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What is the Reef?

What is the Reef?
What are the threats to the reef?
What is being done to protect the reef?

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Great barrier reef presentation Great barrier reef presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Biodiversity in Danger
    The GreatBarrierReef
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • Overview:
    Introduction to the Reef:
    What is a reef?
    Meet the Great Barrier Reef
    The Problem:
    Endangered Species of the GBR
    Causes of the Problem
    Solutions for The Problem
    Reef water protection plan
    Biodiversity strategy
    Conclusion
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • What is A Reef?
    • Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems made of tiny living animals, called corals.
    • Corals are soft, stationary animals without a backbone!
    • When the corals die, they leave behind hard structures that are the basis of the reef
    • Home to 30 different kinds of whales, 6 kinds of turtles, and over 1500 kinds of fish, PLUS sea snakes, sharks, and stingrays!
    • Home to some of the largest clams in the world!
    • Microscopic algae live on the corals and through photosynthesis, the corals “steal” nutrients from the algau, giving them their vibrant colors
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • Meet the Great Barrier Reef
    • Barrier Reefs are those that form parallel to a land mass, usually several miles away
    • Found in the shallow waters surrounding Queensland, Australia!
    • Named one of the seven wonders of the world!
    • Estimated to be 500,000Years old
    • It is the largest reef system in the world!
    • Over 344,400 square kilometers and 1,800 miles long!
    • 1,200 miles long
    • Can be seen from space!
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • The Problem:
    • Due to many outside influences, Great Barrier Reef is in peril!
    • It is estimated that by the year 2100, the world will have only 30% of it’s coral reefs
    • The Great Barrier Marine Park Authority has introduced several plans to help stop this
    • Lots of the species that are native to the Great Barrier Reef, and only found there are becoming endangered!
    • Endangered animals are species that are in danger of going extinct
    • Many of the species on the reef are exclusive to this area, which means when they are gone from the reef, they are gone from the planet
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • The Problem: Endangered Species
    • The following are the chief concern of the Marine Park Authority. There are MANY other species in danger as well.
    • Sharks – whale shark, grey nurse shark, great white shark, freshwater and green sawfish
    • Marine turtles
    • Birds
    • Seals
    • Whales and dolphins
    • Dugongs
    • Shells – helmet shells, triton shells, tridacnid clams
    • Fish – seahorses, pipefish, sea dragons, potato cod, Queensland Grouper, barramundi cod, Maori wrasse, all other grouper over 100 cm
    • Seasnakes
    • Crocodiles
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • Causes of The Problem:
    • Climate Change
    • Pollution – Toxic Spills, and groundings
    • Over-fishing and poaching
    • Natural Disasters, such as hurricanes, and tropical storms
    • Physical Damage
    • Water Quality
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • CLIMATECHANGE
    • Every part of the reef is affected by the climate changes
    • The water temperature is expected to rise 1.8-5.4 degrees Fahrenheit
    • Rising climate makes ice bergs melt, which makes the ocean rise, estimates are at 3 mm per year
    • Causes stress to the very delicate corals:
    • They become unfit hosts for and discharge the microorganisms which live on them.
    • Causes Coral Bleaching, which is when the corals begin to lose their colorations
    • Ocean acidification – Increasing temperatures cause increased carbon dioxide to be absorbed by the ocean waters.
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • POLLUTION AND WATER QUALITY
    • 30 Rivers in Queensland dump into the waters around the reef
    • Pesticides and fertilizers run off into these rivers and poison the inhabitants.
    • Spreads disease among corals
    • Copper from industries stunts polyp development
    • Ships take “shortcuts” through the reef, and release exhausts and leak oils that suffocate the corals and other organisms, into the waters
    • Sediment: solid particles settle into the water and smother the environment
    • Can result in the reef being buried!
    • Blocks sunlight so the microorganisms cannot photosynthesize and give the coral their colors
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • OVER-FISHING
    • Many species of the reef are increasing in popularity as “delicacies”
    • Naturally predatory species are over-fished, causing species lower on the food chain to grow out of control
    • Likewise, if species low on the food chain are diminished, natural predators will die due to lack of food.
    • Fishing increases pollution on the reef, because of the ships
    • Many of the endangered species are poached, for flavors, and high rates of pay
    • Reduces life span and reproduction of species (Keller et. al, 2009).
    • Nets dragged across the sea floor cause damage to the habitat.
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • NATURAL DISASTERS
    • String storm winds and waves break the corals
    • Increase sea levels!
    • Dump too much freshwater into the sea
    • The corals, polyps and all other inhabitants are salt water friendly
    • Freshwater decreases coral growth
    • Rising water levels increase run off into the rivers and, subsequently into the sea!
    • Diluting the salt water contributes to coral bleaching and death of the polyps
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • TOURISM
    • Stealing: Tourists rip pieces of the coral, and polyps from the reef
    • Touching: Suntan lotions and oils wash off and cause damage to the reef
    • Boats drop anchors in the reef and cause physical damage
    • Increases pollution, also
    • Littering: leaving foreign things in the reef
    • Fishes may ingest harmful matter
    • Chemicals in the litter can be harmful
    • Much of the litter does not biodegrade
    • Propellers hit marine animals, such as endangered dugongs and turtles
    • Snorkel fins damage corals when stricken
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • Solutions for The Problem
    • Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority
    • Outlook Report
    • Biodiversity Strategy
    • Reef water Protection Plan
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority
    • Manages the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
    • Employs 15 Advisory Committees
    • Committed to the long-term protection of the reef
    • Reef HQ Aquarium – education center run by the GBRMPA
    • 25 Year plan:
    • Conservation
    • Resource Management
    • Education, and Communication
    • Research and Monitoring
    • Management Processes
    (http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/management/25-year_strategic_plan)
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009
    • A summary of the status and future of the Great Barrier Reef
    • Provides a report of the management of the Great Barrier Reef
    • Summarizes the past and present management of the Great Barrier Reef
    • Highlights:
    • The GBR is one of the most extraordinary ecosystems in the world
    • Key issues to be addressed within the Park:
    • Climate
    • Declining water quality
    • Loss of habitat
    • Fishing
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • Bio-Diversity Strategy
    • Great Barrier Reef is home to a VAST variety of species
    • No other place in the world is home to as many different plant and animal species living in harmony with each other
    • It is imperative that we preserve the diversity of this ecosystem
    • Aims to guide and help coordinate management actions that will protect and conserve biodiversity in the Great Barrier Reef, (GBRMPA, August 2010).
    • Conserves the diversity of the habitat as well as it inhabitants
    • Provides a framework for how biodiversity is managaged (GBRMPA, 2010).
    • Completes assessments on progress
    • Identifies problems, fall-backs, and prioritizes threats
    • Manufactures and distributes publications to the public
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • Reef water protection plan
    • Launched in 2003, revised 2009
    • 2 Goals:
    • immediate goal - to halt and reverse the decline in water quality entering the Reef by 2013 (Qld Gov, 2009)
    • long term goal - to ensure that by 2020 the quality of water quality entering the Reef from adjacent catchments has no detrimental impact on the health and resilience of the Great Barrier Reef. (Qld Gov, 2009)
    • Implement strategies on the farms surrounding the area
    • Enact, Review, oversee and stay on top of policies
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • Reef Protection Plan
    • Goal: To protect the Great Barrier Reef
    • Protects 33% of the reef from commercial and recreational fishing!
    • Identifies endangered species, and outlines steps to protect them
    • Allows native peoples to fish the reef
    • Prohibits removal of any part of the reef or any inhabitant
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • Conclusion:
    The Great Barrier Reef has been recognized as a World Heritage Site. It covers an area larger than the size of Italy. Te Great Barrier Reef is home to a very wide variety of corals, polyps, plants, animals, fish, and more organisms and is more than 500,000 years old. It is imperative that we preserve this treasure trove under the sea. Many human practices are killing The Great Barrier Reef, but through knowledge we can spread the word and help combat the destruction of this natural wonder of the Earth. Please, help, spread the word!
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • Works Cited
    1. "Australia and Oceania." International Wildlife 26.2 (1996): 34. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 28 Sept. 2010.
    http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.hacc.edu/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=105&sid=810098e4-be71-44bc-8cda-df3fc081df3%40sessionmgr110&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db =aph&AN=9602294069
    2. Mitchell, Alanna. Seasick: Ocean Change and the Extinction of Life on Earth. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2009. Print.
    3. Veron, J E. N. A Reef in Time: The Great Barrier Reef from Beginning to End. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2008. Print.
    4. Bowen, James, and Margarita Bowen. The Great Barrier Reef: History, Science, Heritage. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Print.
    5. Chaloupka, Milani, et al. "Encouraging outlook for recovery of a once severely exploited marine megaherbivore." Global Ecology & Biogeography 17.2 (2008): 297-304. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 12 Oct. 2010.
    http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.hacc.edu/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=105&sid=810098e4-be71-44bc-8cda-1df3fc081df3%40sessionmgr110&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db =aph&AN=28807648
    6. GBRMPA. "Biodiversity Strategy." August 2010. Australian Government. Web 30 September 2010.
    http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/key_issues/conservation/biodiversity_strategy/document/Info_sheet_biodiversity_strategy.pdf
    7. GBRMPA. "Outlook Report 2009." 2009. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Australian Government. Web 10 Oct 2010.
    http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/about_us/great_barrier_reef_outlook_report/great_barrier_reef_outlook_report_2009_-_in_brief
    8. GBRMPA. "Protected Species in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Australian Government. Web 15 November 2010.
    http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/key_issues/conservation/natural_values
    8. Keller, Brian, et al. Pub Med Central. Springer, 2009. Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, and Management Options for Marine Protected Areas. Web. 10 Oct. 2010.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2791481/
    9. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NOAA Fisheries. Office of Protected Resources. Green Turtle, 2008. Web. 30 Sept. 2010.
    http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/turtles/green.htm
    10. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NOAA Fisheries. Office of Protected Resources. Hawksbill Turtle, 2008. Web. 30 Sept. 2010.
    http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/turtles/hawksbill.htm
    11. Queensland Government. "Reef Water Quality Protection Plan." 31 August 2009. Australian Government. Web 30 September 2010.
    http://www.reefplan.qld.gov.au/about/rwqpp.shtm
    12. WWF - Australia. "Great Barrier Reef." 2010. World Wildlife Fund. Web. 12 Oct 2010.
    http://www.wwf.org.au/ourwork/oceans/gbr/ 
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • Photo Credits
    1. Rowell, Andy. “Great Barrier Reef.” 07 July 2010. Online Image. Oil Change International. Accessed 16 November 2010.
    http://priceofoil.org/2009/07/07/coral-reefs-are-%E2%80%9Con-death-row%E2%80%9D/
    2. Queensland Tourism/AP. “australia-great-barrier-reef.” 2010. Online Image. Destination 360. Accessed 16 November 2010.
    http://www.destination360.com/australia-south-pacific/australia/great-barrier-reef
    3. AP. “Fishing.” 06 April 2010. Online Image. Huffington Post. Online Image. Accessed 16 November 2010.
    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/04/06/great-barrier-reef-disast_n_527359.html#s79080
    4. James, Debra. “Great Barrier Reef, Australia.” Science Daily. Online Image. Accessed 16 November 2010.
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/07/100706103406.htm
    5. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. “Coral Bleaching.” 2010. The Age. Online Image. Accessed 16 November 2010.
    http://www.theage.com.au/national/scientists-oceanic-plea-warns-of-imminent-reef-eulogy-20080606-2myo.html
    6. Bell, Gary. “Great Barrier Reef, Australia.” 13 April 2007. National Geographic. Online Image. Accessed 16 November 2010.
    http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/kids/stories/peopleplaces/cool-vacations/
    7. Freund, J. “Porites Corals, Great Barrier Reef, Ausatralia.” 02 January 2009. BBC News. Online Image. Accessed 16 November 16, 2010.
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7807943.stm
    8. Winter, Kate. “Hatchling.” 15 April 2010. Queensland Government. Environment and Resource Management. Online Image. Accessed 16 November 2010.
    http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-ecosystems/wildlife/az_of_animals/loggerhead_turtle.html
    9. Leguen, Roger. "Turtle." WWF. Onlne Image. Accessed 29 Nov 2010.
    <http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1239/553140408_fffa55f330.jpg>
    10. "Turtle 3."
    <gallery.photo.net/photo/4072701-md.jpg>
    11. Reuters. "Beach whale" 17 July 2006. Baltimore Sun. Online image. Accessed 29 Nov 2010.
    http://www.thewe.cc/weplanet/news/water/rising_sea_temperature_killing_great_barrier_reef.htm
    12. "Dying Coral Reefs." Global Issues in Context Online Collection. Detroit: Gale Global Issues In Context. Gale. Online Image. Accessed 29 Nov 2010.
    http://www.cengage.com.br/gale/globalissues/slideshow.htm#
    13. Messersmith, Jan. 25 September 2009. Madang-PlesBilong Mi. Online Image. Accessed 29 Nov 2010.
    http://www.messersmith.name/wordpress/2009/09/
    14. "Bleach tumblr." 10 Oct 2010. One Green Planet. Online Image. Accessed 29 Nov 2010.
    http://onegreenplanet.org/post/1284653268/cry-of-the-corals
    Angel Carney, 2010
  • PhotoCredits
    15. Coleman, Neville. "Pseudoceros sp. World of Water. Marine flatworms in Focus. Online Image. Accessed 29 Nov 2010.
    http://www.nevillecoleman.com.au/underwater-marine-life-journal/nature-in-focus/marine-flatworms-in-focus.aspx
    16. "Giant Clam" Northrup and Johnson. Worldwide Yacht Charters. 6 March 2009. Online Image. Accessed 30 November 2010.
    http://www.njcharters.com/nj_charters_blog/2009/03/great-barrier-reef-australia-exciting.html
    17. Croce, Peter. "great-barrier-reef-diving." 29 May 2009. Cairns. See the Great Barrier Reef. Online Image. Accessed 30 Nov 2010.
    http://www.cairns.com.au/article/2009/05/29/35165_travel-stories.html
    18. Freund, Jurgen. "GBR Crown of Thorns." WWF. Online Image. Accessed 15 Oct 2010.
    http://www.wwf.org.au/ourwork/oceans/gbr/
    19. Australia Indymedia. “shen_neng_1_aground_great_barrier_reef.” San Francisco Bay Area Independent Media Center. Online Image. Accessed 18 Oct 2010.
    http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2010/04/05/18643803.php
    20. Greenland, J. ” DSC04121.” 2002. Australian Government. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Online Image. Accessed 25 Oct 2010.
    http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/about_us/great_barrier_reef_outlook_report/outlook_report/evidence/01_standard_evidence_page100
    21. Reuters. “FIJI_1597512c.” 17 March 2010. The Telegraph. Online Image. Accessed 25 October 2010.
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    22. Burke, Loretta. March 2003. “photo_cbleach_sed.” WRI Features. Ed. Peter Denton. World Resources Institute. Online Image. Accessed 10 November 2010.
    http://archive.wri.org/newsroom/wrifeatures_text.cfm?ContentID=1053
    23. Whitsunday Boat Show. 31 March 2010. “GBRMPA” Don’t Touch The Coral. GBR Threats Blog. Online Image. Accessed 30 November 2010.
    http://gbrthreats.blogspot.com/
    24. 7 February 2009. ” 450px-coral_garden.” The Great Barrier Reef Corals. Visit the Great Barrier Reef. Online Image Accessed 25 October 2010.
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    25. Schofield, Laura. "ozgbr." 2 March 2010. Visit Australia's Natural Wonders. STA Travel. Online Image. Accessed 25 October 2010.
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    26. Hancock County. "Animals of the Great Barrier Reef." Hancock Economic Development Council. Online Image. Accessed 25 October 2010.
    http://www.greenfieldpub.lib.in.us/childrens/Programs/australia/index2007.htm
     
    Angel Carney, 2010