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  • 1. MATERI 8 PERILAKU ORGANISASI KEPEMIMPINAN: EFEKTIVITAS & KEKUASAAN
  • 2. DEFINISI PEMIMPIN & KEPEMIMPINAN • A Leader is an individual who influences others to act toward a particular goal or end-state (Judith R. Gordon) • Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals (Stephen P.Robbins) • Managerial Leadership is a process of directing and influencing the task-related activities of group (Ralph M. Stogdill)
  • 3. BEBERAPA STUDI AWAL TENTANG KEPEMIMPINAN • IOWA LEADERSHIP STUDIES (1937) Tujuan : melihat pengaruh Gaya Kepemimpinan terhadap kepuasan, frustrasi dan agresi. • OHIO STATE LEADERSHIP STUDIES (1945) : Melihat dimensi kepemimpinan. • EARLY MICHIGAN STUDIES ON LEADERSHIP STYLES (1947) : melihat gaya kepemimpinan dan produktivitas.
  • 4. PERKEMBANGAN STUDI KEPEMIMPINAN 1. The Great Man Theory 2. Trait Theory 3. Group & Exchange Theory 4. Situational Theory 5. Path- Goal Theory
  • 5. THE GREAT MAN THEORY • Menurut teori ini orang bisa berhasil menjadi pemimpin yang baik, karena memang dilahirkan demikian. • Sebab kemunculan The Great man theory : 1. Anggapan / keyakinan sebagian masyarakat. 2. Sebagai konsekwensi dari anggapan studi awal tentang kepribadian yang diyakini sifatnya bawaan.
  • 6. TRAIT THEORY (KEITH DAVIS) • 4 CIRI UTAMA PEMIMPIN YANG BERHASIL 1. INTELEGENSIA 2. KEMATANGAN SOSIAL 3. INNER MOTIVATION 4. HUMAN RELATION ATTITUDE
  • 7. CIRI-CIRI PEMIMPIN SUKSES ( STOGDILL; 1974) • Adaptable to situations • Alert to social environment • Ambitious and achievement oriented • Assertive • Cooperative • Decisive • Dependable
  • 8. CIRI-CIRI PEMIMPIN SUKSES (Lanjutan) • Dominant (desire to influence others) • Energetic (high activity level) • Persistent • Self-Confident • Tolerant of Stress • Willing to assume responsibility
  • 9. SKILLS PEMIMPIN SUKSES (STOGDILL; 1974) • Clever • Conceptually skilled • Creative • Diplomatic and tactful • Fluent in speaking • Knowledgeable about group task • Organized (administrative ability) • Persuasive • Socially Skilled
  • 10. GROUP & EXCHANGE THEORY • Hubungan antara pemimpin dan pengikut pada dasarnya bersifat “exchange” pertimbangan untung/rugi. • Komitmen akan muncul dari pengikut jika pemimpin memberikan exchange positif (rewards). • Pemimpin harus lebih banyak memberikan rewards daripada beban (cost).
  • 11. SITUATIONAL THEORY (FIEDLER) • Efektivitas pemimpin tergantung pada situasi. • Situasi kepemimpinan : 1. Favorable 2. Unfavorable • Dalam situasi yang sangat favorable dan sangat unfavorable yang efektif adalah gaya “task directed”. • Dalam situasi yang moderate Favorable dan moderate unfavorable yang efektif adalah gaya “human relations”.
  • 12. PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP THEORY (ROBERT HOUSE) • Menjelaskan dampak gaya kepemimpinan terhadap motivasi, kinerja dan kepuasan. • Gaya kepemimpinan : Directive, Supportive, Participative, Achievement Oriented. • Seorang pemimpin dapat saja menunjukkan tipe kepemimpinan yang berbeda dalam situasi yang berbeda.
  • 13. EFEKTIVITAS KEPEMIMPINAN 1. KEPRIBADIAN 2. PENGALAMAN 3. HARAPAN PEMIMPIN 4. HARAPAN DAN PERILAKU ATASAN 5. KEBUTUHAN TUGAS 6. HARAPAN DAN PERILAKU REKAN 7. KARAKTERISTIK, HARAPAN & PERILAKU BAWAHAN 8. IKLIM DAN KEBIJAKAN ORGANISASI
  • 14. POWER & INFLUENCE DALAM KEPEMIMPINAN • Influence is merely the effect of one party (the “agent”) on another (the “target”). • Power refers to an agent’s capacity to influence a target person. • Hubungan : 1. Pengaruh muncul karena ada power 2. Kekuatan Pengaruh tergantung besarnya Power / Kekuasaan yang dimiliki.
  • 15. KETERLIBATAN POWER DALAM ORGANIASI • REORGANIZATIONS • PERSONAL CHANGES • BUDGET ALLOCATIONS • PURCHACE OF MAJOR ITEMS • ESTABLISHING PERFORMANCE STANDARDS • RULES AND PROCEDURES
  • 16. SUMBER POWER DALAM ORGANISASI • POSITION POWER • PERSONAL POWER • POLITICAL POWER
  • 17. POSITION POWER • Formal Authority : Legitimate Power • Control Over Resources and Rewards : Reward Power • Control Over Punishment : Coercive Power • Control Over Information • Control Over The Physical Work Environment.
  • 18. PERSONAL POWER • Expertise : Expert Power • Friendship / Loyalty : Referent Power • Charisma • Reputation • Performance
  • 19. OUTCOME PENGGUNAAN POWER • COMMITMENT :- Internally agree - Enthusiastic - Great Effort • COMPLIANCE : - Willing to do - Apathetic - Minimal Effort • RESISTANCE
  • 20. BENTUK-BENTUK RESISTANCE • Make excuses about why the request cannot be carried out. • Try to persuade the agent to withdraw the request. • Ask higher authorities to overrule the agent’s request. • Delay acting in the hope that the agent will forget about the request. • Make a pretense of complying but try to sabotage the task • Refuse to carry out the request.
  • 21. POWER & OUTCOMES Power Komit Patuh Nolak Referent Likely Possible Possible Expert Likely Possible Possible Legitimate Possible Likely Possible Reward Possible Likely Possible Coercive Very Possible Likely Unlikely
  • 22. PROCES POLITIK UNTUK MEMBANGUN POWER • CONTROL OVER DECISION PROCESS • COALITIONS • CO-OPTATION (By. Gary A. Yukl)
  • 23. STRATEGI & TAKTIK MEMBANGUN POWER • BEING IN THE RIGHT UNIT • ENERGY AND PHYSICAL STAMINA • FOCUS • SENSITIVITY TO OTHERS • BEING EARLY & MOVING FIRST • “THE WAITING GAME” • CHANGING THE STRUCTURE • PHYSICAL SETTING
  • 24. TAKTIT MEMBANGUN PENGARUH • RATIONAL PERSUASION • EXCHANGE TACTICS • LEGITIMATE REQUEST • PRESSURE TACTICS • PERSONAL APPEALS
  • 25. SAAT POWER HILANG DARI SEORANG PEMIMPIN • TIME CHANGE- PEOPLE DON’T • EASY COME, EASY GO • BAD REPUTATION AND PERFORMANCE.