Open here is defined by license – must be able to share, translate, and improve upon
Must be able to combine with other resources – this has both legal and technical aspects.
What if this teacher wanted to JOIN THE DIGITAL AGE!
Otherwise Open Managing Incompatible Content within OER Lila Bailey, Counsel for ccLearn OpenEd 2009, Vancouver BC
OER for Everyone, Everywhere BY-SA by www.lumaxart.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/lumaxart/2136951861/in/set-72157603545124242/
Building a Global Learning Commons Our goal as a community is to build a global learning commons -- a large pool of OER that anyone in the world can access, share, modify and combine with other open resources.
We promote openness CC BY by Virtual Sugar Rush http://www.flickr.com/photos/virtualsugar/316200555/
And interoperability BY-SA by www.lumaxart.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/lumaxart/2137737248/in/set-72157603987562129/
BUT BY-NC by S. Myers http://www.flickr.com/photos/puppiesofpurgatory/3067934263/
“All-Rights-Reserved” Unfortunately, many educational resources are made available only under “all-rights-reserved”copyright or under a more restrictive license than you need. ARR copyright limits what others may do with the content – ARR content is not open. And, because copyright laws differ around the world, ARR content is not interoperable with other content.
The Problem for OER When teachers combine ARRcontent with their OER, then the openness and interoperability of the educational resources are compromised. The same is true when trying to combine resources having differing, incompatible licenses.
Teachers are used to using materials inside the 4 walls of their classrooms. CC BY by Foundphotoslj http://www.flickr.com/photos/foundphotoslj/466713478/
Butwhat happens when teachers want toSHARE the resources they create? BY NC-SA by dsa66503 http://www.flickr.com/photos/yeksa/3393910047/
May others reuse those resources and share them with the world? CC BY by One Laptop per Child http://www.flickr.com/photos/olpc/3011271232/
Managing ARR Content in OER OER creators have developed a number of techniques for managing incompatible content Reliance on copyright exceptions and limitations, such as fair use or fair dealing Seeking permission or deleting the IC Reliance on rules of practice such as only using a “little bit” of the IC or linking to the content instead of incorporating it fully
What are CELs? Copyright exceptions and limitations (CELs) provide legal ways to use ARR content without payment or permission You have now all heard of Fair Use There are many other kinds of CELsaround the world, including fair dealing and specific educational exceptions
Types of CELs Limitations on copyrightable subject matter (e.g., must be original, no protection for labor alone) De minimus (tiny portions) Idea/expression dichotomy (not protecting data) First sale/exhaustion (why we have libraries) Government works (in the U.S.) Flexible doctrines such as fair use Specific exceptions/limitations for classroom use
CELsinternationally Every country has implemented their CELsdifferently. Fair use is not always compatible with fair dealing or other types of CELs. Using ARR materials in OER on the basis of a CEL (such as fair use), use of that material outside of that country may not be legal. This is not a one-way problem!
Licensing info for this presentation Unless otherwise noted, everything in this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license. Please attribute to ccLearn. Available at http://www.slideshare.net/lilabailey.