Documentation Style A “documentation style” refers to the way researchers and writers illustrate that information from sources used to support their assertions has been borrowed.
Plagiarism The failure to properly acknowledge a borrowed source in an essay is a serious academic crime and could be deemed plagiarism. The word comes from the Latin word plagiarius, meaning “kidnapping” or “literary thief.”
APA Style To maintain coherence throughout the curriculum, Hodges University has adopted APA style as the standard method used to document sources in essay writing. APA is used by many colleges and universities.
What is APA style?It is a social sciencespublished style guide thatadvises researchers andwriters on how to incorporate,document, and format papers.
APA Quick GuideSee the Library main webpage to access an APAguide that contains samplepages and basic rules forusing APA Style.
APA Style in the essay Your essays should contain reliable and valid sources The essays should be formatted properly They should follow APA rules for mechanics and expression (grammar) They must have proper in-text citations They must have a reference page with proper source citations
Reliable and Valid Sources A reliable source is one that is generally current and written by an expert in the subject area. A valid source is one that specifically addresses your chosen topic and can be used to support your assertions. These sources would include books, periodicals (magazines, professional journals, newspapers), and respected organization web sites.
Formatting Title page w/text double-spaced, centered, approx. 4” from top with title, student name, and organization (Hodges University). Approximately 4” from the bottom of the title page, include the class name & number, instructor name, and date. 12 pt. Times New Roman font Double-spacing with no right justification Margins of 1” all around (unless bound; if bound, use 1½” on left margin) No more than 27 lines / page
Formatting (cont.) Header w/page numbers in upper right corner (title page counts as page 1) Indent each paragraph 5-7 spaces or one tab stroke Tables and content footnotes appear after references Reference page at end listing only sources used in the text as support Abstract comes after title page, if instructor requires See examples in the APA Publication Manual and the Hodges APA Guide.
Mechanics and Expressions Active voice over passive voice No use of contractions (i.e. can‟t) Key words in titles are capitalized and italicized in text, but capitalize only first word in reference list title and only italicize primary titles Generally, all numbers 10 and above are expressed in figures, as are numbers used in measurements, dates, time, exact money sums, percentages, etc.
In-Text Citations Writers use sources to build credibility in argumentation and as support for a claim. You have three options for using sources in text: Direct quoting Paraphrasing Summarizing All must be documented
In-Text Citations (cont.) Three elements are necessary for in-text documentation: author’s last name (or in lieu of that, group title, like National Institute of Health, or if no author, a part of the title--“College Guide”) year of publication page or paragraph # This is true also for electronic sources
Examples According to one study, academic performance is enhanced by efficient use of study time (Doe, 2005, p. 25). *Note: as a variation, date and author name can be placed in other pertinent areas in the sentence. According to one study by Dr. Jane Doe (2005), academic performance is enhanced by efficient use of study time (p. 25).
In-Text Citations (cont.) When quoting information over forty words, block it off—double spaced text indented 5 spaces. *Note: in this case, the parenthetical citation goes after the quote, but outside the period. Blend sources into your sentence structure. That is, a source must be properly introduced:
Examples Jane Doe claims that “students do well in a rigorous academic environment” (2005, p. 25). *Note: only use quotation marks when the author‟s words and ideas are borrowed.Paraphrase or summarize in other cases: In one study by Jane Doe (2005), students functioned well in an environment with high academic expectations (p. 25).
In-Text Citations (cont.) Use traditionally respected sources, whether in hardcopy or electronic form, including books, periodicals (journals, magazines, and newspapers) and respected organization web sites (U.S. Census Bureau, for example).
References Page Center and title reference page as References Alphabetize and double space entries Each line after the first of an entry should be indented one tab stroke (five spaces) Key elements to include in a citation: author, date of publication, specific title, source title, volume and page numbers (if applicable) If an electronic source, include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if available. If not available, put the URL of where you retrieved the source (“Retrieved from www.ti.com/)
Examples BookDoe, J. (2005). Students in school. New York: Academic Press. Magazine or JournalDoe, J. (2005). School study habits among students. Journal of Academic Life, 10(2), 10-20.
Examples Newspaper ArticleDoe, J. (2005, March 2). Student study habits. Naples Daily News, p. A5. Article from an Online DatabaseDoe, J. (2005, January). Students who study succeed in school. Psychology Today, 125. doi: 543.1324 497256548746
Examples Government Agency or Group Author U. S. Study Bureau. (2005). Research in student study habits (Report #142-5). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. Electronic Source from Web Doe, J. (2005). Students who study. Retrieved from http://studentstudy/research.com
Examples Audiovisual Source (movie, music CD, information CD, TV program)King, L. (Host). (2005, March 2). Larry King live. New York: CNN.Zemeckis, R. (Director). (1991). Forrest Gump [Film]. Hollywood, CA: Paramount.Bono. (Lyricist). (2000). Walk on. On All that you can’t leave behind [CD]. New York: Interscope.
For more information about APA See the many helps available through the AAS and Library websites. See the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Make a one-on-one appointment with an AAS tutor Ask your instructor
For more information about APAYou can also view some short video tutorials (right click on URL, click „open hyperlink‟): Citing Articles with APA http://www.screencast.com/t/YTczMjQ5 Citing Books and E-books http://www.screencast.com/t/MDUyNmU3 Citing Websites http://www.screencast.com/t/MTUyMDcyNmYt Citing Tables and Figures http://www.screencast.com/t/ZDIzOTZmZjQ