Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) Morgan Becer, Bio II Honors, Period 5.
Niche of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) <ul><li>The Golden Eagle is North America’s largest bird of prey, it is also the national bird of Mexico. They range in living places like Mexico all the way out to Alaska. They may appear in the East but it is very unlikely. These eagles migrate, the eagles that live in Alaska or Canada usually tend to fly south during the fall. The eagles that live in the western United States typically stay in their habitat year round. Golden Eagles tend to nest in high places usually on cliffs, trees, or human built structures. They generally are in very open areas especially in mountain areas and forests. </li></ul><ul><li>Golden Eagles eat things like rabbits, squirrels, reptiles, birds, fish, marmots, large insects and full grown deer. </li></ul><ul><li>The eagle spends its time hunting and uses its sharp talons (teeth) to sink into their prey. They hunt from the air and fly down to grab prey. </li></ul>
Golden Eagle- Hunting <ul><li>The Golden Eagle gets its food by hunting it. </li></ul><ul><li>Sink their shark talons into their prey and kill it. </li></ul><ul><li>Sweep the prey up with their beaks to eat it. </li></ul><ul><li>Sweep down at prey at speeds of 150 km/h. </li></ul><ul><li>Some birds are caught in flight but most of the other prey is killed on the ground. </li></ul>
Factors which Affect Birth Rate of the Golden Eagle <ul><li>Golden Eagles may remain with their mate for several years or even for their whole lifespan. </li></ul><ul><li>The eggs are laid in mid March. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes the chicks about 6 weeks to hatch. </li></ul><ul><li>They have an incubation period of 35-45 days. (The Eaglets then fledge in 65-75 days.) </li></ul><ul><li>The Eaglets reach sexual maturity and full adult coloration at about 5 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>2 eggs are laid each time, the eggs are a creamy white color with reddish brown blotches all over the surface, they are about the size of a goose egg. </li></ul><ul><li>The male will go out to hunt while the female lays upon the eggs during the incubation period, then whenever she needs to go out and get food he takes over and watches the eggs. </li></ul><ul><li>March is the time when they begin to look for a nest to be able to hatch their eggs and start the family. </li></ul>
Nests of the Golden Eagle <ul><li>Make their nests on high levels, normally in trees or on cliffs. </li></ul><ul><li>These nests can be as high as 2,000 ft. above sea level. </li></ul><ul><li>Nests are made up of piles of sticks and lined around with grass. </li></ul>
Factors Which Affect the Death Rate of the Golden Eagle <ul><li>The Golden Eagle sweeps down to grab their pray and sometimes snatches birds in mid flight, it does so by thrashing its large talons into the prey, once it kills the prey it snatches it up with its large beak. </li></ul><ul><li>A Golden Eagle in the wild has a life expectancy of 30 years or more. </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of Golden Eagles is decreasing steadily over the years, there is no fear of over population of this type of species because of the decrease. </li></ul><ul><li>Shooting, trapping and human disturbances seem to be the most contributing factor to the decrease in these species. </li></ul><ul><li>Some eagles may die when they feed on poisoned sheep carcasses, these are put out to kill foxes but instead may effect the eagles. </li></ul>
Food Chain of the Golden Eagle Producer Fly Omnivore Primary Consumer Toad Omnivore Secondary Consumer Snake Omnivore Tertiary Consumer Hawk Omnivore
Food web of the Golden Eagle Herbivore Producer Producer Carnivore Herbivore Omnivore Omnivore Carnivore Omnivore
Population Sampling Techniques <ul><li>Ecologists test a bunch of different times of how many organisms they can get which shows the population sizes of different species. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe population sampling techniques used to estimate the size of assigned animal The choose certain areas to survey and check the population of that particular area. </li></ul>
Stream Quality Data & Analysis <ul><li>This graph shows the different organisms that were found in Powdermill run. </li></ul><ul><li>If there are more organisms in Class I that is very good because that means that the stream generally has good water quality. Class II organisms indicate that the organism are somewhat tolerant of water pollution which means that they can live in a range of water quality. Class II organisms found means that there is very poor water quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how the above stream conditions affects your researched organism. The stream conditions would affect the Golden Eagle because it needs to get water from a non polluted stream to stay alive. </li></ul><ul><li>If the more of organisms are classified as Class III then the whole stream would eventually die, leaving no water for the Eagle, or any other organism, to get water from safely. </li></ul>
Water Testing Data & Analysis <ul><li>A healthy stream typically has a pH of around 7, typically a unhealthy stream would have a lower pH. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal ranges at Powdermill Run- Ph 6.5-7.5, low quantity of Phosphates/Nitrates and Oxygen would be 10-15. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how you organism would survive (using both direct and indirect evidence) if its habitat is close to the stream versus the marsh, and mine waters. The eagle would not be directly effected but the sources that it consumes would be effected and they also would be somewhat directly affected because of their drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>Do not forget to include how temperature and turbidity affects the ecosystem. The water must clear for the organisms to be able to survive in it. The colder the temperature the more the dissolved oxygen you have, which is good. </li></ul>
Soil Testing & Analysis <ul><li>pH is important because it utilizes the nutrients available in your soil, Potash stimulates flowering which is then needed in the process of photosynthesis to make sugars, phosphorous is most important for root formation and nitrogen is essential for the plant metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal ranges in the soil would be pH: 7 Potash: high levels Nitrogen: trace Phosphorous: trace </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical levels not at the ideal range can effect the ecosystem by putting out harmful chemicals which will effect the organisms. </li></ul>
Positive and Negative Factors <ul><li>The Eagle would be effected by the Powdermill run in a positive way and the marsh and mine waters would effect it in a negative way. </li></ul><ul><li>The soil conditions in the Riparian zone would be very good for the eagle, because the organisms that it consumes are properly getting the nutrients that they need. </li></ul><ul><li>Things that negatively affect the riparian ecosystem would be adding fertilizer or chemicals that are unnecessary, farm-land run off, acid mine drainage and pollution. Positive contributors to a health riparian zone would be watching the levels of everything and keeping them at a healthy level. Common sources of pollution in PA streams would be things like the pollution, acid mine drainage and farm-land run off. These factors would effect the eagle because they need to drink water somewhere to stay alive and they need the things that they eat to stay healthy in their riparian zone. </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>Describe something new you learned about the ecosystem. I learned that lots of little things that may only directly affect one organism can indirectly affect many more organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>I found the whole habitat of the Golden Eagle to be very interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>I think it would be an interesting to research more in depth factors which contribute to harming the environment and the many organisms that live here. </li></ul>
Works Cited "Golden Eagle." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia . N.p., 2010. Web. 28 Apr. 2010. <http://go.grolier.com/>. National Geographic . N.p., 2010. Web. 28 Apr. 2010. "Golden Eagles." Animal Action Magazine 2010: 1. RSPCA . Web. 28 Apr. 2010. "Golden Eagle." All About Birds . N.p., 2010. Web. 28 Apr. 2010. <http://www.allaboutbirds.org/ guide/golden eagle/lifehistory>. Department of Environmental Conservation . N.p., 2010. Web. 13 May 2010. <http://www.dec.ny.gov/ animals/7096.html>.