Audio- Lingual Method
- Depends on Stimulus- Response- Reinforcement and controlled practice
- Has a theoretical base in Linguistics (Charles Fries-Michigan University) and Psychology (Behavioral psychology- Skinner)
- Relies on drills, Practice patterns and substitution
- Students are taught the language directly, without using the students L1 to explain new words or grammar in the TL or L2
- The acquisition of the sentence patterns of TL is through CONDITIONING Shaping and Reinforcement
- T uses L2. Pictures, actions, etc are used to give meaning.
- T introduces drills and corrects mispronunciation (modelling).
- S repeat the dialogue many times.
- S stumble over some lines. T uses a backward build-up drill.
- Language forms occur within a context (not in isolation).
- L1 and L2 have separate linguistic systems. They are kept apart to prevent interference.
- LL is a process of habit formation. +repetition = stronger habit + greater learning.
- T should prevent S from making errors lead to bad habits.
- T makes a chain drill (S greet one another).
- T uses single and multiple slot substitution drills.
- T gives positive feedback when S answer correctly.
- T uses spoken and pictures cues.
- T conducts transformation and question- answer drills.
- T poses the questions to them rapidly.
- Meaningful LL S should learn how to use it to communicate.
- Parts of speech occupy particular slots in sentences. S must learn which part of speech occupies which slot.
- reinforcement helps S to develop correct habits.
- S learn to respond to verbal/non-verbal stimuli.
- Pattern practice helps S to form habits so, they can use them.
- S should overlearn answer automatically.
- T provides cues, gives encouragement, directs, etc.
- New Vocab. is introduced within the dialogue It is limited.
- Grammar rules. Grammatical points are taught through examples and drills.
- T makes a contrastive analysis between L1 and L2. It helps her to identify where S will have trouble.
- T should be like an orchestra leader.
- 1º S should acquire structural patterns ; 2º Vocabulary
- L1=L2 Grammar rules are figured out and induced from examples. No need of memorization.
- S must overcome habits of their L1. Contrastive analysis will tell the T in which areas S will have more difficulties.
- T writes the dialogue on the blackboard. S do limited written work.
- T prepares a Supermarket game, discussion of American Supermarket and Football.
- Speech is more basic to Language that the written form. The order of the Macroskills is: Listening, Speaking , Reading and Writing.
- Language cannot be separated from Culture. T has to present information about that culture.
- What are the goals of T who use the Audio-Lingual Method?
- T uses TL communicatively. T thinks that the S need to
- overlearn TL and use it automatically.
T is an orchestra leader and she provides a good model for imitation. S are imitators of the T`s model. They follow her instructions.
- What is the role of the T? and the S` role?
Mainly is T-S interaction. T is the initiator. There is S-S interaction in chain drills however, it is T- directed.
- What is the nature of S-T / S-S interaction?
- What are some characteristics of the teaching/ learning process?
- New vocabulary and structural patterns are presented
- through dialogues (imitation and repetition drills). Grammar
- is induced from examples. Cultural info. is contextualized.
- Reading and Writing are based upon oral work.
There are no principles related to this area.
- How are the feelings of the S dealt with?
Language View Descriptive Linguistics. Everyday speech is emphasized and culture consists of everyday behavior and lifestyle of the TL speakers.
- How is the language/ culture viewed ?
- What language areas/skills are emphasized?
- Vocabulary is kept to a minimum while S are mastering the
- sound system and grammatical patterns.
- The natural order of skills is listening, speaking, reading, and
- writing. Pronunciation is taught from the beginning.
TL is used all the time instead in order to avoid possible interference of the L1.
- What is the role of S` L1?
Test would be a discrete-point in nature. Each question on the test would focus on only one point of the language at a time.
- How is evaluation accomplished?
- Larsen- Freeman. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press. 2nd Edition