3. TEACHER-CENTEREDTEACHER-CENTEREDINSTRUCTIONINSTRUCTIONA traditional approach of teaching, wherethe teacher determines the content to betaught, plans for instruction, implementsthe instructional plan, and evaluates thestudents’ progress toward theinstructional objectives. This method putsthe responsibility of learning directly onthe instructor.
4. Teacher-centered instruction isuseful for conveying newinformation and materials tosmall or large groups at one time.Even when you are working withone student, using teacher-centered instruction may be themost effective way to conveynew material for the day’s lesson.
5. Teacher-centered instruction literallymeans that the teacher is the personwho is imparting knowledge orinformation to the student. The studentis the receiver of this knowledge. Inorder to do this effectively, it isimportant to identify the student’scurrent level of skill or knowledge in thesubject being taught. If the level ofinstructional content is too high or low,the student will not effectively receivethe information.
6. Lessons are often designed toaddress the gap between whatstudents currently know and whatschools think they ought to know.The classroom teacher will helpselect the material best suited tomeet the academic needs of the childand will provide instruction thatreflects a preferred instructionalformat.
7. Three specific methods of teacher-Three specific methods of teacher-centered instruction:centered instruction:Direct teachingAssisted learningReciprocal teaching
8. ““Direct Teaching”Direct Teaching” is a traditional way to provideinstruction for the mastery of skills.Direct teaching requires that theinstructor clearly understand theoverall content, as well as theappropriate order of knowledge andtasks required for students to learnand master the subjects they arestudying.
9. For example, when studying math, studentsmust have a solid knowledge of additionbefore learning subtraction. A thoroughunderstanding of the subject will support boththe lesson’s instructional objectives and theteacher’s order of presentation. It will alsoassist you in helping the teacher plan the bestavenue of instruction for each studentassigned to you, and allows the teacher toevaluate the results for each student moreclosely so that together you can addressfurther learning needs.
10. As a paraprofessional, you will naturallydevelop both a general awareness of thestudents’ current performance level andrecognition of the best workingapproach based on your dailyinteractions. This information is aninvaluable resource in helping theteacher plan for the most effectiveinstructional strategies. By workingtogether and utilizing individual studentinformation, instruction can be
11. When the teacher plans a lesson, he orshe will first consider the specific targetobjective to be taught. This encouragesthe development of instruction that leadsto a students’ clear understanding of thelesson. As instruction proceeds, theteacher will determine the extent towhich the students understand thematerial and can adjust the amount ofmaterial presented accordingly.
12. After the students have a sufficientgrasp of the topic, they are givenopportunities to practice, eitherthrough examples or exercises, (orboth) in order to reinforce thepresented information.
13. In direct teaching, the teacher andparaprofessional maintain a largeamount of control over both theinformation being taught and themethod of teaching. The instructorcan direct and channel the flow ofinformation and material so thatstudents can absorb the knowledgeat an optimal rate.
14. As a result, direct teaching isconsidered to be one of the mostefficient instructional methods,allowing students to make progressat a steady pace.
15. ““Assisted Learning”Assisted Learning”Assisted Learning is based on thetheory that students should beguided and directed by teacherstoward attaining knowledge andlearning principles in a subjectmatter without having to discoverthem on their own.
16. Assisted learning can be used whengiving instruction to individuals orsmall groups. It is especially usefulwhen you are working with astudent individually because it allowsyou to provide him/her withinstruction according to his/her leveland ability.
17. In assisted learning, a teacherinitially gives the students strategiesthat enable them to identify issues orproblems. The students are taughtto break down the issues intosmaller units, and problem solving isfocused on each of the smaller unitsrather than the main issue. Thisprocess continues until enough ofthe smaller units have beenoverturned to resolve the largerissue.
18. Until the students master how tosolve the problems in generalizedsituations, the teacher must continueto give prompts, encouragement,and clues to aid the student’sprogress.
19. As the students begin to master theinformation and apply it successfully,they will gradually take on moreresponsibility, ultimately becomingmore independent by requiring lessassistance. The keys to the successof this method are to:
20. Choose appropriate materials forthe students according to theirreadiness and needs;To demonstrate and model theprocedure to solve a given problem;To provide assistance as needed;andTo reduce your assistance as theyare able to proceed on their own.
21. Like direct instruction, assistedlearning is considered to be one ofthe most effective instructionalmethods. Students can receive yourcomplete support and assistance inhelping them master skills and attainknowledge quickly and efficiently.
22. ““Reciprocal Teaching”Reciprocal Teaching” is an instructional method focusedon the comprehension of readingmaterial. Students are taught tocomprehend reading material basedon a model of analysis demonstratedby the teacher. This method isdependent upon developing an activedialogue between the teacher and
23. students to discuss points ofclarification. Reciprocal teaching isbest used in small groups when theemphasis is on readingcomprehension. Therefore, it hasapplications in a number of subjectareas.
24. In reciprocal teaching, the teacher firstmodels four techniques for developingcomprehension after reading a suppliedexample: summarizing, questioning, clarifying,and predicting.The teacher summarizes the contents of agiven reading.Students are questioned about key issues inthe material.Difficult sections of content are clarified.Students predict the outcome
25. Reciprocal teaching is considered to beone of the most effective instructionalmethods to teach readingcomprehension. When used, researchshows student improvement in levels ofreading comprehension. The keys to thismethod are to model the stages clearlyand to understand each student’s abilityto apply them, which is dependent uponhis or her grasp of the written material.
28. Student-centered instruction helpsstudents take more responsibilities andinitiative and requires them to use morecreativity than teacher-centeredinstruction. Although there are manypros and cons when comparing teacher-centered and student-centeredinstruction, it is important for theparaprofessional to know which methodof instruction yields the greatest benefitsfor students’ needs in a given situation.
29. Three specific methods of student-Three specific methods of student-centered instruction:centered instruction:Inquiry learningThe constructivist approach, andSituated learning.
30. Inquiry LearningInquiry LearningA learning method wherestudents develop solutions totheir own questions under theguidance of a teacher.
31. In inquiry learning, the teacheridentifies a problem that facilitatesthe learning of the instructionalobjective . The problem is presentedin a puzzling way in order to attractthe students’ attention. The teachermay encourage students to askquestions that may help themeventually find answers.
32. An important feature of inquiry learninginvolves having students formulate ahypothesis about the answer to the mainquestion. The hypothesis then leadsstudents to collect information tosupport their individual or grouphypothesis. If they find that thehypothesis is wrong, they reformulatetheir hypothesis and begin to collectinformation again.
33. Constructivist ApproachConstructivist ApproachAn approach focusing on a student’sperformance and understanding insteadof the measurement of skills andknowledge. This approach uses whata student already knows, and allowsthe student to incorporate and buildon that knowledge in order to buildtheir own learning experience.
34. Students are encouraged to hypothesizenew ideas, collaborate with others, and toexplore and invent new possibilities andsolutions. An important part of aconstructivist lesson will contain more thanone source of information to allow studentsthe possibility to explore, contrast, andcompare different perspectives. The teachercan use a variety of materials, information,and real-life issues to help students naturallyconstruct and develop their own knowledge.
35. This approach can be difficult touse and monitor as an instructionalmodel, but may prove moreinteresting from a studentperspective. Also, students canexhibit interests and initiate theirlearning of real-life situations, makingdiscoveries of principles moremeaningful.
36. Situated LearningSituated LearningA learning method thatemphasizes the inclusion oflearning into every day situations.
37. Situated-learning, like the constructivistapproach, also relies on the students’unique experience in the learningprocess. However, situated-learningemphasizes that the curriculum iscentered on real-life situations. Real-lifesituations are believed to be morenatural and meaningful to students thanthe more abstract and less tangiblemethods used in other instructionalapproaches.
38. In situated learning, the teacher tries toset up environmental conditions that canlead to meaningful, real life-basedlearning through exploration andproblem solving. Through participating inan action, such as simulating the crossingof a busy intersection using a lightedwalk signal, students develop skills thatare born out of experience.
39. In this manner, students are madeaware of constantly changing situationsand are taught to adapt in order to solveproblems that arise. Since situatedlearning can vary widely in the forms itcan take, as well as the knowledge,development, and direction it canproduce, it can be a challenge toreinforce events in a way thatsuccessfully supports the instructionalgoals.
40. Teacher-Centered Learner-CenteredFocus is on instructor Focus is on both students and instructorFocus is on language forms and structures(what the instructor knows about thelanguage)Focus is on language use in typical situations (howstudents will use the language)Instructor talks; students listen Instructor models; students interact with instructor andone anotherStudents work alone Students work in pairs, in groups, or alone dependingon the purpose of the activityInstructor monitors and corrects everystudent utteranceStudents talk without constant instructor monitoring;instructor provides feedback/correction whenquestions ariseInstructor answers students’ questionsabout languageStudents answer each other’s questions, usinginstructor as an information resourceInstructor chooses topics Students have some choice of topicsInstructor evaluates student learning Students evaluate their own learning; instructor alsoevaluatesClassroom is quiet Classroom is often noisy and busyTeacher vs. Learner-Centered Instruction
41. THANK YOU FORTHANK YOU FORLISTENING!!!LISTENING!!!Reporters:LILIBETH A. ROLDANMARY-ANN M. VILLASEÑOREduc. 042 Individual Instruction andResearchDR. TERESITA P. BULANDAN, Ed.D.Professor