.-
different opening, different air tightening etc.
Innovation in packaging material may also require change in
it is a kind of packaging strategy in
which packages of the entire product line closely resemble one
another or alternatively major features of the packages in the
respect of the entire product line closely resemble each other.
it is a strategy in which marketers of the product in such a
package which may be reuse for other purpose once product is
taken out from it use it for other purpose.
Reusable and recyclable crates and pallets.
it is a strategy in which a number of heterogeneous products to
be used by one consumer are placed in a single package, it help
the company to built up considerable total sales. It facilitates
acceptance of new product idea by consumer who may not be
like or interested in buying that.
in order to preserve the physical environment a company may
formulate compatible packaging strategy. Some of the elements of
this strategy may include-
Decompose over reasonable period.
Use of light weight packaging material.
it is the unit the consumer receives when he select the product.
From the consumer point of view the merchandise package should-
Identify the product.
Enhance the appeal of the product.
Attract the customer to the package.
Protect the product quality until the consumer uses the item.
the shipment package performs the identification
function. It is the package, the carrier, receiver& delivers
to the retailer.
Packaging may be divided in various classes with
respect to its protection.-
it is covered completely, individually by merchandise
Close container carrying garment-
in open merchandise packages coats, suits or dresses transported
without individual covers on hangers suspended
from potable hanger racks.The shipment
package separate properly when it prevent
the crushing of the garment during shipment.
the function of the vacuum package include
to reduce the shipment weight of shipping good.
To prevent the garment from catching dust or
odors before or during shipping.
To prevent garments from acquiring wrinkles or
creases during shipping.
To minimize storage space for other
manufacturer & retailer.
packaging has two different functions-
deals with packaging the apparel in a manner which permits the apparel
manufacturer to ship the product at lower cost & or in the shortest time to the
purchaser without damaging the quality of the product.
it deals with presenting the apparel product in a manner designed to
stimulate consumer desire for the product. Both functions have & style
specifications during the journey from the factory to the retailer.
▪ Creasing, crushing & dust may affect the quality & have to be prevented in packaging
▪ Military apparel & apparel destined for export & shipment to extremes of climate
conditions must be packaged to protect the product against
wetting, mildew, fungus, excessive light and handling damages.
▪ Handling damage refers to tears, creases & staining when the package is broken by
The distribution function-
The merchandising function-
A label is a piece of paper, polymer, cloth, metal, or
other material affixed to a container or article, on
which is printed a legend, information concerning the
product, addresses, etc. A label may also be printed
directly on the container or article.
Labels have many uses: product identification, name
tags, advertising, warnings, and other communication.
Special types of labels called
digital labels (printed through a
digital printing) can also have special
constructions tags, security printing,
and sandwich process labels.
Kaelly Irwin-“ label refers to any printed statement related
to merchandise that accompanies the goods at the point
It can be said that the idea of label is originated with the
view of distinction between properties and qualities of
goods as well as to increase their appeal by acting as a
foundation to provide information to the consumer. Also it is
meant to make sure that the declared quality goods are
supplied to the consumer there by they could make satisfied
about quality, type of the item purchased.
Assistance help has been provided to the consumer next
through the federal permanent care labeling role, which
primarily deals with matters of laundry& dry cleaning on
account of inherent importance of textiles.
1. Informative labels,
2. Care labels.
it is a tag that give description of the performance
inherited, consumer in selection. Fiber content, how fabric is
made, how it will perform in use and how to care for it are the areas
covered by an informative label.
Informative labeling includes information required by federal legislation
such asTextile Fiber Products Identification Act(TFPIA) .Thus, the
information provided is usually correct & regulated by law.These tend to
increase the sale of goods quality merchandise as they increase the
desirability of honesty labeled products.
Informative care label includes information regarding laundering, dry-
cleaning, fiber content, fiber type, etc. they may be in the form of
directions or symbols denoting the use and care of garments.
Types of label-
Care labels are the labels inside clothing or fashion
accessories that provide wash care instruction, fiber
content, country origin and few other important details
of information. It is sometime reference as content
label, wash care label or care instructor label.
The technological advances which have occurred in
textile, apparel and cleaning industries have had a
significant effect on the care process of apparel.The larger
number of products on the market ,each with different care
performance characteristics has made It almost impossible
for consumers to be informer about any one product. the
traditional source of care information, personal experience
based on trial and error, no longer meets the needs of
Therefore, it is very important that customer to be given accurate
information on how to take care of their garment ,so they can
make informed purchase decisions concerning care characteristics
of competing products and the cleaning procedures can be
avoided by consumers and cleaners like.
Care symbols give all the necessary information
dry cleaning and
Using care labels provides the consumer with care information
It is a label of such material and is attached in such manner that it can be
expected to withstand and remain legible throughout at least ten cleanings of
followings are some examples of those articles:
jackets, coats, overcoats, top coats and sweaters
bedspreads, blankets, quilts and comforters
sheets, pillows and pillowcases
It is a label which is not expected to withstand and remain legible through
ten cleaning of the consumer textile article.
following are some examples of those articles:
scarves, shawls, mufflers and handkerchiefs.
stretch tights, hosiery and panty hose.
gloves, mittens and gaiters.
yarn, sewing and embroidery threads.
umbrellas and parasol
dish clothes, dishtowels and wash clothes
the labeling of fabrics with brand name is well established method
and is used by the manufacturer as name or tool in advertising.
it identifies the quality of product by a letter or no. or a word to
derive a characteristics of fabric are compared with one or standard.
It indicates that the item is tested by lab usually one independent of
the manufacturers of product.
These certification labels are often referred to as
seals of approval.
A. Brand labeling
B. Grade labeling-
C. Certificate labeling-
It is a tag which gives description ,Used for the
purpose of fiber content of fabric such as wool,
silk, cotton and eco label.
It gives information how fabric is made, how it
will perform in use and how to care of the fabric.
An addition to an informative, brand or
certification label there may also be a union
labels.This assures the consumers that the
garment was made under fair/good working
E. Union labeling-
A sewn in label with any no. found in the garment
[e.g. 6000 or any no.] means that the manufacturer
obtained a registration no. from the Bureau of
Consumer Protection of the FTC [FederalTrade Commission].
Various federal processes include provisions for mandatory labeling with consequent
requirements for supervision and enforcements. Thus functions have been assigned to
various agencies although many acts are assigned to Federal Trade Commission until
FTC was created by an Act of congress on September 26, 1914. The activities of the FTC
are designed to protect not only the ultimate consumers by also the different segments
Mandatory Labeling ‘ML’ describe acceptable and legal commercial practices for the
manufacturer, dealer to follow, law and regulation in the textile industries continue
to affect it to inform to general operation, label requirement, environmental
issues, design aspects and health safety concern.
2. Mandatory labeling-2. Mandatory labeling-2. Mandatory labeling-
The activities of Federal Trade Commission are designed to protect not
only the ultimate consumer but also compulsory segments of the textile
It is the responsibility of FTC to prevent unfair or deceptive trade
practices, for example marketing of Rayon / Polyester blend crushed in
such a way to suggest that it was made of flax.
The first four laws and regulation deals with “Truth in fabrics” aspect for
these, to the beneficial the consumer must have knowledge about the
fibers and fabrics.
The first FTC of ruling on weighing of silk was established in 1938.
It specified that no silk product containing more than 10% weighing
except those that are colored black may carry a label that they are silk
or pure dyed silk.
1.SILK REGULATION 1932
It was designed to protect consumer as well as producer , manufacturer as well
as distributers from the unreal presence of substitutes and mixtures and to
inform the consumer of the source of wool fiber .
This Act implies to any textile product containing wool which include carpets, rugs
, mats and upholstery. The law requires the labels must give the fiber content
percentage and the source of fiber .
The name or the registered identification number of the manufacturer must be there
on the label. The registered number is designated WPL or RN where WPL refers to
Wool Product Label and RN (Registered Number) and the next several digits are the
The Act requires that the name of the country where the product was manufactured
or be processed must be listed on the label. These labels must be sewn in the item .
Their location is designated in the Act.
o The terms that appear on the labels of wool items are defined by the FTC as
a. WOOL – New wool or wool fibers reclaimed from knit straps , broken thread.
b. RECYCLED WOOL – Straps of new woven or felted fabrics that are shredded
back to the fibrous state and used again in the manufacture of woolens.
c. VIRGIN WOOL – Wool that has never been processed in any way.
This Act applies to Furs, those items of animals origin with the
hair/fibers attached .
The Act requires that the true English language name of the
animal to be used on the labels for wearing apparel and that dyed
furs be so labeled . The country of origin must also be identified.
The Act has been amended to identify animal by name and has
expanded the list of modifications to the natural fur to include
tip dyeing , pointing (coloring the tips of guard’s hair) and other
means of artificially altering the color and appearance of the fur.
This law does not provide for a quality designation. Poor quality
fur is available in the market .
The law protects the consumer from buying furs sold under
name resembling expensive furs.
The label must disclose if the fur is waste fur or has been
used, damaged, dyed, bleached or otherwise treated to
artificially change the color.
This act is commonly called the Fur Act in the industry.
The TFPIA covers all the fibers except those already covered by the Wool
Product Labeling Act with certain other exceptions. TFPIA became law and
went into effect on march 3, 1960.
The purpose of the law is “to protect” consumers and producers against
miss branding and false advertising of the fiber content of textile fiber.
TFPIA doesn’t require the label to be sewn into the item but that the
information be available at Point of Sale. Handbags or printed packing
material may list the fiber content.
To comply with TFPIA , the manufacturers are required to give the following
1. The fiber or the combination of fiber used in the item. Fiber must be
designated with equal prominence whether natural or manufactured
2. The %age of each fiber present by weight in the total fiber content must
3. The tag, label or stamp must carry the name or other identification of the
manufacturer of the product.
4. If the item is important , the name of the country where the product was
made must appear on the label.
The amended versions of this regulation became effective
It requires “A label or Tag permanently affixed or
attached to the finished apparel or article which clearly
discloses instructions for the regular care and
maintenance of such articles”. Hence, the regulation is
often referred to as Permanent Care Labeling Rule.
The regulation specifies the location of the label by the
Care label is important that the customer is given
accurate information as to how to take care of their
garments, so they can make informed purchase decision
concerning the care characteristics and cleaners to avoid
product damage caused by the use of improper cleaning
Before the care instructions are put on care labels, the
items are tested and these testing are:-
change in body or hand .
IMPORTANCE OF LABELLING
a. Laundering: A process intended to remove soil or stains by washing with an
aqueous detergent solution (and possibly bleach) and normally including
subsequent rinsing, extracting and drying.
b. Chlorine bleach: A process carried out in an aqueous medium before, during or
after washing processes, requiring the use of chlorine based bleaching agent for
the purpose of removing stains and/or improving whiteness.
c. Dry-cleaning: A process for cleaning textile articles by means of organic
solvents (eg, petroleum, perchlorethylene, fluorocarbon).This process consists of
cleaning, rinsing, spinning and drying.
d.Tumble drying: A process carried out on a textile article after washing, with the
intention of removing residual water by treatment with hot air in a rotating drum.
e. Ironing: A method of pressing using a heated hand iron sometimes together
with moisture or steam, and a gliding motion.
f. Pressing: A process of smoothing and shaping by heat and pressure, with or
without the presence of steam.
CARE LABELING SYSTEMS
International care labeling system.
Japan care labeling system.
British care labeling system.
Canadian care labeling system.
International Symposium for care labeling was established in 1963 in
Paris. It was replaced by International Association forTextile Care
Labeling (GINETEX) in 1975.The symbols used in GINETEX system
represent that the garment can withstand the process and a cross
indicates the process is not possible for the garment.The following
five symbols are used:
The number inside the washtub indicates the maximum
permissible temperature of washing.
‘CL’ inside the triangle indicates that chlorine bleaching
The dots (1, 2 or 3) inside the iron symbol indicate
the maximum temperature at which ironing
can be done.
The letters (A, P or F) inside the circle indicate the
dry-cleaning process with the solvent to be used.
A circle inside a square indicates the particular
garment can be tumble-dried
a. International Care Labeling System:
May be ironed directly at 180-210oC
Machine wash at 95oC or less water temperature
Hand wash in water temperature of 30oC or less
Wring softly by hand or spin dry by machine quickly.
Lay flat to dry
Use chlorine bleach.
Any dry-cleaning agent can be used
Japanese Care Labeling System uses basic symbols that are different from other systems
of care labeling. Some of the symbols with their meaning are discussed below-
b. Japanese Care Labeling System:
: The British Care Labeling System uses graphic
symbols to provide information on care labels.
The five basic symbols are described below:
Washtub indicates washing.
Triangle indicates bleaching.
Iron indicates ironing.
Circle indicates dry-cleaning.
Square indicates drying.
Cross superimposed on any of the preceding five
symbols indicates that such a treatment or process
should be used.
c. British Care Labeling System
Canadian Care Labeling System consists of five basic symbols
that are illustrated in three conventional traffic light colors.
If any message is not conveyed by the care labeling symbols,
words in English and French may be used.The five symbols must
appear in the following order on the care labels: washing,
bleaching, drying, ironing, and dry-cleaning.
The symbols are described in the following table:
d. Canadian Care Labeling System:
Green washtub- Machine wash in hot water (not exceeding 70oC).
Green circle- Dry-clean.
Orange iron- Iron at a medium temperature (not exceeding
150oC). Recommended for nylon and polyester.
Red iron- Do not iron or pres
Green square - Tumble dry at medium to high temperature and
remove article from machine as soon as it is dry. Avoid over-
Green square - Hang to dry after removing excess water.
Orange square- Dry on flat surface after extracting excess water
Orange triangle - Use chlorine bleach.
Don’t perform the action.
“Eco labeling “is a voluntary method of environmental
performance certification & labeling i.e. practiced around the
An eco label is a label which identifies overall environmental
preference of a product or service within a specific product/
service category based on life cycle concentrations.
In contrast to green symbols or claim statements developed by
manufacturers & service providers, an eco label is awarded by an
impartial third party in relation to certain products or services
that are independently determined to meet environmental
Environmental issues effects the production of fiber, yarn, fabric,
finishes, dyes & pigments, distribution of components & finished
goods & disposal of waste. And all these are areas of concern to
producers, retailers, consumers & service workers.
it enforces & regulates air, water and noise pollution &
disposal of water. It overseas compliance of the
industry with laws including the pollution prevention
act of 1990, designed to reduce pollution aided sources
.There are two more acts-
Clean air act 1970
Clean water act 1972
it develops and enforces standard for safety &
educational training programs for workers.
Consumers are greatly influenced by what is
available in the market for their demand
Green products that claim, to have minimum
it is a multidisciplinary scientific organization that
verifies environmental claims & provides complete
environment profiles of products and packaging
based on lifecycle analysis.
Scientific Certification System (SCS)-
The EU equable is also known as “flower” because of its logo it
was introduced In 1992 as part of border EU strategy to stimulate
sustainable consumption and production and is now one of the
major voluntary instrument included in the new sustainable
industrial policy action plan adapted by the European
commission by 2008 .
Eco labels bring transparent and scientifically based systems are
to make the green choices enabling environment sustainable
purchasing by private citizens businesses and public authorities.
An Eco label can generate financial saving through reducing
consumption manufacturing of raw material and label guides
the consumers and accrue in recognizing quality product with
fewer bad enviourment impact at the same time encouraging
manufacture to develop and supply enviourment sound product
and use of their resources efficiently
•it is a European certification standard that identifies acceptable limits
for heavy metals containing carcinogeneous-cancer causing dyes,
pesticides, emission of hazardous substances & other aspects of textile
products that have been found to be hazardous to the environment of
For consumers care symbols make sense when they can understand and follow the
instructions. Symbols should provide the same information to everyone without language
barriers. Use of symbols allow for smaller and more comfortable care labels. Smaller labels
also cost less and this could translate into consumer savings. The symbols are easy to
understand with few basic symbols. For manufacturers care symbols make even more
When harmonised with other countries, symbols will allow participation in a global
marketplace where symbols will clearly communicate the same information in all countries.
Smaller labels cost less to buy or manufacture and also cost less to inventory. Eliminating
the need for different labels for different countries can further reduce total inventory. So all
the manufacturers should attach care labeling instructions to the garment for the benefit of
the consumers and to keep their brands at a higher position.
Due to globalization and liberalization processes it becomes more relevant for the garment
manufactures to use care labeling systems in the apparel. It is also very much essential for
the garment manufacturers to make awareness campaign regarding the utility of care
labels for the consumers. However while applying the care labels it is very important for the
garment manufacturers to understand the comfort criteria of care labels.
A GENERAL OFTECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTEOFTEXTILESAND
CARE LABELING BY INTERTEK.
ARTICLEON CARE AND LABELING.
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