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Grammar book

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  • 1. GRAMMAR BOOK Liliana Russell
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Nationalities 2. Stem changers 3. Para 4. IOP 5. Pronoun Placement 6. Gustar 7. Affirmative and Negative Words 8. Superlatives 9. Reflexives10. Affirmative tú Commands/ Irregulars/ Pronoun Placement 11. Negative tú Commands/ Irregulars/ Pronoun Placement 12. Sequencing events
  • 3. NATIONALITIES
  • 4. STEM CHANGEDormir Jugar PedirDuermo Dormimos Juego Jugamos Pido PedimosDuermes Dormeis Juegas Jugáis Pides PedísDuerme Duermen Juega Juegan Pide PidenPensar Almorzar Contar Pienso Pensamos Almuerzo Almorzamos Cuento Cuentamos Piensas Pensáis Almuerzas Almorzáis Cuentas Cuentais Piensa Piensan Almuerza Almuerza Cuenta Cuentan The stem doesn’t change for the nosotros or vosotros form
  • 5. PARA • Use para (for, in order to) to indicate…The recipient of Purposeitems • Vamos al restaraunte• El regalo para tú para comer. mama Implied purpose • Tengo dinero para (comprar) algo.
  • 6. IOP• They are nouns that tell whom/ what • The pronouns le and or for whom/ what les can refer to • Replace object pronouns or different indirect accompany indirect objects object. To clarify what • Can be in three places they mean, they are accompanied by: 1. Before a conjugated verb a+ name, noun, or 2. Attached to the end of an infinitive pronoun 3. Attached to a gerund (-ing verb) Me Nos Te Os Le Les
  • 7. PRONOUN PLACEMENT 1. Attach the pronoun to the infinitive 2. Attach the pronoun to the progressive 3. Attach the pronoun to an affirmative tense 4. Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb *IO Placement• When the pronoun accompanies a conjugated verb, the pronoun comes before the verb• But when the pronoun accompanies a sentence with an infinitive, it can either go before the conjugated verb or be attached to the end of the infinitive
  • 8. GUSTAR Me • Gusta singular • Me gusta el carro. Les Te • Infinitive gusta • Me gusta hablar español. Gusta • Plural gusta • Me gustan los carros. Os Le *Read the sentence backwards Nos • Me gusta el carro. The car is liked by me.• A mi= me gusta *A MI me gusta tacos.• A ti= te gusta • Used for emphasis• A usted/ a el/ a ella= le gusta• A nosotros= nos gusta• A ustedes/ a ellas/ a ellos= les gusta • The form of gustar matches the• A vosotros= os gusta noun, not the speaker
  • 9. AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE WORDS • When you want to talk about an indefinite or negative situation, you use an affirmative or a negative word Affirmative Words Negative Words • Algo= something • Nada= nothing • Alguien= someone • Nadie= no one • Algún/ alguno(a)= some • Ningún/ Ninguno(a)= none • Siempre=always • Nunca= never • También=also • Tampoco= neither • Alguno and ninguno must match the gender of the noun they replace or modify. They have different forms when used before masculine or singular nouns. • If a verb is proceeded by no, words that follow must be negative. A double negative is required in Spanish when no proceeds the verb.• However, if a negative words, such as nunca or nadie, comes before the verb, a second negative is not needed.
  • 10. SUPERLATIVES• The suffix –ismo, -isimos, -isima, and –isimas are added to adjectives and adverbs • It is equivalent to extremely or very before and adjective or adverb Malo Malísimo Muchas Muchísimas Difícil Dificilísimo • Adjectives & adverbs ending in C, G, or Z change spelling to que, gu, and c Rico Riquísimo Largo Larguísima Feliz Felícismo • Adjectives that end in –n or –r form by adding –cisimo/a Joven Jovencísimo Trabajador Trabajadorcísimo
  • 11. REFLEXIVES• To describe people doing things for themselves, use • In the reflexive construction, the subject is reflexive verbs. also the object • Ex: brushing one’s teeth or combing one’s hair • A person does as well as receives the action• Reflexive pronouns are used with reflexive verbs to • The subject, the pronoun, and the verb are indicate that the subject of the sentence receives the all in the same form action of the verb. • Por ejemplo: Me lavo Nos lavamos Yo me levanto a las ocho de la mañana. Te lavas Os laváis • How do you form these verbs? Se lava Se lavan • Many verbs can be used with or without reflexive 1. Conjugate the verb as always pronouns. When there is no reflexive pronoun, the • Posición de los pronombres reflexivos person doing the action does not receive the actionSara se lava. ← Reflexive Not reflexive →Sara lava el 1. In front of a conjugated verbcarro. 2. Attached to a gerundSara washes herself. Sara washes the car. 3. Attached to an infinitive • They include the concept of possession. • You can put the reflexive pronoun in front of 4. Attached to an infinitive command the conjugated verb. *Reflexive= se on the end * When you use the infinitive form of a reflexive verb -acostarse after a conjugated verb, be sure to use the correct reflexive pronoun. -bañarse
  • 12. AFFIRMATIVE TÚ COMMANDS/ IRREGULARS/ PRONOUN PLACEMENT A f f i r m a t ive t ú C o m m a n d s I r r e g u l a r A f f i r m a t ive t ú C o m m a n d s They give instructions or commands to Remember that when you use a pronoun with someone by using the Affirmative tú an affirmative command, the pronoun commands of regular verbs. attaches to the command*Notice it is a tú command, but ends like • Pon te otra camisa. a 3rd house form Put on (yourself) another shirt Caminar Camina Comer Come Infinitive Affirmative tú Command Abrir Abre decir di hacer haz ir ve Camina en el parque poner pon salir sal Come toda la se hamburguesa ser ten Abre la puerta, quiero tener ven entrar venir • When using an object pronoun, attach the pronoun to the end of the command. ex. Cruza el parque → ¡Crúzalo!
  • 13. NEGATIVE TÚ COMMANDS/ IRREGULARS/ PRONOUN PLACEMENTNegativosDesEstésVayas N e g a t ive T ú C o m m a n d s Ir regular ú CommandsSeas A few verbs have irregular negative When you tell someone what not to tú commands. Notice that none of do, use a negative command. the yo forms of these verbs end in -o Negative tú commands are formed Negative tú by taking you form of the present Infinitive (yo form) Command tense, dropping the –o, and • No les des mi dirección a • Dar (doy) adding the appropriate ending. nadie • Estar (estoy) • Don’t give my address to anyone Infinitive Yo form Negative tú • Ir (voy) • No estés triste. Command • Ser (soy) • Don’t be sad. • Hablar • Hablo • No hables • No vayas a la tienda. • Don’t go to the store. • volver • Vuelvo • No vuelvas • No seas mala. • Venir • Don’t be bad. Object pronouns precede the verbs in negative commands, just as with other conjugated verbs. Ex: No lo uses. (Don’t use it (the blow-dryer)
  • 14. TÚ COMMANDS CONTINUED Tú Commands Pronoun Placement 1) Affirmative: Drop the –s 1. Infinitive2) Put in yo form, change vowel, add –s 2. Gerund3) Affirmative irregulars: Di haz, ven, 3. Before conjugated verb pon, sal, se, ten, ven 4. Affirmative command 4) Irregular Commands: Tener No tengas ¡Tócala! Venir No vengas Dar/ decir No des/ digas ¡Báñate! Ir No vayas ¡No la toques! Ser No seas Hacer No hagas Estar No estés Saber/ salir No sepas/ salgas
  • 15. SEQUENCING EVENTSPrimero Entonces Luego/ después Por finFirst Then Later/ after Finally Antes de/ después de Before/ after Por la mañana/ tarde/ noche In/ during the… (NO SPECIFIC TIME GIVEN)

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