Mistakes and Feedback


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Mistakes and Feedback

  1. 1. Mistakes and feedback Jeremy Harmer, Chapter 7 (2001) Práctica Educativa III, Residencia Docente Prof. Estela N. Braun(2010)
  2. 2. Types of Mistakes Julian Edge (1993)divides mistakes into 3 broad categories: SLIPS : students can correct themselves. ERRORS: students cannot correct themselves. ATTEMPTS: ambitious language use, by using structures they have not learnt yet.
  3. 3. Causes of Errors L1 Interference :sounds, false friends.Eg: parents, embarrased, library. Developmental errors. Overgeneralization. Interlanguage.
  4. 4. Assessing Students’performance A. Ignore mistakes/slips B. Encourage risk taking. C.Praise them. D.Avoid over-complimenting them . E. Foster self-assessment. F.Show genuine interest in their work.
  5. 5. Other information valid asassessment: Comments. Marks and grades. Reports. Self-assessment through checklists . ROA (record of achievement)
  6. 6. Feedback during Oral Work Difference between ACCURACY (non- communicative activities) FLUENCY (communicative activities)
  7. 7. When should we provideteacher intervention? Lynch (1997) Use “gentle correction”…”the best answer to the question of when to intervene in learner talk is:as late as possible”. Processing language for communication is the best way of processing language for acquisition. When teachers intervene to correct or to supply alternative modes of expression to help students, they remove the need to negotiate meaning.
  8. 8. Rapport and feedback Correction builds on the rapport between teacher and students. A good teacher “should be able to correct people without offending them” (Harmer, 1998)
  9. 9. Feedback during Accuracy Work Two distinct stages: I. Show a student a mistake has been made. II. Help students do something about it.
  10. 10. Showing Incorrectness 1. Repeating: Again? Use of intonation and expression by the teacher. 2. Echoing: Flight 309 GO to Paris? 3. Satement and question: That’s not quite right. Do people think it’s all right? 4.Expression: facial, gesture, without being cruel or mocking
  11. 11. And more… 5.Hinting: Say the word: tense, word, plural. Shared metalanguage. 6.Reformulation: If I had heard…
  12. 12. GETTING IT RIGHT: Ifstudents are unable to correct themselves, focus on the correct version in detail. Foster peer correction in a genuinely cooperative atmosphere. Techniques must not undermine students’self-esteem.
  13. 13. Feedback during fluency work: We need to respond to content and not just language. Tolerance of erros during fluency sessions should be much greater than during controlled practice sessions. Gentle correction is necessary if communication breaks down or if students need prompting because they do not know what to say.
  14. 14. Techniques:A)Reformulate what they say:Student: I am not agree with you.Teacher: I don’t agree with you..because..B) Try not to interrupt the flow of the activity, or we may bring it to a standstill.C) Recording mistakes: Use charts to categorize learners’mistakes: grammar and vocabulary, discourse management, pronunciation, appropriacy,interactive communication.
  15. 15. Feedback on written work: Workbook exercises. Feedback on creative writing: demonstrate interest in the content of students’work.
  16. 16. Written Feedback Techniques Responding: We tell them how successful they have been, and which areas they have improved/need to improve.Constructive feedback:learning from errors. Coding: Teachers may use a code with symbols on the margins. We allow students to focus on particular aspects of language:spelling, verb tenses, paragraph construction, cohesion.
  17. 17. Finishing the feedback process Written feedback is designed as a tool to help learners improve their language use. Importance of rewriting: to see how they respond to our comments. Feedback is part of the learning process. It is over after students have made changes ,consulted grammar books or dictionaries as a way of resolving some of the mistakes we have signalled. (*)See TDI Speaking materials.