GRAMMAR BOOK
Liliana Russell
TABLE OF CONTENTS

7.

1. Imperfect
2. Preterite
3. Por y Para
4. Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns
5. Usted Commands
6. ...
IMPERFECT

-to talk about something you used to do
as a matter of habit
-to speak about how old someone was
-to say what t...
PRETERITE

Preterito
AR
é

Er/ir
Amos

Aste
ó

í

Ió

Ieron

Snake/ Snakey
Stem Changers
Dormí
Dormiste
Durmió
Dormimos
Du...
POR Y PARA

• Use por
Motion or a general
location
- La exursion nos
llevo por el centro.

Duration of an
action
- Miguel ...
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND
PRONOUNS

Po s s e s s ive a d j e c t ive s

These show personal relationships of
possessions. ...
USTED COMMANDS

•
•

Used to refer to a group of people or in
formal situations
They are formed by dropping the final –o
o...
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE

• Used to express will • Verbs with irregular yo
and influence,
forms in the present
indicative tense...
SUBJUNCTIVE WITH VERBS OF
WILL AND INFLUENCE
Aconsejar:
to advise

Rogar:
to beg:
plead

Recomendar:
to
recommend

Importa...
SUBJUNCTIVE WITH VERBS OF
EMOTION

• When the main clause of a
sentyence expresses an emotion
or feeling, use the subjunct...
DOUBT, DISBELIEF AND DENIAL

• The subjunctive is used with
expression of doubt, disbelief,
and denial
• Dudan que su hijo...
CONJUNCTIONS

• Conjunctions are words or
phrases that connect clauses in
sentences. Certain conjunctions
introduce adverb...
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Grammar Book Semester 1

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Grammar Book Semester 1

  1. 1. GRAMMAR BOOK Liliana Russell
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS 7. 1. Imperfect 2. Preterite 3. Por y Para 4. Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns 5. Usted Commands 6. Present Subjunctive Subjunctive with Verbs of Will and Influence 8. Subjunctive with verbs of emotion 9. Doubt, disbelief and denial 10. Conjunctions
  3. 3. IMPERFECT -to talk about something you used to do as a matter of habit -to speak about how old someone was -to say what time it was Ser Ir Ver Era Iba Veía Eras Ibas Veías Era Iba Íbamos Veíamos Erais Ibais Veíais Eran Iban Veían -ir Salir Cantaba Tenia Salía Cantabas Tenias Salías Cantaba Tenia Salía Cantábamos Teníamos Salíamos Teníais Salíais Tenían Salían Veía Éramos -er Tener Cantaban -to speak about background events in a story -ar Cantar Cantabais Can be used -er and –ir verb endings include –ia. -ar verb endings include –aba/ -ába. Here are the only verbs that don’t follow the regular pattern.
  4. 4. PRETERITE Preterito AR é Er/ir Amos Aste ó í Ió Ieron Snake/ Snakey Stem Changers Dormí Dormiste Durmió Dormimos Durmieron -e -iste -o -imos -isteis -ieron Y Changers Leí Leímos Leíste Leyó Leyeron Trigger words Ayer, anoche, anteayer, la semana pasada, el mes pasado, el año pasado Andar Anduv- Estar Imos Iste Aron Cucaracha Verbs Estuv- Poder Pud- Poner Pus- Quere QuisSup- Fui Tener Tuv- Fuiste Venir Vin- Fue Conducir Conduj- Producir Produj- Traducir Traduj- Dar/ ver Ir/ ser Saber Spock Verbs Car Gar Zar Di/ vi Dimos/ vimos Diste/ viste Dio/ vio Dieron/ vieron Hacer Fuimos Hice Hicimos Hiciste Fueron -car -gar -zar Hizo Hicieron yo -qué yo -gué yo -cé
  5. 5. POR Y PARA • Use por Motion or a general location - La exursion nos llevo por el centro. Duration of an action - Miguel estudio por la noche Object of a search - Vengo por ti a las ocho. Means by which something is done - Ellos viajan por la autopista. Exchange or substitution - Le di dinero por el estereo. Unit of measure - Jose manejaba 120 kilometros por hora. Use para (for, in order to) to indicate… The recipient of items • El regalo para tú mama Purpose • Vamos al restaraunte para comer. Implied purpose • Tengo dinero para (comprar) algo.
  6. 6. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS Po s s e s s ive a d j e c t ive s These show personal relationships of possessions. All of them agree in gender and number with the nouns they describe. Long form- singular Mio Nuestro Tuyo Vuestro Short Form Suyo suyo Mi Long form- plural Mios Nuestros Tuyos Vuestros Suyos suyos Po s s e s s ive p r o n o u n s These also form personal relationships. To form one, you 1. Use the long form of he possessive adjective 2. Add el, la, los, las according to the gender and number of the noun it replaces Tu Su A verb used reflexively tells you that only the subject of the verb is involved in the action. When using a reflexive verb in the infinitive form, attach the pronoun to the infinitive.
  7. 7. USTED COMMANDS • • Used to refer to a group of people or in formal situations They are formed by dropping the final –o of the yo form of the present tense. For –ar verbs, add –e or –en. For –er and –ir verbs, add –a or –an. Infinitive Present tense yo form Ud. Uds. Command Command Limpiar Limpio Limpie Barro Barra Barran Sacudir Sacudo Sacuda sacudan Verbs with irregular yo forms have the same irregularity in their formal commands. (conducir, conocer, decir, hacer, ofrecer, oir, poner, salir, tener, traducir, traer, venir, and ver) Limpien Barrer • E: ie O: ue E:I No pierda la llave. Vuelva temprano. Sirva la sopa. Cierren la puerta. Duerman bien, chicos. Repitan las oraciones.
  8. 8. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE • Used to express will • Verbs with irregular yo and influence, forms in the present indicative tense have emotion, doubt/ the same irregularity in disbelief/ denial, and th epresent subjunctive. indefiniteness. Hablar Comer Escribir Hable Coma Escriba Hables Comas Escribas Hable Coma Escriba Infinitive Present indicitave Present Subjunctive Hablemos Comamos Escribamos Conducir Conduzco Conduzca Habléis Comáis Escribáis Conocer Conozco Conozca Hablen Coman Escriban Decir Digo Diga Hacer Hago Haga Ofrecer Ofrezco Ofrezca Oir Oigo Oiga Paracer Parezco parezca • Un verbo “Especial” • Dos clausulas • Dos sujetos diferentes • La palabra “que” Dar, ir, ser, haber, estar, saber
  9. 9. SUBJUNCTIVE WITH VERBS OF WILL AND INFLUENCE Aconsejar: to advise Rogar: to beg: plead Recomendar: to recommend Importar: to be important Verbs of will and influence Prhibir: to prohibit Mandar: to order Insistir: to insist
  10. 10. SUBJUNCTIVE WITH VERBS OF EMOTION • When the main clause of a sentyence expresses an emotion or feeling, use the subjunctive in the subordinate clause • Marta espera que yo vaya al lago este fin de semana. Common verbs and expressions of emotion Esperar To hope; to wish Gustar To be pleasing; to like Temer To be worried; concerned Es terrible It’s terrible Alegarse (de) To be happy • Use the infinite after the expression of emotion when there is no change of subject • Temo llegar tarde. • The expression ojala (que) is always followed by the subjunctive. The use of que is optional • Ojala (que) se conserven nuestros recursos naturales.
  11. 11. DOUBT, DISBELIEF AND DENIAL • The subjunctive is used with expression of doubt, disbelief, and denial • Dudan que su hijo les diga la verdad. • The subjunctive is used in a subordinate clause when there is a change of subject and the main clause implies negation or uncertainty. • Use an infinitive after an expression of uncertainty, doubt, disbelief, or denial when there is no change of subject • Use the indicative in a subordinate clause when the main clause expresses certainty. • The verb creer expresses belief or certainty, so it is followed by the indicative.
  12. 12. CONJUNCTIONS • Conjunctions are words or phrases that connect clauses in sentences. Certain conjunctions introduce adverbial claises, which describe how, why, when, and wehre the action takes place. • With these conjunctions, use the subjunctive in the subordinate clause if the main clause expresses a future action or command. Conjunctions that require the subjunctive Conjunctions used with the subjunctive or indicative A menos que Unless Cuando When Antes (de) que Before En cuento As soon as Con tal (de) que Provided that Hasta que Until Tan pronto como As soon as

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