DIFFERENT SCHOOLSOFPHILOSOPHYReported by:LILIBETH A. ROLDANPh.D. studentDr. Teresita BulandanProfessorFundamental ofPhilosophy
1. the philosophy of idealism--one of the oldest systems of human thought.(According to this concept, knowledge is independentof sense experience.)Some idealist assert that the true ideas exist innately inthe soul of man—man as part of the universe is a purposivebeing.
Some of the important concepts and generalizations inthe philosophy of idealism are:a. metaphysics—all of reality is reducible to onefundamental substance (spirit).The nature of the spirit in negative terms is nonmateriality and it is describe as idea in positive terms.b. epistemology—there are two divisions of idealism:(1)Objective idealism –affirms that man is able to knowonly what he perceives.His only knowledge is of his mental states. It is saidthat the stimuli which is perceived by the soul comes fromthe infinite spirit-(GOD)(2) Subjective idealism– idealists affirm the existence ofeternal values.These absolute value exist in GOD.
(Idealism applies to any theory which seesthe universe as being made of mind or reason.Some believers of idealism recognize both mindand matter in the universe. Others insist thatconsciousness or reason form the basis of reality.)
“Types of idealisTic philosophy”A. Objectivism—emphasizes the objective and realindependence of ideas.B. Subjectivism—emphasizes the subjective mental stateof human mind.C. Organic—emphasizes the holistic state of mind.D. Personalism—rejects the impersonal description ofinfinite mind and emphasizes the individualphenomena of the personal mind.
In education, idealism is against the philosophy ofprogressive education. Idealism has high regard forindividuality and freedom in education. The idealisticpattern of modern education is Platonic—it can be said thatmodern education has given a different turn to educationalphilosophy. (Idealism has more to do with the ideas asmental state.) Education cannot be complete unless it is directedtoward man’s eternal destiny.
The philosophy of idealism has general implicationin teaching and in learning.To the idealists, the purpose of education is to assistin the development of the spirit and self of the pupil. In education, it must emphasizes the developmentof the ff. areas of life:a. Intellectual activitiesb. Moral judgmentc. Aesthetic appreciationd. Self-realizatione. Individual freedomf. Individual responsibilityg. Self-discipline or control
The school curriculum must be based upon thespiritual nature of man. The school must be compose ofsubjects which liberate the mind of the learner. (thisconcept is based on the principle of creativity orindividual freedom) Education must preserve the subject-mattercontent which is essential.The content of the curriculum are arranged fromsimple to more complex, concrete to the moreabstract aspects of the subjects. This concepts isbased on the ―Law of Gradual Reaction Change‖of Thorndike.
2. The philosophy of realism--it is an attempt to portray life as it is. The realist believes that the world is made of real,substantial material entities. In other words, the realiststarts with a thing and end up with the idea. In short, thingis more important than idea. According to the philosophy, knowledge is derivedthrough sense experience, however, sense experiencealone cannot account for knowledge. To the realist, whatever is consistent with nature isdeemed good. The standard of this value is humanreason.
The philosophy of realism has implications toeducation—it recognizes the right of every individual to aneducation based upon his nature.(limited only by hiscapacity to learn). This philosophy recognizes theimportance of individual differences in education. Pupilsdiffer in the level of their abilities to think in abstractionswhich call for different methods and techniques in teachingto meet them among individuals.
to the realists, education exists for the ff.reasons:A. To transmit cultureB. To develop thinking and reasoningC. To develop the ability to live a life of reasonD. To learn to live a life in a higher place To the realists, the purpose of education is to provideman with the essential knowledge he needs to survive innature.—(this knowledge provides the individual with theskills necessary for a happy and abundant life.
The School curriculum is selected and organizedlogically and psychology.Logical arrangement means the subjects should bearranged from simple to the more complex.( thelaw of Gradual reaction change-Thorndike)Psychological arrangement means that the nature ofthe learner must be taken into consideration, suchas : ability, interests, and needs of the learner.
3. The philosophy of humanism--it is a way of looking at our world which emphasizesthe importance of man—his nature and importance in theuniverse.Humanism teaches that all persons have dignity andworth. They objected to the simple nature of man. Humanism is a way of thought and life, which takes itscentral concern in the realization of the fullest humancareer. Humanism seeks to enrich and innoble the man’searthly life by liberating the latent potentialities ofhuman nature.
Many educators and philosophers believe that thegreatest challenge to humanism, and indeed a threat tothe safety of society comes from emphasis on scienceand technology.The modern humanistic ideal of education is thedevelopment of a well balanced person, who had:-- knowledge--knew how to live with his fellowmen--appreciated beauty--high standards of human judgment
Humanism is clearly related to international as anaim of education. Modern education should seek to promote the spiritof internationalism everywhere and be ever guided bythat spirit in its great taskProper internationalism means intellectual charitytoward universal progressive educational thought andpractice. It recognizes the interdependence amongnations necessitates the contribution of all nations tothe common task of advancing civilization.
In the applied sciences—human relations still bearsthe primitive practices/ancient practices. In human relation—where wisdom, tolerance, moralsense and social spirit are required. In the school of philosophy, humanism, the objectiveof teaching and learning is to discover the emotionalorder of subject-matter and the order of learning. According to this educational philosophy, ―learningstarts with the child’s experience.‖—(based on the law ofApperception of Herbart), that learning is easier if it startswith the past learning of the child which is related to whatis to be learned.
In other words, the learner must start with theconcrete and particular rather than the abstract anduniversal.
4. Experimentalism & pragmatism--in general, the philosophy of pragmatism isgrouped under the general term of experimentalism.(experimentalism and pragmatism is closely related.) To both schools of philosophy, reality is determined byindividual experience. Dr. John Dewey (believer of pragmatism) mightproperly be called experimentalist, he insist that ideas mustalways be tested by experiment. he also believed that no knowledge is ever so certainthat it is not subject to new evidence which might resultto experimentation and experience.
he applied these basic concepts to nearly every aspectof philosophy and education. his notion that ideas are plans of action determine histheory of truth. (for him, if an idea does what it intends asa plan of action, it is true. If it fails, it is false.) The pragmatist does not believe that anything is ―self-evident‖. Pragmatism has been called particularly ―AmericanPhilosophy‖. Pragmatism is also considered as the logic that idea liesbehind scientific method.
According to the philosophy of experimentation andpragmatism, education must be problem centered. This problem must be felt by the learner and should becentered upon his abilities, needs and interests. The fact that man learns through experience, theexperimentalist and the pragmatist suggest an educationwhich stresses learning by doing and living. ―An individual learns through self activity orlearning by doing or reacting.‖ They also suggest that teaching must stimulate thinkingand reasoning.
--It can be said that to the experimentalists and thepragmatists, the aim of education is ―the development of thetotal child through experiencing or through the use of thetheory of self-activity.‖To accomplish this aim of education, the schoolcurriculum must be selected and organized in terms ofactivities and projects which are relevant to the needs,abilities and interests of the learner.
Their education concepts are based on theeducational philosophy of John Dewey : ― education islife, education is growth, education is a social process, andeducation is the construction of human experience.‖ Likewise, the experimentalism school of philosophyis concerned with the world of human experience.―truth is verified through the use of experience orthrough the use of scientific method.‖
5. Philosophy of scholasticism--stresses the idea that man is a national beingpossessing a body and soul. ―each human being has animmortal destiny‖ This school of philosophy believes that not all thetruth can be known by reason because of the restrictionspresent in sense of knowledge.—‖some truths can beachieved through the gift of faith‖. This school of philosophy believes in the use ofreason in accomplishing truth. In other words, ―reasondominates Scholastic philosophy‖.
The aim of education, must be directed to thedevelopment of the whole man—that a person must bedevelop mentally, physically, emotionally, socially andspiritually. This school of philosophy believes that educationmust aim at the development of the whole child byincluding both the preparation for this life and the life tocome. It also believes that religion must be apart of theeducation. Likewise, this school believes that general educationmust be a part of the college curriculum to provide for thedevelopment of the virtue of wisdom
6. Philosophy of progressivism--closely related to pragmatic philosophy ofeducation. According to this educational philosophy, the childgrows and develops as a whole through his ownexperience or through self-activity.The outstanding leaders of this school are:Horace MannFrancis ParkerStanley HallJohn DeweyWilliam Kilpatrick
Progressivism is a protest against formalism. Emphasis in this concept is placed upon interests,desires of the individual, upon freedom, and upon thelearner rather than the subject-matter. From the progressivists, ―learning is an activeprocess‖, (in which the learner himself is definitelyinvolved).(this point of view states that the learning process isessentially experiencing, doing and understanding)—thisconcept calls for active doing which involves the mind,the body, and the emotion of the individual.
Characteristics of progressivism:a. The child is male the center of the educative processand not the subject-matter. (child-centered concept ofeducation)b. Learning by doing and experiencing are emphasized inthe educative process. (teaching is good when it utilizesthe principle of self-activity)c. Thinking and reasoning are well emphasized. (analysisand synthesis are utilized to stimulate thinking andreasoning.)d. The school curriculum is based on activities andprojects that are in line with the pupils’ needs andabilities.e. Individual differences are recognized by this school ofphilosophy.
f. Emphasis is in group planning, discussion, selfexpression, creativeness, and responsibility.(planning of activities is done by the teacher and thepupils done cooperatively to the teacher.)g. Evaluation is based on flexible standards or thatgrading must be based on the normal-probability-curve.(higher standard for the bright, lower standard for theslow pupils.)h. Guidance is made an integral part of teaching andlearning.(self expression, initiative, and creativeness are encourageamong the pupils.)
7. Philosophy of existentialism--the most recent to appear upon the intellectualsense.--some philosophers classify this as extremeindividualism. To this school of philosophy, reality is a matter ofindividual existence—that each human being exists in a worldthat is without purpose and is fundamentally absurd. The only significance found in life is the meaning thateach individual gives to his life---‖each person is free tomake whatever choices he wishes.‖
Some existentialists assert that GOD exist. (theyadmit the impossibility of proving this by reason)They believe the existence of GOD through faith, onthe basis that this act of faith yields a significant life whichmay or may not be rewarded at its termination. To the existentialists, the purpose of education is to serve. Theindividual human being by guiding him into awareness of hiscondition and promoting his successful commitment to asignificance existence. Likewise, complete individual freedom in theclassroom is recommended by this school of philosophy, and thatindividual child must choose himself those activities which hebelieves are significant, and the teacher serves as a guide and aresource person.(based on democratic principle of John Dewey)
8. Analytic philosophy--This school of philosophy asserts that the functionof philosophy is basically a type of logical and linguisticanalysis.--This philosophy is otherwise known as logicalanalysis.According to this school of philosophy, ―reality isconsists of what is knowable,-that is verified by experience.--This also asserts that man is different from otheranimals to the extent that he has the capacity to engage inreflection.--also asserts that the method of philosophy must bethe method of science for things are knowable onlythrough experience—which verifies the truth that isapprehended.
It is known that man is a rational being and that hisreason is most important distinction. In Analytic philosophy, the aim of education is topromote the intellectual and social development of theindividual.(this concept is based on the principle that an individual isa social being.) This aim of education can be accomplished bydeveloping the scientific attitude of open-mindedness andobjectivity in each pupil/student. To the believers of this philosophy, the education mustbe based on the experiences of the learner.