Communicative Language Teaching

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  • 1. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING Jack C. Richards &Theodore S. Rodgers(2001)CUP Prof. Estela N. Braun, Adjunto Regular, Practice II, Didactics of English as EFL. Practicum at Primary School Level. College of Human Sciences, UNLPam.
  • 2. CLT or the PARADIGM shift.
    • 1980’s:since then it has been the model for many teaching practices:
    • The Natural Approach.
    • Cooperative Language Learning.
    • Content-Based Teaching (CBT)
    • Task-Based Learning.
  • 3. CLT origins:
    • 1960’s: Audio-lingualism in the USA./Situational Language Teaching in Great Britain.
    • Noam Chomsky (1957) Syntactic Structures.
    • “ Structural theories of language were incapable of accounting for the creativity and uniqueness of language.
  • 4. British Applied Linguists:
    • They started to address the functional and communicative potential of language.
    • ELT should focus on a Communicative Approach where the goal of language learning is to develop COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE.
  • 5. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IS :
    • “ The ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language to form grammatically correct sentences, but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom”. (Jack C. Richards)
    • Communicative Competence includes:
    • KOL of the vocabulary and grammar of the language.
    • Kol of the rules of conversation (turn taking, speech events,address forms).
    • KOL about how to use and respond to SPEECH ACTS (REQUESTS,apologies, thanks, invitations)
    • Knowing when to use language appropriately. (Coulhard, 1985,Hymes, 1977).
  • 6. SCHOLARS BRITISH APPLIED LINGUISTS who advocated CLT:
    • Cristopher Candlin and Henry Widdowson.
    • John Firth, M.A.K Halliday.
    • American sociolinguists: Dell Hymes, John Gumperz, William Labov).
    • Language philosophers John Austin &John Searle.
  • 7. European Common Market
    • The Council of Europe.
    • International Association of Applied Linguistics.
    • Goal: to develop alternative methods of language teaching.
    • British linguist D.A. Wilkins (1972): proposed a functional or communicative defiition of language to build up a functional.notional syllabus. His analysis was semantic/communicative, based on learners’needs.
  • 8. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages
    • Threshold level specifications for language programmes, examinations and textbook design in Europe .
    • Rapid application of these ideas by textbook writers, curriculum development centers.
    • By mid 1970’s CLT had expanded from Great Britain to the world.
    • Howatt (1984) distinguishes between a strong and weak form of CLT.
  • 9. CLT APPROACH:
    • Hymes’definition of communicative competence (1972 )” a person who acquires communicative competence acquires both knowledge and ability for language use”.
    • Brumfit (1979)seven basic functions that language performs for children in L1:
    • 1. The instrumental function: using language to get things.
    • 2.The regulatory function: using language to control the behaviour of others.
  • 10. More basic functions:
    • 3. The interactional function: using language to create interaction with others.
    • 4. The personal function: using language to express personal feelings and meanings.
    • 5. The heuristic function: using language to learn and discover.
    • 6. The imaginative function: using language to create a world of imagination.
    • 7. The representational function: using language to communicate information.
  • 11. Henry Widdowson (1978)
    • “ Teaching Language as Communication”. Relationships between linguistic systems and their communicative values in text and discourse.
    • Canale and Swain (1980): identified four dimensions of communicative competence.
  • 12. COMMUNI CATIVE COMPETENCE:
    • Grammatical competence: Chomsky “linguistic competence”or Hymes “what is formally possible”.
    • Sociolinguistic competence: understanding of the social context where communication takes place:role relationships, shared information of participants, purpose of the interaction.
    • Discourse competence: interpretation of individual message in relation to the entire discourse or text.
    • Strategic competence :strategies to initiate, terminate,maintain, repair and redirect communication.
  • 13. Theory of Learning Principles:
    • (Littlewood, 1981) Communication Principle: activities that involve real communication promote learning.
    • Task Principle: activities in which language is used to solve a task.
    • Meaningfulness Principle: language that is meaningful to the learner supports the lerning process.
    • Learning activities are selected to promote meaningful and authentic language use.
  • 14. TASK:
    • Read design, objectives, the syllabus, activites, learner roles and teacher roles, instructional materials. Be ready to comment on them.
    • Practice: examples of Information Gap Activities.