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Communicative Language Teaching

Communicative Language Teaching






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    Communicative Language Teaching Communicative Language Teaching Presentation Transcript

    • COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING Jack C. Richards &Theodore S. Rodgers(2001)CUP Prof. Estela N. Braun, Adjunto Regular, Practice II, Didactics of English as EFL. Practicum at Primary School Level. College of Human Sciences, UNLPam.
    • CLT or the PARADIGM shift.
      • 1980’s:since then it has been the model for many teaching practices:
      • The Natural Approach.
      • Cooperative Language Learning.
      • Content-Based Teaching (CBT)
      • Task-Based Learning.
    • CLT origins:
      • 1960’s: Audio-lingualism in the USA./Situational Language Teaching in Great Britain.
      • Noam Chomsky (1957) Syntactic Structures.
      • “ Structural theories of language were incapable of accounting for the creativity and uniqueness of language.
    • British Applied Linguists:
      • They started to address the functional and communicative potential of language.
      • ELT should focus on a Communicative Approach where the goal of language learning is to develop COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE.
      • “ The ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language to form grammatically correct sentences, but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom”. (Jack C. Richards)
      • Communicative Competence includes:
      • KOL of the vocabulary and grammar of the language.
      • Kol of the rules of conversation (turn taking, speech events,address forms).
      • KOL about how to use and respond to SPEECH ACTS (REQUESTS,apologies, thanks, invitations)
      • Knowing when to use language appropriately. (Coulhard, 1985,Hymes, 1977).
      • Cristopher Candlin and Henry Widdowson.
      • John Firth, M.A.K Halliday.
      • American sociolinguists: Dell Hymes, John Gumperz, William Labov).
      • Language philosophers John Austin &John Searle.
    • European Common Market
      • The Council of Europe.
      • International Association of Applied Linguistics.
      • Goal: to develop alternative methods of language teaching.
      • British linguist D.A. Wilkins (1972): proposed a functional or communicative defiition of language to build up a functional.notional syllabus. His analysis was semantic/communicative, based on learners’needs.
    • Common European Framework of Reference for Languages
      • Threshold level specifications for language programmes, examinations and textbook design in Europe .
      • Rapid application of these ideas by textbook writers, curriculum development centers.
      • By mid 1970’s CLT had expanded from Great Britain to the world.
      • Howatt (1984) distinguishes between a strong and weak form of CLT.
      • Hymes’definition of communicative competence (1972 )” a person who acquires communicative competence acquires both knowledge and ability for language use”.
      • Brumfit (1979)seven basic functions that language performs for children in L1:
      • 1. The instrumental function: using language to get things.
      • 2.The regulatory function: using language to control the behaviour of others.
    • More basic functions:
      • 3. The interactional function: using language to create interaction with others.
      • 4. The personal function: using language to express personal feelings and meanings.
      • 5. The heuristic function: using language to learn and discover.
      • 6. The imaginative function: using language to create a world of imagination.
      • 7. The representational function: using language to communicate information.
    • Henry Widdowson (1978)
      • “ Teaching Language as Communication”. Relationships between linguistic systems and their communicative values in text and discourse.
      • Canale and Swain (1980): identified four dimensions of communicative competence.
      • Grammatical competence: Chomsky “linguistic competence”or Hymes “what is formally possible”.
      • Sociolinguistic competence: understanding of the social context where communication takes place:role relationships, shared information of participants, purpose of the interaction.
      • Discourse competence: interpretation of individual message in relation to the entire discourse or text.
      • Strategic competence :strategies to initiate, terminate,maintain, repair and redirect communication.
    • Theory of Learning Principles:
      • (Littlewood, 1981) Communication Principle: activities that involve real communication promote learning.
      • Task Principle: activities in which language is used to solve a task.
      • Meaningfulness Principle: language that is meaningful to the learner supports the lerning process.
      • Learning activities are selected to promote meaningful and authentic language use.
    • TASK:
      • Read design, objectives, the syllabus, activites, learner roles and teacher roles, instructional materials. Be ready to comment on them.
      • Practice: examples of Information Gap Activities.