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Audio Lingual Method

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  • 1. Audio- Lingual Method
  • 2.
    • Oral- based approach
    • based on behaviorism
    • Depends on Stimulus- Response- Reinforcement and controlled practice
    • Has a theoretical base in Linguistics (Charles Fries-Michigan University) and Psychology (Behavioral psychology- Skinner)
  • 3.
    • Relies on drills, Practice patterns and substitution
    • Students are taught the language directly, without using the students L1 to explain new words or grammar in the TL or L2
    • The acquisition of the sentence patterns of TL is through CONDITIONING Shaping and Reinforcement
  • 4. OBSERVATIONS PRINCIPLES
    • T introduces a dialogue.
    • T uses L2. Pictures, actions, etc are used to give meaning.
    • T introduces drills and corrects mispronunciation (modelling).
    • S repeat the dialogue many times.
    • S stumble over some lines. T uses a backward build-up drill.
    • Language forms occur within a context (not in isolation).
    • L1 and L2 have separate linguistic systems. They are kept apart to prevent interference.
    • T is the model of TL .
    • LL is a process of habit formation. +repetition = stronger habit + greater learning.
    • T should prevent S from making errors lead to bad habits.
  • 5.
    • T makes a chain drill (S greet one another).
    • T uses single and multiple slot substitution drills.
    • T gives positive feedback when S answer correctly.
    • T uses spoken and pictures cues.
    • T conducts transformation and question- answer drills.
    • T poses the questions to them rapidly.
    • Meaningful LL S should learn how to use it to communicate.
    • Parts of speech occupy particular slots in sentences. S must learn which part of speech occupies which slot.
    • reinforcement helps S to develop correct habits.
    • S learn to respond to verbal/non-verbal stimuli.
    • Pattern practice helps S to form habits so, they can use them.
    • S should overlearn answer automatically.
  • 6.
    • T provides cues, gives encouragement, directs, etc.
    • New Vocab. is introduced within the dialogue It is limited.
    • Grammar rules. Grammatical points are taught through examples and drills.
    • T makes a contrastive analysis between L1 and L2. It helps her to identify where S will have trouble.
    • T should be like an orchestra leader.
    • 1º S should acquire structural patterns ; 2º Vocabulary
    • L1=L2 Grammar rules are figured out and induced from examples. No need of memorization.
    • S must overcome habits of their L1. Contrastive analysis will tell the T in which areas S will have more difficulties.
  • 7.
    • T writes the dialogue on the blackboard. S do limited written work.
    • T prepares a Supermarket game, discussion of American Supermarket and Football.
    • Speech is more basic to Language that the written form. The order of the Macroskills is: Listening, Speaking , Reading and Writing.
    • Language cannot be separated from Culture. T has to present information about that culture.
  • 8.
    • What are the goals of T who use the Audio-Lingual Method?
    • T uses TL communicatively. T thinks that the S need to
    • overlearn TL and use it automatically.
    • What is the role of the T? and the S` role?
    T is an orchestra leader and she provides a good model for imitation. S are imitators of the T`s model. They follow her instructions.
    • What is the nature of S-T / S-S interaction?
    Mainly is T-S interaction. T is the initiator. There is S-S interaction in chain drills however, it is T- directed.
  • 9.
    • What are some characteristics of the teaching/ learning process?
    • New vocabulary and structural patterns are presented
    • through dialogues (imitation and repetition drills). Grammar
    • is induced from examples. Cultural info. is contextualized.
    • Reading and Writing are based upon oral work.
    • How are the feelings of the S dealt with?
    There are no principles related to this area.
    • How is the language/ culture viewed ?
    Language View Descriptive Linguistics. Everyday speech is emphasized and culture consists of everyday behavior and lifestyle of the TL speakers.
  • 10.
    • What language areas/skills are emphasized?
    • Vocabulary is kept to a minimum while S are mastering the
    • sound system and grammatical patterns.
    • The natural order of skills is listening, speaking, reading, and
    • writing. Pronunciation is taught from the beginning.
    • What is the role of S` L1?
    TL is used all the time instead in order to avoid possible interference of the L1.
    • How is evaluation accomplished?
    Test would be a discrete-point in nature. Each question on the test would focus on only one point of the language at a time.
  • 11. BLIBLIOGRAPHY
    • Larsen- Freeman. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press. 2nd Edition