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Chapter 2 Harmer (2007)
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Chapter 2 Harmer (2007)



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  • 1. Chapter 2, Harmer (2007) Prof. Estela N. Braun, Adjunto regular a/c (2013) Describing the English Language.
  • 2. LANGUAGE IN USE  Task: Analyze the texts provided.  Formal/informal language  Different kinds of written/oral language  MEDIUM they are operating in.  GENRES.  SITUATIONS.  REGISTER.  Which grammar can be used to express those meanings?
  • 3. B. What we want to say  No smoking area. Context/Rules.  GRAMMAR: form, meaning, use.  CONTEXT (situation)  CO-TEXT (lexis and grammar)
  • 4. PURPOSE  J. l. Austin/Searle (1962). Doing things with Words.  Performatives: I promise, I name you  Indirect Speech Acts  The study of functions and how they are realised in language has had a profound effect upon the design of ELT materials.
  • 5. APPROPRIACY AND REGISTER  Would you like to join us for dinner?  Fancy something to eat?  There are VARIABLES that govern our choice of language to achieve a communicative purpose.
  • 6. VARIABLES  SETTING  PARTICIPANTS  GENDER  CHANNEL  TOPIC  TONE  Language is a social construct as much as it is a mental activity.
  • 7. Language as TEXT and DICOURSE  COHERENCE: logical line of reasoning.  COHESION:  Lexical (see “Teacher Man”,by Frank Mc Court)Repetition, theme and rheme.  Grammatical Cohesion: tense agreement.  Anaphoric reference.  Substitution, ellipsis.  Linkers or connectors.
  • 8. CONVERSATIONAL DISCOURSE  Turn taking rules.  Transactional vs. Interactional  Moves  Cooperative principle (Grice, 1975)  Make contributions informative  -Make them true  -Make them relevant  -Avoid obscurity and ambiguity  -Be brief and orderly (Polonius, in Hamlet)
  • 9. GENRE:  Type of written organization that will be instantly recognized by members of a discourse community.Goal-oriented social process.  Analysis of adverts (Page 31)  DISCOURSE:the sentences and utterances we use are more than a combination of grammar, morphology, lexis.
  • 10. GRAMMAR: Parts of speech.  Manuel se corto con un vidrio.  Manuel cut himself with a piece of broken glass.  Discuss: What do non-native learners of English need to learn?  Grammar: syntax, semantics, morphology.  Words can trigger the grammatical behaviour of words around them.