Indian PhilosopherBy: Lilibeth A. RoldanPhD StudentDr. TeresitaP. BulandanProfessor
• IndIa has a rich and diversephilosophical tradition dating back tothe composition of the Upanisads inthe later Vedic period. According toRadhakrishnan, the oldest of theseconstitute "...the earliest philosophicalcompositions of the world."
Schools (Skt: Darshanas) of Indianphilosophy are identified as:• orthodox (Skt:astika) or non-orthodox(Skt: nastika) depending on whether they regardthe Veda as an infallible source of knowledge.There are Six Schools Of OrthodoxHindu philosophy and three heterodoxschools.• The orthodox are Nyaya, Vaisesika, Samkhya,Yoga, Purva mimamsa and Vedanta.• The Heterodox are Jain, Buddhist and materialist(Cārvāka).
• However, Vidyāra yaṇ classifies Indianphilosophy into sixteen schools wherehe includes schools belonging to Saivaand Raseśvara thought with others.
• it formalized 1000 BC to the early centuriesAD. Subsequent centuries producedcommentaries and reformulations continuingup to as late as the 20th century byAurobindo and Prabhupada among others.Competition and integration between thevarious schools was intense during theirformative years, especially between 800 BC to200 AD.
• Some like the Jain, Buddhist, Shaiva andAdvaita schools survived, while others likeSamkhya and Ajivika did not, either beingassimilated or going extinct. TheSanskrit termfor "philosopher" is dārśanika, one who isfamiliar with the systems of philosophy,ordarśanas.
Hindu philosophy• Many Hindu intellectual traditions wereclassified during the medieval period ofBrahmanic-Sanskritic scholasticism into astandard list of six orthodox (astika) schools (darshanas), the "Six Philosophies" ( ad-ṣdarśana), all of which accept the testimony ofthe Vedas were:
• Nyaya, the school of logic• Vaisheshika, the atomist school• Samkhya, the enumeration school• Yoga, the school of Patanjali (which provisionallyasserts the metaphysics of Samkhya)• Purva Mimamsa (or simply Mimamsa), thetradition of Vedic exegesis, with emphasis onVedic ritual, and• Vedanta (also called Uttara Mimamsa), theUpanishadic tradition, with emphasis on Vedicphilosophy.
three groups for both historical andconceptual reasons:• Nyaya-Vaishesika, Samkhya-Yoga, andMimamsa-Vedanta.• The Vedanta school is further divided into sixsub-schools:Advaita (monism/nondualism),also includes the concept of Ajativada,Visishtadvaita (monism of the qualifiedwhole), Dvaita (dualism), Dvaitadvaita(dualism-nondualism), Suddhadvaita, andAchintya Bheda Abheda schools.
Besides these schools MādhavaVidyāra ya also includes the following:ṇ• Pasupata, school of Shaivism by Nakulisa• Saiva, the theistic Sankhya school• Pratyabhijña, the recognitive school• Raseśvara, the mercurial school• Pā iniṇ Darśana, the grammarian school (whichclarifies the theory of Spho aṭ )
Influence• In appreciation of complexity of the Indianphilosophy, T S Eliot wrote that the greatphilosophers of India "make most of the greatEuropean philosophers look like schoolboys".ArthurSchopenhauerused Indian philosophy to improve uponKantian thought. In the preface to his book TheWorld As Will And Idea, Schopenhauer writesthat one who "has also received and assimilatedthe sacred primitive Indian wisdom, then he isthe best of all prepared to hear what I have tosay to him". The 19th century Americanphilosophical movement Transcendentalism wasalso influenced by Indian thought
ADI SHANKARA• Also called Shankaracharya(born 700?, Kaladi village?,India—died750?, Kedarnath), philosopherand theologian, most renownedexponent of the AdvaitaVedanta school of philosophy,from whose doctrines the maincurrents of modern Indianthought are derived. He wrotecommentaries on the Brahma-sutra, the principal Upanishads,and the Bhagavadgita,affirming his belief in oneeternal unchanging reality (brahman) and the illusion ofplurality and differentiation.
• The main opponent in his work is theMimamsa school of thought, though he alsooffers arguments against the views of someother schools like Samkhya and certainschools of Buddhism
• Shankara travelled across the Indian subcontinent topropagate his philosophy through discourses anddebates with other thinkers. He established theimportance of monastic life as sanctioned in theUpanishads and Brahma Sutra, in a time when theMimamsa school established strict ritualism andridiculed monasticism. He is reputed to have foundedfour mathas ("monasteries"), which helped in thehistorical development, revival and spread of AdvaitaVedanta of which he is known as the greatest revivalist.Adi Shankara is believed to be the organiser of theDashanami monastic order and the founder of theShanmatatradition of worship.
Philosophy and religious thought• Advaita ("non-dualism") is often called a monisticsystem of thought. The word "Advaita"essentially refers to the identity of the Self (Atman) and the Whole (Brahman). AdvaitaVedanta says the one unchanging entity(Brahman) alone exists, and that changingentities do not have absolute existence, much asthe oceans waves have no existence inseparation from the ocean. The key source textsfor all schools of Vedānta are the Prasthanatrayi–the canonical texts consisting of the Upanishads,the Bhagavad Gita and theBrahma Sutras
Historical and cultural impact• Because of his unification of two seeminglydisparate philosophical doctrines, Atman andBrahman, Westerners who know about himperceive him as the "St. Thomas Aquinas ofIndian thought” and "the most brilliantpersonality in the history of Indian thought."
• At the time of Adi Shankaras life, Hinduismwas increasing in influence in India at theexpense of Buddhism and Jainism.Hinduismwas divided into innumerable sects, eachquarrelling with the others. The followers ofMimamsa and Sankhya philosophy wereatheists, insomuch that they did not believein God as a unified being. Besides theseatheists there were numerous theistic sects.There were also those who rejected theVedas, like the Charvakas.[
Some of Shankaras worksEstablished the doctrine of Advaita Vedantaas he saw it in the Upanishads.Formulated the doctrine of Advaita Vedantaby validating his arguments on the basis ofquotations from the Vedas and otherHindu scriptures.
Indian poet, philosopher, and Nobellaureate, who tried to deepenmutual Indian and Western culturalunderstanding. His name in Bengali isRavīndranātha Thākura. He was bornin Calcutta (now Kolkata), into awealthy family, the son of thephilosopher Debendranath Tagore.
Contribution of RabindranathTagore in Education
• Tagores theory of education is marked bynaturalistic & aesthetic values.• "The widest road leading to thesolution of all our problems iseducation."• Education can develop a new pattern of life.Culminating in the realization of Universal man.Tagores system of education emphasizes theintellectual, physical, social, moral economicand spiritual aspects of human life. By which aman can develop an integrated personality.
God can be found throughpersonal purity and serviceto others.The calmness and fortitudeof body and mind is part ofself-realization."
Aims of Education According toTagore:• The aims of education as reflected ineducational institution founded byRabindranath Tagore in Santiniketanare as follows:
(1) Self Realization:• Spiritualism is the essence of humanism;• Self-realization is an important aim ofeducation. Manifestation of personalitydepends upon the self-realization andspiritual knowledge of individual.
(2) Intellectual Development:• development of imagination, creative freethinking, constant curiosity and alertnessof the mind.Child should be free to adopt his own waylearning which will lead to all rounddevelopment.
(3) Physical Development:• healthy physique through exercises.• Yoga, games & sports prescribed inSantiniketan as an integral part of theeducation system.
(4) Love for humanity:• universe is one family.• Education can teach people to realizeoneness of the globe.• Education for international understandingand universal brotherhood• The feeling of oneness can be developedthrough the concepts like fatherhood ofGod and brotherhood of man all creaturesare equal on this earth.
(5) Establishment of relationshipbetween man & God:• Man bears the diverse qualities andpotentialities offered by God. Thesequalities are inborn and innate. Therelationship between man and God isstrong and permanent. However thededication to spiritualism and sacrednesswill lead to the harmonious relationshipwith man, nature and God.
(6) Freedom:• an integral aspect of humandevelopment.• Education is a man-making process, itexplores the innate power exists withinthe man. It is not an imposition rather aliberal process their provides utmostfreedom to the individual for his all rounddevelopment. “Education has leaningonly when it is imparted through thepath of freedom".
(7) Co-relation of Objects:• Co-relation exists with God, man andnature. A peaceful world is only possiblewhen correlation between man andnature will be established
(8) Mother tongue as themedium of Instruction:• Language is the true vehicle of self-expression.• Man can freely express his thought in hismother-tongue.• mother tongue as the medium ofinstruction for the childs education.
(9) Moral and Spiritual Development:• Moral and spiritual education is moreimportant than bookish knowledge for anintegral development of humanpersonality.• There must be an adequate provision forthe development of selfless activities, co-operation and love fellow feeling andsharing among the students in educationalinstitutions.
(10) Social Development:• "Brahma" the supreme soul manifestshimself through men and other creatures.Since He is the source of all human-beingsand creatures, so all are equal.• "service to man is service to god".• All should develop social relationship andfellow-feeling from the beginnings of oneslife. Education aims at developing theindividual personality as well as socialcharacters which enables him to live as aworthy being.
• the aesthetic development of the senseswas as important as the intellectual--if notmore so--and music, literature, art, dance anddrama were given great prominence in thedaily life of the school. This was particularly soafter the first decade of the school. Drawingon his home life at Jorasanko, Rabindranathtried to create an atmosphere in which thearts would become instinctive. One of thefirst areas to be emphasized was music.
• Rabindranath writes that in hisadolescence, a cascade of musicalemotion gushed forth day after day atJorasanko. We felt we would try to testeverything, he writes, and noachievement seemed impossible...Wewrote, we sang, we acted, we pouredourselves out on every side.(Rabindranath Tagore, MyReminiscences1917: 141)
• Sri Aurobindo (Sri Ôrobindo) (15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950),born Aurobindo Ghosh or Ghose (Ôrobindo Ghosh), was anIndian nationalist, freedom fighter, philosopher, yogi, guru and poet.
• Aurobindo (Aurobindo Ghose) (August15, 1872 – December 5, 1950) was anIndian nationalist and freedom fighter,Indian poet, philosopher, and yogi. Hejoined the movement for Indias freedomfrom British rule for a duration (1905–10), became one of its most importantleaders, before turning to developing hisown vision and philosophy of humanprogress and spiritual evolution.
• The central theme of Aurobindos visionis the evolution of life into a "life divine".In his own words:• "Man is a transitional being. He is notfinal. The step from man to supermanis the next approaching achievementin the earth evolution. It is inevitablebecause it is at once the intention ofthe inner spirit and the logic ofNatures process".
• Ghoses teachings emphasize atwo-way path to salvation.Enlightenment comes from the divinity above,but human beings possess a spiritual“supermind” that enables them to reach upwardtoward illumination. Spiritual perfection is achieved through Yogapractices that lead to the ultimate fusion ofthese two drives
Philosophy and spiritual vision• According to Sri Aurobindo his philosophieswere first formed by studyingof Upanishads and Gita, and later from vedas.Aurobindo tried to realise what he readthrough his spiritual experiences and was ableto match them. He also notifies that hisphilosophy is not due to any intellectualabstractions, ratiocinations or dialectics andmost of his writings were to justify to theintellect of the readers.
• And other sources of his philosophy weresupposed to be flown into him as thoughtsthrough higher planes of consciousness
Evolutionary philosophy• calls his yoga as integral yoga ,• most ways of other yoga are paths to beyondof human existence and towardsreaching spirit as a final objective and awayfrom normal life• aims at ascending to the spirit and againdescending to normal existence to transformit.
• mind is the highest term reached in the pathof evolution till now but has not yet reachedits highest potency and calls current mind asan ignorance seeking truth, but he also statesthat even though the human being is treadingin ignorance there is in every human being apossibility of divine manifestation
• states that there is a possibility to openoneself to higher divine consciousness whichwould reveal ones true self, remain inconstant union of divine and bring down ahigher force (which he names assuperamental force) which would transformmind, life and body.
Triple transformation of theindividual• Sri Aurobindo argues that Man is born anignorant, divided, conflicted being; a productof the original inconscience (i.e.unconsciousness) inherent in Matter that heevolved out of. As a result, he does not knowthe nature of Reality, including its source andpurpose; his own nature, including the partsand integration of his being; what purpose heserves, and what his individual and spiritualpotential is, amongst others.
• In addition, man experiences life throughdivision and conflict, including his relationshipwith others, and his divided view of spirit andlife.
• To overcome these limitations, Man mustembark on a process of self-discovery in whichhe uncovers his Divine nature. To that end, heundertakes a three-step process, which hecalls the Triple Transformation:
(1) Psychic Transformation• The first of the three stages is a movementwithin, away from the surface of life, to thedepths, culminating in the discovery of hispsychic being (the evolving soul). From thatexperience, he sees the oneness and unity ofcreation, and the harmony of all oppositesexperienced in life
(2) Spiritual Transformation• As a result of making the psychic change, hismind expands and he experiences knowledgenot through the hard churning of thought, butthrough light, intuition, and revelation ofknowledge, culminating in supramentalperception. Light enters from the heights andbegins to transmute various parts of his being
(3) Supramental transformation• After making the psychic and spiritual change,he makes the supramental and most radicalchange. It is basically a completetransformation of the mind, the heart, theemotions, and the physical body
• “The fish in the water is silent, theanimal on the earth is noisy, thebird in the air is singing.But Man has in him the silence ofthe sea, the noise of the earth andthe music of the air”Tagore’s famous quotation