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  • 1. GRAMMAR BOOK Liliana Russell
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Nationality 11. Negative tú Commands/ 2. Stem changers Irregulars/ Pronoun Placement 3. Para 12. Sequencing events 4. IOP 13. Preterite 5. Pronoun Placement 14. Trigger Words 6. Gustar 15. -Car, -Gar, -Zar7. Affirmative and Negative Words 16. Deber and infinitive 8. Superlatives 17. Modal verbs 9. Reflexives 18. Present progressive 10. Affirmative tú Commands/ Irregulars/ Pronoun Placement 19. Adverbs
  • 3. NATIONALITIES
  • 4. STEM CHANGEDormir Jugar PedirDuermo Dormimos Juego Jugamos Pido PedimosDuermes Dormeis Juegas Jugáis Pides PedísDuerme Duermen Juega Juegan Pide PidenPensar Almorzar Contar Pienso Pensamos Almuerzo Almorzamos Cuento Cuentamos Piensas Pensáis Almuerzas Almorzáis Cuentas Cuentais Piensa Piensan Almuerza Almuerza Cuenta Cuentan The stem doesn‟t change for the nosotros or vosotros form
  • 5. PARA • Use para (for, in order to) to indicate…The recipient of Purposeitems • Vamos al restaraunte• El regalo para tú para comer. mama Implied purpose • Tengo dinero para (comprar) algo.
  • 6. IOP• They are nouns that tell whom/ what • The pronouns le and or for whom/ what les can refer to • Replace object pronouns or different indirect accompany indirect objects object. To clarify what • Can be in three places they mean, they are accompanied by: 1. Before a conjugated verb a+ name, noun, or 2. Attached to the end of an infinitive pronoun 3. Attached to a gerund (-ing verb) Me Nos Te Os Le Les
  • 7. PRONOUN PLACEMENT 1. Attach the pronoun to the infinitive 2. Attach the pronoun to the progressive 3. Attach the pronoun to an affirmative tense 4. Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb *IO Placement • When the pronoun accompanies a conjugated verb, the pronoun comes before the verb• But when the pronoun accompanies a sentence with an infinitive, it can either go before the conjugated verb or be attached to the end of the infinitive ¡TÓCALA! ¡BÁÑATE! ¡NO LA TOQUES!
  • 8. GUSTAR Me • Gusta singular • Me gusta el carro. Les Te • Infinitive gusta • Me gusta hablar español. Gusta • Plural gusta • Me gustan los carros. Os Le *Read the sentence backwards Nos • Me gusta el carro. The car is liked by me.• A mi= me gusta *A MI me gusta tacos.• A ti= te gusta • Used for emphasis• A usted/ a el/ a ella= le gusta• A nosotros= nos gusta• A ustedes/ a ellas/ a ellos= les gusta • The form of gustar matches the• A vosotros= os gusta noun, not the speaker
  • 9. AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE WORDS • When you want to talk about an indefinite or negative situation, you use an affirmative or a negative word Affirmative Words Negative Words • Algo= something • Nada= nothing • Alguien= someone • Nadie= no one • Algún/ alguno(a)= some • Ningún/ Ninguno(a)= none • Siempre=always • Nunca= never • También=also • Tampoco= neither • Alguno and ninguno must match the gender of the noun they replace or modify. They have different forms when used before masculine or singular nouns. • If a verb is proceeded by no, words that follow must be negative. A double negative is required in Spanish when no proceeds the verb.• However, if a negative words, such as nunca or nadie, comes before the verb, a second negative is not needed.
  • 10. SUPERLATIVES• The suffix –ismo, -isimos, -isima, and –isimas are added to adjectives and adverbs • It is equivalent to extremely or very before and adjective or adverb Malo Malísimo Muchas Muchísimas Difícil Dificilísimo • Adjectives & adverbs ending in C, G, or Z change spelling to que, gu, and c Rico Riquísimo Largo Larguísima Feliz Felicísimo • Adjectives that end in –n or –r form by adding –cisimo/a Joven Jovencísimo Trabajador Trabajadorcísimo
  • 11. REFLEXIVES• To describe people doing things for themselves, use • In the reflexive construction, the subject is reflexive verbs. also the object • Ex: brushing one‟s teeth or combing one‟s hair • A person does as well as receives the action• Reflexive pronouns are used with reflexive verbs to • The subject, the pronoun, and the verb are indicate that the subject of the sentence receives the all in the same form action of the verb. • Por ejemplo: Me lavo Nos lavamos Yo me levanto a las ocho de la mañana. Te lavas Os laváis • How do you form these verbs? Se lava Se lavan • Many verbs can be used with or without reflexive 1. Conjugate the verb as always pronouns. When there is no reflexive pronoun, the • Posición de los pronombres reflexivos person doing the action does not receive the actionSara se lava. ← Reflexive Not reflexive →Sara lava el 1. In front of a conjugated verbcarro. 2. Attached to a gerundSara washes herself. Sara washes the car. 3. Attached to an infinitive • They include the concept of possession. • You can put the reflexive pronoun in front of 4. Attached to an infinitive command the conjugated verb. *Reflexive= se on the end * When you use the infinitive form of a reflexive verb -acostarse after a conjugated verb, be sure to use the correct reflexive pronoun. -bañarse
  • 12. Tener No tengas Venir No vengas Dar/ decir No des/ digas Ir No vayas AFFIRMATIVE TÚ COMMANDS/ Ser No seas IRREGULARS/ PRONOUN PLACEMENT Hacer No hagas Estar No estés Saber/ salir No sepas/ salgas A f f i r m a t ive t ú C o m m a n d s I r r e g u l a r A f f i r m a t ive t ú C o m m a n d s They give instructions or commands to Remember that when you use a pronoun with an someone by using the Affirmative tú affirmative command, the pronoun attaches to the commands of regular verbs. command*Notice it is a tú command, but ends like a 3 rd • Pon te otra camisa. house form Caminar Camina Put on (yourself) another shirt Comer Come Abrir Abre 1) Affirmative: Drop the –s Infinitive Affirmative tú Command decir di 2) Put in yo form, change vowel, add –s hacer haz Camina en el parque ir ve Come toda la 3) Affirmative irregulars: Di haz, ven, poner pon hamburguesa pon, sal, se, ten, ven salir sal Abre la puerta, quiero ser se entrar 4) Irregular Commands: ten tener ven venir • When using an object pronoun, attach the pronoun to the end of the command. ex. Cruza el parque → ¡Crúzalo!
  • 13. NEGATIVE TÚ COMMANDS/ IRREGULARS/ PRONOUN PLACEMENTNegativosDesEstésVayas N e g a t ive T ú C o m m a n d s Ir regular tú CommandsSeas A few verbs have irregular negative When you tell someone what not to tú commands. Notice that none of do, use a negative command. the yo forms of these verbs end in -o Negative tú commands are formed Negative tú by taking you form of the present Infinitive (yo form) Command tense, dropping the –o, and • No les des mi dirección a • Dar (doy) adding the appropriate ending. nadie • Estar (estoy) • Don‟t give my address to anyone Infinitive Yo form Negative tú • Ir (voy) • No estés triste. Command • Ser (soy) • Don‟t be sad. • Hablar • Hablo • No hables • No vayas a la tienda. • Don‟t go to the store. • volver • Vuelvo • No vuelvas • No seas mala. • Venir • Don‟t be bad. Object pronouns precede the verbs in negative commands, just as with other conjugated verbs. Ex: No lo uses. (Don‟t use it (the blow-dryer)
  • 14. SEQUENCING EVENTSPrimero Entonces Luego/ después Por finFirst Then Later/ after Finally Antes de/ después de Before/ after Por la mañana/ tarde/ noche In/ during the… (NO SPECIFIC TIME GIVEN)
  • 15. PRETERITS AR Er/ir é Amos í Imos hable hablamos Comí Comimos Aste Escribí Escribimos hablaste Iste ó Aron Comiste habló hablaron Escribiste Ió Ieron Comió Comieron Escribió escribieron• -car ending preterite verbs in the yo Perfected action in the past form will change to –que in order to “snapshot” keep the hard „c‟ sounds: Beginning &/ or ending Ex. Yo saque (sacar) la basura ayer.
  • 16. TRIGGER WORDS
  • 17. -CAR, -GAR, -ZAR Tocar Toque Tocaste Comenzar Toco Tocamos Comencé Tocaron Comenzaste Jugar Comenzó Jugué comenzamos Jugaste Comenzaron Jugo Jugamos jugaronCar -> yo -> que This applies to verbs that end in –car, -gar,Gar -> yo -> gue -zar. The verb form only changes in the yo form.Zar-> yo -> ce
  • 18. DEBER AND INFINITIVEDebo Debemos -¿Por qué te debo ayudar? -En vez de sacar fotos,Debes Debéis debes ayudarme.Debe Deben *Remember you can put aThe verb deber means should or pronoun in front of aought to. To say what people conjugated verb or attachshould do, use a conjugated form it to an infinitive.of deber with the infinitive ofanother verb.
  • 19. MODAL VERBSWhen verbs are used in the modal verb Deber Should, ought to combinations, the 2nd Desear To desire Necesitar To needverb is not conjugated. Poder Can, could, mightIt is left in the infinitive Querer Want, would like to form. You would Saber Know, know how to Soler Usually, used to never say “no puedo nadar”
  • 20. PRESENT PROGRESSIVEEstoy Estamos Three Vowel RuleEstas Estáis 1. LeerEsta Están 2. LeindoAr Ando 3. Leyendo *When the stem of an –er or –ir verbEr/ir Iendo ends in a vowel, change the –iendo to –3 vowel Yendo yendo to form the present progressiveEstar+ present progressive *e- i stem- changing verbs have a vowel change in the stem*When you use pronouns with the present *Some other verbs also have a vowelprogressive, you can put them in one of two change in the stemplaces.1. Put pronouns before the conjugated verb2. Attach them to the end of the present participle
  • 21. ADVERBSTo describe how something is done, use adverbs. Many adverbs in Spanish are made by changing an existing adjective. When the verb ends in –o, you replace the –o with an –a. When an adjective ends in e, l, or z, simply add –mente to the end. When you use two adverbs. Drop the –mente from the first one Irregular Adverbs Adjective Adverb Mucho A lot Muy Very Reciente Recientemente Mal Bad Frecuente Frecuentemente Bestante Quite Fácil Fácilmente Bien Good Ya Already Normal Normalmente Tan So Especial Especialmente Demasiado Too Feliz Felizmente Nunca Never Poco Little Cuidadoso Cuidadosamente Lento Lentamente Peor Worse Siempre always Tranquilo Tranquilamente