Grammar 4


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Grammar 4

  1. 1. Systemic Functional GrammarThe Relations of Forms and Meanings<br />LILIA INDRIANI<br />ENGLISH DEPARTMENT-FKIP<br />TIDAR UNIVERSITY OF MAGELANG<br /><br />
  2. 2. What do you think when you hear the word grammar?<br />S + v1/ VS/ VES + O<br />S + HAS/HAVE + V3<br />BLA…BLA…BLA…<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. What is grammar?<br />Is a theory of language, of how language is put together and how it is works.<br />It is the study of wordings.<br />WHAT IS WORDINGS?<br />Time flies like an arrow.<br />Wording is the words and their order <br />
  5. 5. Folk Terminology: <br /> Meaning – wording –letters/ sound<br />Linguistic Terminology:<br /> Semantics – lexicogrammar – orthography/ phonology<br />
  6. 6. Approaches to Grammar<br />Formal Grammar<br />Grammar as a set of rules<br />Specifies all the possible grammatical structures of a language<br />Focused on forms of grammatical structures and their relationships to one another.<br />Functional Grammar<br />Grammar as a resource for making and exchanging meanings<br />Specifies meanings of forms in different contexts<br />Focused on the appropriateness of form for a particular communicative purpose.<br />
  9. 9. SUMMARY<br />
  11. 11. Context-text connection<br />All meaning is situated  context of situation and culture.<br /> e.g. just put it beside those other ones.<br /> what’s the time? <br /> let’s shower!<br />Context of culture determines what we can mean through being who we are, doing what we do, saying what we say<br />
  12. 12. Context of situation<br />can be specified through use of the register variables: FIELD, TENOR, MODE<br />FIELD (What is going on): activity and object focus.<br />TENOR (the social relationship between those who taking part): status of power, affect, contact.<br />MODE (how language is being used) : spoken/ written, action/ reflection.<br />
  13. 13. CULTURE<br />Genre (Purpose)<br />Situation<br />Who is involved?<br />(Tenor)<br />Subject matter Channel<br />(Field) (Mode)<br />Register<br />TEXT<br />
  14. 14. Reconstructing the context<br />The wordings of text simultaneously encode three types of meaning:<br />Ideational Meaning<br /> Interpersonal Meaning<br /> Textual Meaning<br />
  15. 15. Ideational Meanings<br />Meanings about phenomena<br />About things and goings on<br />About circumstances surrounding the happenings and doings<br />Realized in wordings through Participants, Processes and circumstances<br />Centrally influenced by the field of discourse<br />
  16. 16. Examples<br />
  17. 17. What does the sentence mean?<br />We can answer by explaining what it is about.<br />It is about an animal (polar bears) performing a habitual action (eat) onto another animal (fish).<br />This is known as experiential meaning.<br />This represents our experience of the world as well as thoughts and feelings.<br />Concerned with how we talk about actions, happenings, feelings, beliefs, situations, states, etc.<br />
  18. 18. Interpersonal meanings<br />Express a speaker’s attitudes and judgments<br />For acting upon and with others<br />Realized in wordings through MOOD and modality.<br />Most centrally influenced by tenor of discourse<br />
  19. 19. 1. Polar bears eat fish2. Polar bears might be good hunters.3. Do polar bears eat fish?<br />No 2 is still a statement, but it introduces into the sentences an assessment by the speaker whether or not the statement is true.<br /> No 2 and 3 differs in the way s in which we act upon one another through language.<br />
  20. 20. Examples(Gerot and Wignell 1995:13)<br /><ul><li>Declarative:
  21. 21. We inspect the growing plants every week
  22. 22. Imperative:
  23. 23. Brock, get those plants inspected right now!</li></ul>Consider the interpersonal relations between speakers.<br />
  24. 24. examples<br />Brock, do you really expect me to believe this crap?<br />Mr. Brock, I find your position untenable<br />Consider the degree of informality or formality<br />
  25. 25. Examples<br />Mr. Brock is a fine, upstanding employee.<br />Brock is a lazy, incompetent fool.<br />Consider the attitudinal lexis which express affect, the degree of like and dislike<br />
  26. 26. Examples: Modality<br />Unfortunately, Brock is an inspector.<br />Fortunately, Brock is an inspector.<br />Consider the Mood Adjunct which reveal attitude or judgment.<br /><ul><li>The crop mightbe inspected.
  27. 27. The crop should be inspected
  28. 28. The crop must be inspected</li></ul>Consider modal operators revealing the speaker’ certainty.<br />
  29. 29. Textual Meanings<br />Express the relation of language to its environment (including what has been spoken or written before),<br />Realized through patterns of Theme and cohesion,<br />Most centrally influenced by mode of discourse,<br />Has to do with the ways in which a stretch of language is organized in relation to its context<br />Is important in the creation of coherence in spoken and written texts.<br />
  30. 30. The linguistic differences between the following spoken and written texts below relate primarily to differences in thematic choices and patterns of cohesion.<br /> This is yer phone bill and you hafta go to the Post Office to pay it – uh, by next Monday – that’s what this box tells ya – or they’ll cut yer phone off!<br />All phone bills must be paid by the date shown or service will be discontinued. <br />
  31. 31. The relationship between context, meanings and wordings<br />Context Text<br /> Semantics Lexicogrammar<br />(meanings) (wordings)<br />Field Ideational Transitivity<br />(what is going on) (Processes, Participants,<br /> Circumstances<br />Tenor Interpersonal Mood and Modality<br />(Social relations) (Speech roles, attitudes)<br />Mode Textual Theme, Cohesion<br />(Contextual coherence)<br />
  32. 32. The Mountain<br />Long ago, a great mountain began to rumble and shake. People came from far and near to see what would happen.<br />“A great river will be born,” said one.<br />“A mighty dragon will come out,” said another.<br />“A god himself will spring from these rocks,” said a third.<br />Finally, a small crack appeared in the mountainside. And out popped a mouse.<br />
  33. 33. The Prayer<br /> I pray you'll be our eyesAnd watch us where we goAnd help us to be wiseIn times when we don't know<br />Let this be our prayer<br />As we go our way<br />Lead us to a place<br />Guide us with your Grace<br />To a place where we'll be safe<br />
  34. 34. Love Changes Everything<br />Love, love changes everything<br />Hands and faces, birds and sky<br />Love, love changes everything<br />How you live and how you die<br />Love can make the summer fly<br />Or a night seem like a lifetime<br />Yes, love, love changes everything<br />Now I tremble at your name<br />Nothing in the world will ever be<br />the same<br />Love, love changes everything<br />Days are longer, words mean more<br />Love, love changes everything<br />Pain is deeper than before<br />Love will turn your world around<br />And that world would last forever<br />Yes, love, love changes everything<br />Brings you glory, brings you shame<br />Nothing in the world will ever be the same<br />Love, into the world we go<br />Planning future, shaping years<br />Love does its acts suddenly<br />All our wisdom disappears<br />Love makes moves on everyone<br />All the rules we make are broken<br />Yes, love, love changes everything<br />Live or perish in its name<br />Love will never, never let you be the same<br />
  35. 35. Candle in the Wind<br />Loveliness we've lostThese empty days without your smileThis torch we'll always carryFor our nation's golden childAnd even though we tryThe truth brings us to tearsAll our words cannot expressThe joy you brought us through the years<br /><ul><li>And it seems …</li></ul>Goodbye England's roseMay you ever grow in our heartsYou were the grace that placed itselfWhere lives were torn apartGoodbye England's roseFrom a country lost without your soulWho'll miss the wings of your compassionMore than you'll ever know<br />* And it seems…<br />Goodbye England's roseMay you ever grow in our heartsYou were the grace that placed itselfWhere lives were torn apartYou called out to our countryAnd you whispered to those in painNow you belong to heavenAnd the stars spell out your name<br />* And it seems to me you lived your lifeLike a candle in the windNever fading with the sunsetWhen the rain set inAnd your footsteps will always fall youAlong England's greenest hillsYour candle's burned out long beforeYour legend never will<br />
  36. 36. Mood- chapter 2<br />GEROT AND WIGNELL (p.21-50)<br />
  37. 37. Constituent of MOOD<br />There are three main elements of MOOD constituent:<br /> 1. an expression of polarity: either YES (positive polarity) or NO (negative polarity)<br /> 2. a nominal-type element, which we will call the SUBJECT<br /> 3.a verbal-type element, which we will call the FINITE.<br />
  38. 38. SUBJECT<br />SUBJECT realizes the thing by reference to which the proposition can be affirmed or denied. It provides the person or thing in whom is vested the success or failure of the proposition, what is “held responsible”<br />The identification of the SUBJECT can be achieved by the tag test: the element that gets picked up by the pronoun in the tag is the SUBJECT.<br />Another test is to change the verb from singular to plural or plural to singular.<br />
  39. 39. FINITE<br />Halliday (1985) defines the FINITE in terms of its function in the clause to make the proposition definite, to anchor the proposition in a way that we can argue about it. (see: Eggins 1994:157-159)<br />The definition of the FINITE again involves the tag test: the verbal part of the tag tells you which element the FINITE is. (see: Eggins: 1994: 158-1959)<br />
  40. 40. EXAMPLES (p.24)<br />
  41. 41. EXAMPLES<br /><ul><li> I sleep.
  42. 42. I am sleeping.
  43. 43. I could sleep .</li></li></ul><li>Constituent of RESIDUE<br />The RESIDUE component of the clause is that part of the clause which is somehow less essential to the arguability of the clause than is the MOOD component.<br />RESIDUE component can also contain a number of functional elements: a PREDICATOR, one or more COMPLEMENTS, and any number of different types of ADJUNCTS.<br />
  44. 44. PREDICATOR<br />The PREDICATOR is the lexical or content part of the verbal group.<br />PREDICATOR fills the role of specifying the actual event, action, process being discussed.<br />The verbal group contains two elements. The first part of the verbal group is the FINITE. The second part is the PREDICATOR.<br />
  45. 45. COMPLEMENT<br />COMPLEMENT is defined as a non-essential in the clause, a participant somehow effected by the main argument of the proposition.<br />It is identified as an element within the Residue that has the potential of being Subject but is not. A Complement can get to be Subject through the process of passivizing the clause.<br />COMLEMENT functions to describe the Subject, to offer an attribute of it. Technically, Attributive Complements cannot become Subjects (they cannot form passives).<br />
  46. 46. EXAMPLES <br />Henry James wrote “The Bostonians”<br />Simon gave George a book.<br /> He isn’t contemporary.<br />
  47. 47. ADJUNCTS<br />ADJUNCTS are clause elements which contribute some additional (but non-essential) information to the clause.<br />They can be identified as elements which do not have the potential to become Subject – i.e. they are not nominal elements, but are adverbial, or prepositional.<br />We can differentiate between three broad classes of Adjuncts, according to whether their contribution to the clause is principally experiential, interpersonal or textual:<br />Circumstantial Adjuncts (experiential); Modal Adjuncts (interpersonal); Textual Adjuncts.<br />There are four main types of Modal Adjuncts: Mood Adjuncts, Polarity Adjuncts; Comment Adjuncts; Vocative Adjuncts.<br />
  48. 48. CIRCUMSTANTIAL ADJUNCTS<br />They add experiential content to the clause, by expressing some circumstance relating to the process represented in the clause.<br />They refer to time (when), place (where), cause (why), matter (about what), accompaniment (with whom), beneficiary (to whom), agent (by whom).<br />
  49. 49. Examples CIRCUMSTANTIAL ADJUCT (PLACE): <br />Ann bought some apples in the supermarket.<br />In New York I should have been very busy.<br />
  50. 50. Examples CIRCUMSTANTIAL ADJUCT (TIME): <br />They can’t do that these days.<br />Since March I have studied Grammar 4.<br />
  51. 51. Examples CIRCUMSTANTIAL ADJUCT (CAUSE): <br />You read books for fun.<br />I get a job for money.<br />
  52. 52. Examples CIRCUMSTANTIAL ADJUCT (matter):<br />Henry James writes about women.<br />I am thinking about you.<br />
  53. 53. Examples CIRCUMSTANTIAL ADJUCT (agent):<br /> George was reading “The Bostonians” by Simon.<br /> June is watching “ Harry Potter” by Steven S.<br />
  54. 54. Modal adjuncts (interpersonal)<br />Are clause constituents which add interpersonal meaning to clause.<br />They add meanings which are some how connected to the creation and maintenance of the dialogue.<br />There are four main types of Modal Adjunct:<br /> 1. MOOD ADJUNCTS<br /> 2. POLARITY ADJUNCTS<br /> 3. COMMENT ADJUNCTS<br /> 4. VOCATIVE ADJUNCTS<br />
  55. 55. MOOD ADJUNCTS<br />They provide a ”second chance” for the speaker to add his judgment of probability.<br />Expressions of :<br /> probability : perhaps, may be, probably<br />usuality : sometimes, usually, etc.<br /> intensification : really, absolutely, just, somewhat<br /> presumption: evidently, presumably, obviously<br /> inclination: happily, willingly <br />
  56. 56. Example of mood adjunct<br />Camels probably walk like that.<br />I always love you all the way.<br />
  57. 57. Polarity adjuncts<br />1. Polarity Adjuncts<br /> when YES and NO are “standing in” for an ellipsed clause.<br />eg.<br /> A: Henry James was a guy that could write.<br /> B: Yes.<br />Yes: means He was.<br />
  58. 58. Textual adjuncts<br />2. When YES and NO (yea, na, yep, nope) occur in unstressed initial position, introducing a clause.<br />eg.<br /> A: Oh now he’s talking about Romeo and Juliet.<br /> B: Yea, I know.<br />
  59. 59. COMMENT ADJUNCTS<br />They function to express an assessment about the clause as a whole.<br />Typically occur in clause initial position, or directly after the subject, and realized by adverbs.<br /> 1. admission : frankly<br /> 2. assertion : honestly, really<br /> 3. how desirable : luckily, hopefully<br /> 4. how constant: tentatively, provisionally<br /> 5. how valid : broadly speaking, generally<br /> 6. how sensible : understandably, wisely<br /> 7. how expected : as expected, amazingly<br />
  60. 60. COMMENT ADJUNCTS<br />Frankly, I can’t stand meatball.<br />Unfortunately, I ’ve never read “Little Prince”<br />
  61. 61. Vocative adjuncts<br />Function to control the discourse by designating a likely “next speaker”.<br />They are identifiable as names, but the names are not functioning as Subjects or Complements, but are used to directly address the person named.<br />Eg.<br />Did you do physics George?<br />
  62. 62. Textual adjuncts<br />There are two main types of Textual adjuncts:<br />1. Conjunctive Adjuncts<br />express by conjunctions, function to provide linking relations between one clause and another. These conjunctive adjuncts belong neither in the MOOD box nor in the RESIDUE box.<br />Eg.<br /> So poor old Henry ’s out the school too.<br />
  63. 63. Textual adjuncts<br />2. Continuity Adjunct<br /> This includes the continuative and continuity items. It usually happens in casual talk, such as well, yea, oh.<br />Eg.<br />Oh now he ’s talking about Jane.<br />
  64. 64. SUMMARY OF ADJUNCTS<br />Adjuncts are not limited in number of occurrence: a clause can contain an indefinite number of adjuncts of different types. Eg.<br />But unfortunately Henry’s novel can’t usually<br /> be bought in local bookshops.<br />
  65. 65. POLAR INTERROGATIVES<br />English offers two main structures for asking questions: polar interrogatives (yes/no questions); or wh-interrogatives (questions using who, what, which, when, where, why, how)<br />The structure of the polar interrogative involves the positioning of the Finite before the Subject.<br />In cases where the related declarative contained a fused Finite/Predicator, we need to introduce a Finite element to place before the Subject. This Finite element is typically the “do’ auxiliary verb. (see Eggins 1994: 173)<br />
  66. 66. Examples YES/NO QUESTIONS<br />Is Simon reading novels?<br />Did Simon learn the English language from the novel?<br />
  67. 67. WH-Interrogatives<br />In a wh-interrogative, we need to recognize the presence of a WH element. This WH element is always conflated (mapped onto, fused with) another element of clause structure. It may be conflated with either the Subject, the Complement or a Circumstantial Adjunct, and is shown as a constituent of the MOOD or RESIDUE according to the status of the element with which it is conflated. (see: Eggins 1994: 175-176)<br />
  68. 68. EXAMPLES WH-QUESTIONS<br /> Who wrote ‘Chicken Soup’?<br /> What does ‘mood’ mean?<br /> When did Jane meet Tarzan?<br />
  69. 69. EXCLAMATIVES<br />EXCLAMATIVE structures, which are used in interaction to express emotions such as surprise, disgust, worry, etc., are a blend of interrogative and declarative patterns. Like the WH-interrogatives, they require the presence of a WH element, conflated with either a Complement or an Adjunct.<br />E.g.<br />What a great writer Henry James was! <br />
  70. 70. EXCLAMATIVE<br />How amazing he was!<br />How fantastically he wrote!<br />What great book he was writing last century!<br />
  71. 71. MODALITY: (1) Modalization<br />When we exchange information, the clause takes he form of a proposition. A proposition is something that can be argued, but argued in a particular way. When we exchange information we are arguing about whether something IS or IS NOT. Information is something that can be affirmed, or denied.<br />But these two poles of polarity are not the only possibilities. In between these two extremes are a number of choices of degree of certainty, or of usuality: something is perhaps, something isn’t for sure. Something is sometimes or something isn’t always.The intermediate positios are what we refer to MODALIZA<br />TION.<br />
  72. 72. EXAMPLES MODALIZATION<br />The book might have been written by Daniel.<br />The book was possibly written by Daniel.<br />The book might possibly have been written by Daniel.<br />
  73. 73. MODALITY: (2) Modulation<br />There are many other ways of using language to get or people to do things for us, or offering to do things for them. <br />Modulation is a way for speakers to express their judgments or attitudes about actions or events. When we are acting on or for other people, we do not have the dogmatic choices of DO or DON’T, I’LL GIVE THIS or I WON’T GIVE YOU THIS. But between these two poles of compliance and refusal we can express degrees of obligation and inclination. <br />
  74. 74. EXAMPLES MODALIZATION<br />I reckon Daniel wrote the book.<br />I think Daniel wrote the book.<br />I’m sure Daniel wrote the book.<br />
  75. 75. imperative<br />It frequently uses a clause of the Mood type.<br /> Don’t you take my copy of the book!<br />Let’s read Shakespeare!<br /> Read Shakespeare!<br />
  76. 76. The Dog that takes you into the Bar<br />Two men are walking their dogs (a Doberman and a Chihuahua) when they say to each other “I’m thirsty.” They see a nearby Bar and walk up to it. Unfortunately, there was a sign on the door that said NO DOGS. They thought for a while to try to figure out what they should do with no luck. <br />
  77. 77. Suddenly, the man with the Doberman said, “I have an idea! Do what I do!” The man put on his sunglasses, walked up to the door and tried to get in but a big muscular man stopped him. “Where do you think you’re going?” asked the big man. “This is my seeing-eye dog,“ said the man hoping for good feedback. “Alright mister, go right in,” said the big man.<br />
  78. 78. The Doberman man walked in. The second man slipped his sunglasses on and did the same as the first man. “Where are you going?” asked the big man. “I’m going into the bar, this is my seeing-eye dog,” he said. “A Chihuahua?” asked the big man with suspicion. The other man, playing his part yelled, “They gave me a Chihuahua?!”<br />
  79. 79. Transitivitychapter 3<br />Gerot and Wignell p. 52-79<br />
  80. 80. Transitivity<br />It organizes the clause to realize the experiential meaning.<br />Clauses with two participants – Actor and Goal – are normally known as transitive clauses.<br />Clauses with the single participant Actor are normally known as intransitive clauses<br />
  81. 81. Processes <br />
  82. 82. MATERIAL PROCESSES<br />Some entity physically does something.<br />Have a doing (process) and doer (participant)<br />ACTOR : who perform the action.<br />GOAL : the participant at whom the process is directed, to whom the action is extended<br />
  83. 83. GOAL VS RANGE<br />Range is the element that specifies the scope or domain of the Process.<br />“What did X do to Y?” (Question to determine is it range or goal)<br />Eg. (1) They did the transfusion.<br /> (2) They transfused the blood.<br />(1) What did they do to the transfusion?<br />(2) What did they do to the blood?<br />The transfusion in (1) is RANGE, while the blood in (2) is GOAL.<br />This is the first type of range.<br />
  84. 84. GOAL VS RANGE<br />The second kind of range : it doesn’t exist except through the process. <br />The range is really just another name for the process itself.<br />Eg. Marg served the dinner.<br /> Susan is playing doll.<br />The dinner and doll is just specifying the process. <br />
  85. 85. GOAL VS RANGE<br />A third type of range is that created by the use of dummy verb like do, have, give, take, make.<br />Eg. You give a smile.<br /> I have a bath.<br /> She took a look.<br />
  86. 86. GOAL VS RANGE<br />Range cannot take attributes of result: an element which gives the outcome of the process.<br />Eg. She shot him dead.<br />But not She shot a gun dead. (FALSE!)<br />A gun = Range<br />
  87. 87. GOAL VS RANGEDecide is it range or goal!<br />
  88. 88. Examples<br />They were playing tennis.<br />She dropped an egg.<br />They ran the race.<br />
  89. 89. BENEFICIARY<br />Is a participant who in some way could be said to benefit from the process.<br />Eg. They give you a cognac.<br /> They gave blood to my daughter.<br /> You and my daughter are beneficiary.<br />There are two kinds of beneficiary: Recipient (the one to whom something is given) and Client (the one for whom something is done).<br />
  90. 90. BENEFICIARY<br />I sold the car to John<br />They threw a farewell party for Jane.<br />
  91. 91.
  92. 92. Circumstances<br />Are realized by adverbial groups or prepositional phrases. Eg. Eggins p. 238<br />I stay up all night. (Circ: extent)<br />They rang me up on the Saturday night. (Circ: location)<br />They did the transfusion through the umbilical artery. (circ: Manner)<br />
  93. 93. Circumstances<br />In Switzerlandunlike Greece, they give you a cognac. (Circ: location, manner)<br />She carried the bomb for her boyfriend. (Circ: cause)<br />She got on plane without her friend. (Circ: accompaniment)<br />She was travelling to Israel as a tourist. (Circ: role)<br />
  94. 94. Mental process<br />Are one of sensing: feeling, thinking, perceiving.<br />There are three types: <br />Affective or reactive (feeling)<br />Cognitive (thinking)<br />Perceptive (perceiving through the five sense)<br />The participant are SENSER and PHENOMENON.<br />
  95. 95. eXAMPLES<br />Mark likes new clothes.<br />Mark understood.<br />Loneliness hurts.<br />Continued in Gerot and Wignell p. 59-60.<br />
  96. 96. Behavioural process<br />Processes of physiological and psychological behaviour like watch, look over, taste, sniff, stare, gawk, work out, think on, dream, breathe, cough, snuffle, smile, frown, laugh, grimace, scowl, grin, pout.<br /> The participant is BEHAVER and RANGE.<br />Behaver: participant does the behaviour.<br />Range: the behaviour enacted.<br />Gerot and Wignell p.61 <br />
  97. 97. Examples<br />
  98. 98. Verbal processes<br />Are processes of saying and including symbolic exchanges of meaning.<br />The participant are SAYER , RECEIVER,TARGET and VERBIAGE.<br />Sayer: participant responsible for the verbal process.<br />Receiver: the one to whom the verbalization is addressed.<br />Verbiage: a name for the verbalization itself.<br />
  99. 99. Verbal processes<br />Target: one acted upon verbally (insulted, complimented, etc)<br />
  100. 100. Excercise<br />They are talking about the news.<br />I said, “Can you avoid the car?”<br />The boyfriend told her a lot of rubbish.<br />“They pay you,” you said.<br />He said that she should carry the bags.<br />The novels have been given to the library.<br />Susan cooked dinner for them.<br />She was crying with frustration.<br />“I will meet her in Yogyakarta”, he decided.<br />His excuses were believed.<br />
  101. 101. Transitivitychapter 3<br />Existensial and Relational Process<br />Gerot and Wignell p.67<br />
  102. 102. Existential process (p.72)<br />Are process of existence.<br />Clue: “There was/ is something.”<br />Use the word: there, be, exist, arise, occur.<br />The participants are EXISTENT, CIRCUMSTANCE.<br />Differenciate between there (circum:place) with there (existential) p.73.<br />
  103. 103. Relational processes: processes of being and having<br />Relational Processes involve states of being (including having).<br />Processes are Identifying or Attributive.<br />Identifying Process is a process which establish an identity.<br />Attributive process is a process which assign a quality.<br />You are the thinner one here. (Identifying)<br />You are very thin. (Attributive)<br />
  104. 104. Relational processes: processes of being and having<br />1. Intensive Attributive Process<br /> The participants are CARRIER, ATTRIBUTIVE and ATTRIBUTE.<br /> Clue: “x is a member of the class y”<br />
  105. 105. Intensive Attributive Process<br />An intensive relational process involves a relational between two terms, where the relationship is expressed by the verb be or a synonym.<br />the verb: become, turn, grow, turn out, start out, end up, keep, stay, remain, seem, sound, appear, look, taste, smell, feel, stand.<br />Attributive clause is not reversible.<br />There is no passive form of the clause.<br />p.71<br />
  106. 106. Relational processes: processes of being and having<br />2. Intensive Identifying Processes<br /> The participants are TOKEN, IDENTIFYING, VALUE.<br /> Clue: “x serves to define the identity of y”<br />
  107. 107. Intensive Identifying Processes<br />Identifying clause is not about ascribing or classifying but defining.<br />Identifying intensive verb is be, and other synonymous intensives: equal, add up to, make, signify, mean, define, spell, indicate, express, suggest, act as, symbolize, play, represent, stand for, refer to, exemplify.<br />Identifying clause is reversible.<br />There is passive form of the clause if we use the synonymous intensives.<br />p.71<br />
  108. 108. Other common sub-type of relational: circumstantials<br />Circumstantial relational process encode meanings about the circumstantial dimensions: location, manner, cause, etc.<br />Attributive circumstantial:<br />As with all attributive process, these cannot form passive.<br /> in her luggage was been by the bomb.<br />
  109. 109. Identifying circumstantials<br />Identifying circumstantial is also possible to encode the circumstantial meaning within either the participants (Token, value) or the process. It is reversible and perform passive.<br />
  110. 110. Other relational: Possessives<br />Possessive processes encode meanings of ownership and possession between clausal participants. <br />Attributive Possessive:<br />Identifying Possessive:<br />
  111. 111. Other relational: Possessives<br />Attributive possessive verbs: to have and to belong to.<br />Identifying possessive verbs: to own and to contain.<br />Gerot and Wignell p.68<br />
  112. 112. Meteorological processes<br />The ‘it’ has no representational functions but does provide a subject. These are analyze as Meteorological Processes.<br />Gerot and Wignell p.73<br />
  113. 113. Extra participants and causation p.76-77<br />In many processes types there is the possibility of the process being initiated externally. For instance:<br />Here there is the third participant called the initiator.<br />Usually we find it in material process.<br />
  114. 114. Extra participants and causation p.76-77<br />A similar situation can be found in Relational Processes: attributive<br />Here the additional participant is called Attributor.<br />For instance:<br />
  115. 115. Extra participants and causation p.76-77<br />In identifying clauses, the additional participant is called the assigner (the one who assign the identity).<br />
  116. 116. Extra participants and causation p.76-77<br />In mental process the additional participant is called the inducer. For example:<br />
  117. 117. Excercises<br />The students keep silent. <br />The class took two hours.<br />You have two sisters.<br />There is a glass on the table.<br />Cat is spelled C-A-T.<br />The books are in your bag.<br />The teacher made the students finish the test.<br />The manager made the employee decide their choice.<br />The experience turned Jane a good teacher.<br />The group called Bruce the chairman.<br />