Constructivism and classroom management in preschoolsPresentation Transcript
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The Constructivist Teacher’s Approach to Classroom Management in Malaysia Preschools by Yvonne, Sook Hun
Introduction The Early Childhood Education (ECE) has undergone many changes in the last 30 years. Learners play an active role learning; teachers are facilitators and co-learners. Teacher takes an active role in giving out information and knowledge.
Introduction Living in the world of empowered children “Children do not need to be made to learn to be better, told what to do or shown how. If they are given access to enough of the world, they will see clearly enough what things are truly important to themselves and others, and they will make for themselves a better path into the world than anyone else could make for them.” John Holt, (1923 – 1985) American Educator
Introduction Hands-on learning for a better understanding of the world around them!
Introduction Shift of orientation in learning-teaching results in change in classroom management :
Teacher to be more person-centered
Classroom features shared leadership
How do Malaysian preschools adapt to the global changes in early childhood education? How does a preschool teacher align both constructivism teaching-learning with classroom management within a multi-racial classroom?
Transmission vs Constructivist Approach The Constructivist Teacher
Transmission vs Constructivist Approach The Transmission Approach
The teacher stands in front of the class,
transmitting knowledge or information to children seated at rows of tables.
The teacher manipulates desired behaviours
through external stimuli such as punishment and rewards.
Learning is linear, teacher-directed and
measurable through tests and reinforcements.
Transmission vs Constructivist Approach The Constructivist Approach
Learners have an active role and their
questions shape the curriculum.
The process of learning is important .
Lessons are organised around broad themes and are connected to real issues.
There is a community of learners that
engages in discovery and invention, reflection and problem solving. The teacher is a facilitator and co-learner in this community.
Transmission vs Constructivist Approach Malaysian children learn about strength in unity and respect for each other’s race, language and religion from an early age. The constructivist teacher plays an important role in providing them with the experiences of building a community of learners. The Constructivist Teacher
Preschool Education in Malaysia Changes in the last 20 years : 20 years ago preschool was not compulsory 3Rs – Reading, wRiting & aRithmetic National Preschool Curriculum (NPC) 4Rs– Reading, wRiting, aRithmetic & Reasoning 2011 National Preschool Standard Curriculum (NPSC) 4Rs– Reading, wRiting, aRithmetic & Reasoning
Preschool Education in Malaysia overall and integrated self- development cheerful learning National Preschool Curriculum 2003 progressive, constructivist approach to preschool learning meaningful learning experiences Life – long education
Preschool Education in Malaysia National Preschool Standard Curriculum 2011 progressive, constructivist approach to preschool learning cheerful learning Objective : The aims of the preschool is to develop the potential of children ages 4 to 6 in a holistic and integrated manner; physically, spiritually, socially and intellectually through a safe and conducive learning environment with fun, creative and meaningful activities. enriching engaging safe meaningful learning experiences Life – long education fun
Implications and restrictions to constructivism “If learning has an inherently constructive character, it follows that classroom management needs to be supportive of the construction that is happening.” (Perkins, 1992, p. 49) However, most teachers secure children’s compliance through extrinsic inducements such as rewards and punishment!
Implications and Restrictions According to Alfie Kohn in his book Punished by Rewards, (1999):
Both rewards and punishment are ways of
manipulating behaviour that destroy the potential for real learning.
The underlying flaw with using the traditional
classroom management system is that it can only succeed in getting temporary compliance from children.
Implications and Restrictions In Malaysia, preschool teachers too control behaviour through rewards or punishment:
A child receives stickers for a job-well-done.
He learns to behave positively in order to win a prize.
A child is seated on a special chair if he
misbehaves. He learns that he will suffer dire consequences and may learn to be dishonest in order to hide his misbehaviour.
Implications and Restrictions The constructivist teacher has to move beyond the conventional discipline approach to transform the Malaysian preschool classroom into one that engages children during learning activities!
Implications and Restrictions Kohns’s suggestions to constructive classroom management: The Role of the Teacher 2.An Engaging Curriculum 3. A Community of Learners
Implications and Restrictions Restrictions to Kohn’s strategies: Preschoolers are concrete learners. 2. Preschoolers are egocentric. Preschoolers may not know what is best for them. 4. Preschoolers come from diverse family background.
Some of Kohns’ strategies are not suitable for a preschool classroom. A delicate balance between total constructivism and classroom management using rewards is needed. Extrinsic rewards are still required before intrinsic motivation sets in. Conclusion
Conclusion For constructivism to take place in Malaysia, early childhood educators play a crucial role as agents of change. A constructivist teacher in a preschool needs to foster children’s learning and respect for each other in cooperative ways. They must change their way of teaching and do not rule with the carrot and stick method.
Conclusion We hope to create an empowering school culture that allows “full participation of all children from diverse racial, ethnic and cultural groups in every aspect of school life.” (Banks and Banks, 2004)
Conclusion Malaysia, a multi-racial and multi-ethnic country needs to move beyond traditional classroom teachings to help her children and families accept the differences as positive and embrace multiculturism as a way of life.