Liliana RussellGRAMMAR BOOK
1. Preterite2. Demonstrative Adjectives + Pronouns3. Ordinal numbers4. Prepositions5. Future6. Imperfect7. Possessive Adje...
PRETERITEARé AmosAsteó AronEr/irí ImosIsteIó IeronPreteritoCarGarZarSpock VerbsDar/ verDi/ vi Dimos/ vimosDiste/ visteDio/...
MasculineEste EstosEse EsosAquel AquellosMasculineéste éstosése ésosaquél aquéllosAdjectives PronounsDEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTI...
ORDINAL NUMBERSN
PREPOSITIONSEnglish SpanishDown AbajoUp ArribaUnder Debajo (de)Inside Dentro (de)Above Encima (de)Outside of Fuera (de)Use...
You can either use ir + a + infinitive orthe future tense.Generally you will use the ir + a+infinitive or the present tens...
Can be used-to speak about background events in astory-to talk about something you used to doas a matter of habit-to speak...
These show personal relationships ofpossessions. All of them agree ingender and number with the nounsthey describe.Long fo...
You can use direct object pronouns with verbs. The subject and the directobject are different.Reflexive verbs take a refle...
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Grammar Book

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Grammar Book

  1. 1. Liliana RussellGRAMMAR BOOK
  2. 2. 1. Preterite2. Demonstrative Adjectives + Pronouns3. Ordinal numbers4. Prepositions5. Future6. Imperfect7. Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns8. ReflexivesTABLE OF CONTENTS
  3. 3. PRETERITEARé AmosAsteó AronEr/irí ImosIsteIó IeronPreteritoCarGarZarSpock VerbsDar/ verDi/ vi Dimos/ vimosDiste/ visteDio/ vio Dieron/ vieronIr/ serFui FuimosFuisteFue FueronHacerHice HicimosHicisteHizo HicieronSnake/ SnakeyStem ChangersDormíDormisteDurmióDormimosDurmieronY ChangersLeíLeímosLeísteLeyóLeyeronCucaracha VerbsAndar Anduv-Estar Estuv-Poder Pud-Poner Pus-Quere Quis-Saber Sup-Tener Tuv-Venir Vin-Conducir Conduj-Producir Produj-Traducir Traduj-Decir Dij-Traer Traj-Trigger wordsAyer, anoche, anteayer, la semanapasada, el mes pasado, el añopasado-e-iste-o-imos-isteis-ieron-car yo -qué-gar yo -gué-zar yo -cé
  4. 4. MasculineEste EstosEse EsosAquel AquellosMasculineéste éstosése ésosaquél aquéllosAdjectives PronounsDEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES +PRONOUNSFeminineEsta EstasEse EsasAquella AquellasWhen you point out specific things, you usedemonstrative adjectives and pronouns. Ademonstrative adjective describes the locationof a noun in relation to a person.Feminineésta éstasésa ésasaquélla aquéllasThey are used in place of theadjective and the noun. They are thesame as the demonstrative adjectivesexpect they have an accent.There are also demonstrative pronouns that refer to ideas or unidentified things that do nothave a specific gender.-Que es eso?
  5. 5. ORDINAL NUMBERSN
  6. 6. PREPOSITIONSEnglish SpanishDown AbajoUp ArribaUnder Debajo (de)Inside Dentro (de)Above Encima (de)Outside of Fuera (de)Use de only when a specific location follows the expression. The words arriba andabajo are never followed by de.
  7. 7. You can either use ir + a + infinitive orthe future tense.Generally you will use the ir + a+infinitive or the present tense to expressthe future where intention is strong andthe event will happen soon.You form the future tense by adding aspecial set of endings to the infinite.With someverbs, youhave tochange theform of theinfinitiveslightly beforeadding thefuture tenseending. Youstill use thesame futuretense endings.FUTUREComer (to eat)Comeré ComeremosComerás ComeréisComerá ComeránAll verbs have the sameendings in the future tense.Infinitive Future stemDecir Dir-Hacer Har-Poner Pondr-Salir Saldr-Tener Tendr-Valer Valdr-Venir Vendr-Poder Podr-Querer Querr-Saber Sabr-The future tense is oftenassociated with plans, predictions,or events that are less certain.
  8. 8. Can be used-to speak about background events in astory-to talk about something you used to doas a matter of habit-to speak about how old someone was-to say what time it was-arCantar-erTener-irSalirCantaba Tenia SalíaCantabas Tenias SalíasCantaba Tenia SalíaCantábamos Teníamos SalíamosCantabais Teníais SalíaisCantaban Tenían SalíanIMPERFECT-er and –ir verb endings include –ia.-ar verb endings include –aba/ -ába.Ser Ir VerEra Iba VeíaEras Ibas VeíasEra Iba VeíaÉramos Íbamos VeíamosErais Ibais VeíaisEran Iban VeíanHere are the only verbs that don’t follow theregular pattern.
  9. 9. These show personal relationships ofpossessions. All of them agree ingender and number with the nounsthey describe.Long form- singularMio NuestroTuyo VuestroSuyo suyoPossessive adjectives Possessive pronounsPOSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES ANDPRONOUNSLong form- pluralMios NuestrosTuyos VuestrosSuyos suyosThese also form personal relationships.To form one, you1. Use the long form of he possessiveadjective2. Add el, la, los, las according to thegender and number of the noun itreplacesA verb used reflexively tells you thatonly the subject of the verb is involvedin the action. When using a reflexiveverb in the infinitive form, attach thepronoun to the infinitive.
  10. 10. You can use direct object pronouns with verbs. The subject and the directobject are different.Reflexive verbs take a reflexive pronoun. While the usual direct object isdifferent from the subject, a reflexive pronoun is the same person, place, thingas the subject.The subject and the direct object are the same person; you call this objectreflexive.REFLEXIVESReflexive pronounsMe NosTe OsSe Se

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