Vygotsky

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Vygotsky

  1. 1. Learning Theories and Integration Models UNLPam - Practica Educativa II Students: Bessolo, Gabriela & Roldán, Soledad
  2. 2. Two main views on TEACHING and LEARNING <ul><li>Directed instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher-directed, systematic and structured </li></ul><ul><li>Critics: DI is rigid and teacher-centered </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Students participation generates their knowlegde </li></ul><ul><li>Critics: Constructivism is inefficient; unstructured and unsystematic </li></ul>
  3. 3. CONSTRUCTIVISM <ul><li>Based on cognitive science </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on: </li></ul><ul><li>STUDENT MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>RELEVANCE OF LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent: </li></ul><ul><li>INERT KNOWLEDGE </li></ul><ul><li>FAILURE IN TRANSFERENCE </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (1896 - 1934) <ul><li>Born in Orsha, Russian Empire, now Belarus. </li></ul><ul><li>PHILOSOPHER and EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST </li></ul><ul><li>Theory characterized by: </li></ul><ul><li>individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>personal creativity </li></ul><ul><li>influence of culture on learning </li></ul>
  5. 5. Main contributions <ul><li>Cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>Key ideas: </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Role of CULTURE and INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with SIGNIFICANT PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNALIZATION - APPROPIATION </li></ul>
  6. 6. Main contributions <ul><li>Levels of cognitive functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Key ideas: </li></ul><ul><li>Adult / Expert – Child / Novice </li></ul><ul><li>ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (ZPD) </li></ul><ul><li>MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE OTHER (MKO) </li></ul><ul><li>SCAFFOLDING </li></ul>
  7. 7. ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (ZPD) <ul><li>Describes not the actual but the potential of human cognitive development. </li></ul><ul><li>Range of tasks beyond a child’s mastery that can be learned only with guidance/assistance of a more-skilled partner. </li></ul>
  8. 8. MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE OTHER (MKO) <ul><li>Takes up on the notion of SIGNIFICANT PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>Must have (or be programmed with) more knowledge about the topic being learned than the learner does </li></ul>
  9. 9. SCAFFOLDING <ul><li>scaf‧fold     countable] </li></ul><ul><li>1 a structure built next to a wall, for workers to stand on while they build, repair, or paint a building </li></ul><ul><li>2 (AmE) a structure that can be moved up and down to help people work on high buildings [=  cradle (BrE) ] </li></ul>
  10. 10. SCAFFOLDING <ul><li>“ Building process”: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Ss’s level of development </li></ul><ul><li>Teach taking into account Ss’s experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Promote cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary </li></ul><ul><li>Individualized </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating /Supporting </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: independent, self-regulated learner </li></ul>
  11. 11. SCAFFOLDING <ul><li>Main advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Motivates child’s interest </li></ul><ul><li>Simplifies the task </li></ul><ul><li>Helps the child focus </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces frustration and risk </li></ul>
  12. 12. Implications for education <ul><li>1. Intended to develop children’s personalities </li></ul><ul><li>2. Should be designed to discover and develop creative potential in each individual </li></ul><ul><li>3. Assumes that students master their inner values through some personal activity </li></ul><ul><li>4. Teachers direct or guide the individual activities not forcing their will on them </li></ul><ul><li>5. Methods for learning correspond to individual development – cannot be uniform. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Implications for technology integration <ul><li>Models of technology make use of concepts of: </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>Development of individual’s potential </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic examples </li></ul><ul><li>Real-life experiences relevant to individual needs </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Logo (computer programming language), virtual reality. </li></ul>

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