Packaging and labeling of apparel and tetiles


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Packaging and labeling of apparel and tetiles

  2. 2.  Packaging is an important part of the product, which has to receive a lot of attention to the people.  Packaging is concerned with designing & producing of appropriate packages for a product.  Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end
  3. 3.  Packaging means wrapping, compressing, filling or creating of goods for the purpose of protection of goods and their convenient handling.  Packaging means a case, container, wrapper or other receptacle for packaging goods. It can be made of metals, plastic, wood, paper, glass, laminates, polyest er  The first packages used the natural materials available at the time: Baskets of reeds, wineskins (Bota bags),Wooden boxes, potteryVases, wooden barrels, woven
  4. 4.  Physical protection –protection from mechanical shock, vibration, electrostatic discharge compression, temperature.  Barrier protection – A barrier from oxygen water vapor, dust, etc.,  Information transmission – Packages and labels communicate how to use, transport, recycle or dispose of the package or product.  Marketing –can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to purchase the product.  Security – Packaging can play an important role in reducing the security risks of shipment.  Convenience – Packages can have features that add convenience in distribution, handling, stacking, display, sale, opening, reclosing, use, dis pensing, reuse, recycling, and ease of disposal
  5. 5.  The various materials used for packaging of apparel and allied products are- wood, paper, plastics, films, nail, rope, gum, tape, etc  Wooden boxes and crates- these are used in care of bulky exports or rugged shipment in case of handling abuse. The woods used mainly are sheets of ply wood or tongue or grooved board. soft woods are basically used because of low cost and have sufficient strength. Wooden box Wood crates
  6. 6.  they are very popular packaging material.They are very cheap but have very little strength as compared to other packaging material except glass. Paper cannot pack liquid material. However they provide opportunity to present article in colorful & attractive way. It can protect the contents from moisture to some extent.
  7. 7.  it has revolutionized the packaging industry.These types of package are durable & air tight. they can carry liquid in them and are not heavy & don’t absorb moisture as like paper. Plastic packaging has gained popularity for packaging fruit juice, ghee, cereals, and all daily uses, they can be reusable after the content are take out.
  8. 8.  it is distinguished by its wrinkled surface which is made in a range of thicknesses and softness’s. Although creap paper are used basically as shock insulation to prevent crushing, fine creep paper are available for decorative merchandising of facts. Gummed crepe in strip roll is a popular sealing tape for sealing wrappers and cartons. however gummed Kraft striping is still the most popular seal tape for cartons and wrappers CREEP PAPER–
  9. 9.  Thin paper sheets usually comes in sheets varying in size from approximately 18’*24”.tissue are used for packaging both for shock insulation and decoration. TISSUES PAPER-
  11. 11.  Some of the policies concept to consider in respect of product packaging. These include the following-  a company made the policy in order to achieve one or more following purposes-  Change may flow from management desire to provide more convenience in using that product.  Policies may be introduced to correct defects in the package. E.g.- different opening, different air tightening etc.  Innovation in packaging material may also require change in product packaging.  it is a kind of packaging strategy in which packages of the entire product line closely resemble one another or alternatively major features of the packages in the respect of the entire product line closely resemble each other. Packaging changes- Family packaging-
  12. 12.  it is a strategy in which marketers of the product in such a package which may be reuse for other purpose once product is taken out from it use it for other purpose. Examples  Reusable and recyclable crates and pallets.  it is a strategy in which a number of heterogeneous products to be used by one consumer are placed in a single package, it help the company to built up considerable total sales. It facilitates acceptance of new product idea by consumer who may not be like or interested in buying that. Multiple packaging-
  13. 13.  in order to preserve the physical environment a company may formulate compatible packaging strategy. Some of the elements of this strategy may include-  Reuse element.  Decompose over reasonable period.  Use of light weight packaging material.  it is the unit the consumer receives when he select the product. From the consumer point of view the merchandise package should-  Identify the product.  Enhance the appeal of the product.  Attract the customer to the package.  Protect the product quality until the consumer uses the item. Merchandise packaging
  14. 14.  the shipment package performs the identification function. It is the package, the carrier, receiver& delivers to the retailer.  Packaging may be divided in various classes with respect to its protection.-  it is covered completely, individually by merchandise package. Close container carrying garment-
  15. 15.  in open merchandise packages coats, suits or dresses transported without individual covers on hangers suspended from potable hanger racks.The shipment package separate properly when it prevent the crushing of the garment during shipment.  the function of the vacuum package include  to reduce the shipment weight of shipping good.  To prevent the garment from catching dust or odors before or during shipping.  To prevent garments from acquiring wrinkles or creases during shipping.  To minimize storage space for other manufacturer & retailer. Vacuum packaging
  16. 16.  packaging has two different functions- deals with packaging the apparel in a manner which permits the apparel manufacturer to ship the product at lower cost & or in the shortest time to the purchaser without damaging the quality of the product.  it deals with presenting the apparel product in a manner designed to stimulate consumer desire for the product. Both functions have & style specifications during the journey from the factory to the retailer. ▪ Creasing, crushing & dust may affect the quality & have to be prevented in packaging ▪ Military apparel & apparel destined for export & shipment to extremes of climate conditions must be packaged to protect the product against wetting, mildew, fungus, excessive light and handling damages. ▪ Handling damage refers to tears, creases & staining when the package is broken by shipping handling. The distribution function- The merchandising function-
  17. 17.  A label is a piece of paper, polymer, cloth, metal, or other material affixed to a container or article, on which is printed a legend, information concerning the product, addresses, etc. A label may also be printed directly on the container or article.  Labels have many uses: product identification, name tags, advertising, warnings, and other communication. Special types of labels called digital labels (printed through a digital printing) can also have special constructions tags, security printing, and sandwich process labels. INTRODUCTION-
  18. 18.  Kaelly Irwin-“ label refers to any printed statement related to merchandise that accompanies the goods at the point of sale”.  It can be said that the idea of label is originated with the view of distinction between properties and qualities of goods as well as to increase their appeal by acting as a foundation to provide information to the consumer. Also it is meant to make sure that the declared quality goods are supplied to the consumer there by they could make satisfied about quality, type of the item purchased.  Assistance help has been provided to the consumer next through the federal permanent care labeling role, which primarily deals with matters of laundry& dry cleaning on account of inherent importance of textiles.
  19. 19. 1. Informative labels, 2. Care labels.   it is a tag that give description of the performance inherited, consumer in selection. Fiber content, how fabric is made, how it will perform in use and how to care for it are the areas covered by an informative label.  Informative labeling includes information required by federal legislation such asTextile Fiber Products Identification Act(TFPIA) .Thus, the information provided is usually correct & regulated by law.These tend to increase the sale of goods quality merchandise as they increase the desirability of honesty labeled products.  Informative care label includes information regarding laundering, dry- cleaning, fiber content, fiber type, etc. they may be in the form of directions or symbols denoting the use and care of garments. Types of label- Informative label-
  20. 20.  Care labels are the labels inside clothing or fashion accessories that provide wash care instruction, fiber content, country origin and few other important details of information. It is sometime reference as content label, wash care label or care instructor label.  The technological advances which have occurred in textile, apparel and cleaning industries have had a significant effect on the care process of apparel.The larger number of products on the market ,each with different care performance characteristics has made It almost impossible for consumers to be informer about any one product. the traditional source of care information, personal experience based on trial and error, no longer meets the needs of consumers.
  21. 21.  Therefore, it is very important that customer to be given accurate information on how to take care of their garment ,so they can make informed purchase decisions concerning care characteristics of competing products and the cleaning procedures can be avoided by consumers and cleaners like.  Care symbols give all the necessary information  washing,  bleaching,  ironing,  dry cleaning and  Tumble drying.  Using care labels provides the consumer with care information
  22. 22.  It is a label of such material and is attached in such manner that it can be expected to withstand and remain legible throughout at least ten cleanings of the articles.  followings are some examples of those articles:  jackets, coats, overcoats, top coats and sweaters  bedspreads, blankets, quilts and comforters  sheets, pillows and pillowcases PERMANENT LABELS
  23. 23.  It is a label which is not expected to withstand and remain legible through ten cleaning of the consumer textile article. following are some examples of those articles:  undergarments  scarves, shawls, mufflers and handkerchiefs.  stretch tights, hosiery and panty hose.  gloves, mittens and gaiters.  yarn, sewing and embroidery threads.  umbrellas and parasol  dish clothes, dishtowels and wash clothes TEMPORARY LABELING
  25. 25.  the labeling of fabrics with brand name is well established method and is used by the manufacturer as name or tool in advertising.   it identifies the quality of product by a letter or no. or a word to derive a characteristics of fabric are compared with one or standard.  It indicates that the item is tested by lab usually one independent of the manufacturers of product.  These certification labels are often referred to as seals of approval. A. Brand labeling B. Grade labeling- C. Certificate labeling-
  26. 26.  It is a tag which gives description ,Used for the purpose of fiber content of fabric such as wool, silk, cotton and eco label.  It gives information how fabric is made, how it will perform in use and how to care of the fabric.  An addition to an informative, brand or certification label there may also be a union labels.This assures the consumers that the garment was made under fair/good working conditions. E. Union labeling-
  27. 27.  A sewn in label with any no. found in the garment [e.g. 6000 or any no.] means that the manufacturer obtained a registration no. from the Bureau of Consumer Protection of the FTC [FederalTrade Commission].  Various federal processes include provisions for mandatory labeling with consequent requirements for supervision and enforcements. Thus functions have been assigned to various agencies although many acts are assigned to Federal Trade Commission until 1973.  FTC was created by an Act of congress on September 26, 1914. The activities of the FTC are designed to protect not only the ultimate consumers by also the different segments of industry.  Mandatory Labeling ‘ML’ describe acceptable and legal commercial practices for the manufacturer, dealer to follow, law and regulation in the textile industries continue to affect it to inform to general operation, label requirement, environmental issues, design aspects and health safety concern. MANDATORY LABELING- 2. Mandatory labeling-2. Mandatory labeling-2. Mandatory labeling-
  28. 28.  The activities of Federal Trade Commission are designed to protect not only the ultimate consumer but also compulsory segments of the textile industry itself.  It is the responsibility of FTC to prevent unfair or deceptive trade practices, for example marketing of Rayon / Polyester blend crushed in such a way to suggest that it was made of flax.  The first four laws and regulation deals with “Truth in fabrics” aspect for these, to the beneficial the consumer must have knowledge about the fibers and fabrics.  The first FTC of ruling on weighing of silk was established in 1938.  It specified that no silk product containing more than 10% weighing except those that are colored black may carry a label that they are silk or pure dyed silk. 1.SILK REGULATION 1932
  29. 29.  It was designed to protect consumer as well as producer , manufacturer as well as distributers from the unreal presence of substitutes and mixtures and to inform the consumer of the source of wool fiber .  This Act implies to any textile product containing wool which include carpets, rugs , mats and upholstery. The law requires the labels must give the fiber content percentage and the source of fiber .  The name or the registered identification number of the manufacturer must be there on the label. The registered number is designated WPL or RN where WPL refers to Wool Product Label and RN (Registered Number) and the next several digits are the actual number.  The Act requires that the name of the country where the product was manufactured or be processed must be listed on the label. These labels must be sewn in the item . Their location is designated in the Act. o The terms that appear on the labels of wool items are defined by the FTC as follows: a. WOOL – New wool or wool fibers reclaimed from knit straps , broken thread. b. RECYCLED WOOL – Straps of new woven or felted fabrics that are shredded back to the fibrous state and used again in the manufacture of woolens. c. VIRGIN WOOL – Wool that has never been processed in any way.
  30. 30.  This Act applies to Furs, those items of animals origin with the hair/fibers attached .  The Act requires that the true English language name of the animal to be used on the labels for wearing apparel and that dyed furs be so labeled . The country of origin must also be identified.  The Act has been amended to identify animal by name and has expanded the list of modifications to the natural fur to include tip dyeing , pointing (coloring the tips of guard’s hair) and other means of artificially altering the color and appearance of the fur.  This law does not provide for a quality designation. Poor quality fur is available in the market .  The law protects the consumer from buying furs sold under name resembling expensive furs.  The label must disclose if the fur is waste fur or has been used, damaged, dyed, bleached or otherwise treated to artificially change the color.  This act is commonly called the Fur Act in the industry.
  31. 31.  The TFPIA covers all the fibers except those already covered by the Wool Product Labeling Act with certain other exceptions. TFPIA became law and went into effect on march 3, 1960.  The purpose of the law is “to protect” consumers and producers against miss branding and false advertising of the fiber content of textile fiber.  TFPIA doesn’t require the label to be sewn into the item but that the information be available at Point of Sale. Handbags or printed packing material may list the fiber content.  To comply with TFPIA , the manufacturers are required to give the following information: 1. The fiber or the combination of fiber used in the item. Fiber must be designated with equal prominence whether natural or manufactured fibers. 2. The %age of each fiber present by weight in the total fiber content must be given. 3. The tag, label or stamp must carry the name or other identification of the manufacturer of the product. 4. If the item is important , the name of the country where the product was made must appear on the label.
  32. 32.  The amended versions of this regulation became effective in 1984.  It requires “A label or Tag permanently affixed or attached to the finished apparel or article which clearly discloses instructions for the regular care and maintenance of such articles”. Hence, the regulation is often referred to as Permanent Care Labeling Rule.  The regulation specifies the location of the label by the product type.
  33. 33.  Care label is important that the customer is given accurate information as to how to take care of their garments, so they can make informed purchase decision concerning the care characteristics and cleaners to avoid product damage caused by the use of improper cleaning procedures.  Before the care instructions are put on care labels, the items are tested and these testing are:-  shrinkage  colorfastness  change in body or hand . IMPORTANCE OF LABELLING
  34. 34.  a. Laundering: A process intended to remove soil or stains by washing with an aqueous detergent solution (and possibly bleach) and normally including subsequent rinsing, extracting and drying. b. Chlorine bleach: A process carried out in an aqueous medium before, during or after washing processes, requiring the use of chlorine based bleaching agent for the purpose of removing stains and/or improving whiteness. c. Dry-cleaning: A process for cleaning textile articles by means of organic solvents (eg, petroleum, perchlorethylene, fluorocarbon).This process consists of cleaning, rinsing, spinning and drying.  d.Tumble drying: A process carried out on a textile article after washing, with the intention of removing residual water by treatment with hot air in a rotating drum.  e. Ironing: A method of pressing using a heated hand iron sometimes together with moisture or steam, and a gliding motion. f. Pressing: A process of smoothing and shaping by heat and pressure, with or without the presence of steam. Care instructions
  35. 35.  CARE LABELING SYSTEMS  International care labeling system.  Japan care labeling system.  British care labeling system.  Canadian care labeling system.
  36. 36.  International Symposium for care labeling was established in 1963 in Paris. It was replaced by International Association forTextile Care Labeling (GINETEX) in 1975.The symbols used in GINETEX system represent that the garment can withstand the process and a cross indicates the process is not possible for the garment.The following five symbols are used:  The number inside the washtub indicates the maximum permissible temperature of washing.  ‘CL’ inside the triangle indicates that chlorine bleaching is possible.  The dots (1, 2 or 3) inside the iron symbol indicate the maximum temperature at which ironing can be done.  The letters (A, P or F) inside the circle indicate the dry-cleaning process with the solvent to be used.  A circle inside a square indicates the particular garment can be tumble-dried a. International Care Labeling System: A
  37. 37. SYMBOL INSTRUCTION May be ironed directly at 180-210oC Machine wash at 95oC or less water temperature Hand wash in water temperature of 30oC or less Wring softly by hand or spin dry by machine quickly. Lay flat to dry Use chlorine bleach. Any dry-cleaning agent can be used Japanese Care Labeling System uses basic symbols that are different from other systems of care labeling. Some of the symbols with their meaning are discussed below- b. Japanese Care Labeling System:
  38. 38.  : The British Care Labeling System uses graphic symbols to provide information on care labels. The five basic symbols are described below: SYMBOL INSTRUCTIONS Washtub indicates washing. Triangle indicates bleaching. Iron indicates ironing. Circle indicates dry-cleaning. Square indicates drying. Cross superimposed on any of the preceding five symbols indicates that such a treatment or process should be used. c. British Care Labeling System
  39. 39.  Canadian Care Labeling System consists of five basic symbols that are illustrated in three conventional traffic light colors. If any message is not conveyed by the care labeling symbols, words in English and French may be used.The five symbols must appear in the following order on the care labels: washing, bleaching, drying, ironing, and dry-cleaning. The symbols are described in the following table: d. Canadian Care Labeling System:
  40. 40.  WASHING INSTRUCTION- SYMBOL PROCESS Green washtub- Machine wash in hot water (not exceeding 70oC). Green circle- Dry-clean. Orange iron- Iron at a medium temperature (not exceeding 150oC). Recommended for nylon and polyester. Red iron- Do not iron or pres Green square - Tumble dry at medium to high temperature and remove article from machine as soon as it is dry. Avoid over- drying. Green square - Hang to dry after removing excess water. Orange square- Dry on flat surface after extracting excess water Orange triangle - Use chlorine bleach. Don’t perform the action.
  41. 41.  “Eco labeling “is a voluntary method of environmental performance certification & labeling i.e. practiced around the world.  An eco label is a label which identifies overall environmental preference of a product or service within a specific product/ service category based on life cycle concentrations.  In contrast to green symbols or claim statements developed by manufacturers & service providers, an eco label is awarded by an impartial third party in relation to certain products or services that are independently determined to meet environmental leadership criteria.  Environmental issues effects the production of fiber, yarn, fabric, finishes, dyes & pigments, distribution of components & finished goods & disposal of waste. And all these are areas of concern to producers, retailers, consumers & service workers.
  42. 42.  it enforces & regulates air, water and noise pollution & disposal of water. It overseas compliance of the industry with laws including the pollution prevention act of 1990, designed to reduce pollution aided sources  .There are two more acts-  Clean air act 1970  Clean water act 1972
  43. 43.  it develops and enforces standard for safety & educational training programs for workers.  Consumers are greatly influenced by what is available in the market for their demand Green products that claim, to have minimum environmental impact.  it is a multidisciplinary scientific organization that verifies environmental claims & provides complete environment profiles of products and packaging based on lifecycle analysis. Scientific Certification System (SCS)-
  44. 44.  The EU equable is also known as “flower” because of its logo it was introduced In 1992 as part of border EU strategy to stimulate sustainable consumption and production and is now one of the major voluntary instrument included in the new sustainable industrial policy action plan adapted by the European commission by 2008 .  Eco labels bring transparent and scientifically based systems are to make the green choices enabling environment sustainable purchasing by private citizens businesses and public authorities.  An Eco label can generate financial saving through reducing consumption manufacturing of raw material and label guides the consumers and accrue in recognizing quality product with fewer bad enviourment impact at the same time encouraging manufacture to develop and supply enviourment sound product and use of their resources efficiently
  45. 45. Oeko-100(organic exchange)- •it is a European certification standard that identifies acceptable limits for heavy metals containing carcinogeneous-cancer causing dyes, pesticides, emission of hazardous substances & other aspects of textile products that have been found to be hazardous to the environment of the user.
  46. 46.  For consumers care symbols make sense when they can understand and follow the instructions. Symbols should provide the same information to everyone without language barriers. Use of symbols allow for smaller and more comfortable care labels. Smaller labels also cost less and this could translate into consumer savings. The symbols are easy to understand with few basic symbols. For manufacturers care symbols make even more sense. When harmonised with other countries, symbols will allow participation in a global marketplace where symbols will clearly communicate the same information in all countries. Smaller labels cost less to buy or manufacture and also cost less to inventory. Eliminating the need for different labels for different countries can further reduce total inventory. So all the manufacturers should attach care labeling instructions to the garment for the benefit of the consumers and to keep their brands at a higher position. Due to globalization and liberalization processes it becomes more relevant for the garment manufactures to use care labeling systems in the apparel. It is also very much essential for the garment manufacturers to make awareness campaign regarding the utility of care labels for the consumers. However while applying the care labels it is very important for the garment manufacturers to understand the comfort criteria of care labels.
  48. 48. THANK YOU