Riparian Zone Retreat and population studies Jordan Jones Bio 2 Honors, Period 5 Vulpes vulpes
Niche of the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) <ul><li>Red foxes live alone in dens until they mate </li></ul><ul><li>Consume mostly anything (omnivores); dependant upon creatures such as squirrels, rabbits, and raccoons, and plants such as acorns, berries, and grass. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunts mainly at night, dawn, and dusk, (very rarely during sunlight) by stalking, or getting very close to, its prey. </li></ul>
Birth Rate Factors <ul><li>Mate from January through March </li></ul><ul><li>Females are pregnant for 2 months before giving birth </li></ul><ul><li>Litters can be anywhere between 1-10 pups </li></ul><ul><li>Mother at first regurgitates for her pups, but later bring them live prey so they can learn to kill </li></ul><ul><li>Pups leave the mother when they are 7 months old, and after they leave, parents go their separate ways </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction occurs every mating season </li></ul><ul><li>Red Fox are sexually mature at 10 months, and can live up to 8 years in a proper habitat </li></ul>
Death Rate <ul><li>Predator-prey relationship, where they are the predators. </li></ul><ul><li>Life span: can be around 2-8 years, depending on the surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Ticks and fleas may be harmful to a Red Fox </li></ul><ul><li>Overpopulation results in less food, and in turn more competition to get food. Young ones may die from inadequate eating, as may some older foxes. </li></ul>
Stream Quality Data & Analysis - This graph shows a good quality stream that is unpolluted. -A high amount of class one, and a fair amount of class two, and a very low amount of class three organisms shows that the stream is of good quality since class one and two organisms cannot handle pollution well. -Since the stream condition is good, the Red Fox will have healthy drinking conditions and the vegetation that they eat and animals they consume will be able to live healthily too. - If the majority of organisms found in the stream were class 3, the entire eco-system would die off. The water would be polluted, giving no water to animals or plants, cutting off vegetation for herbivores and omnivores, which would kill the food for the omnivores and carnivores.
Continued…. <ul><li>A high level of dissolved oxygen is good for a stream because it means that there is a lot of oxygen flowing through the water and in turn a lot of oxygen for the organisms. The stream had a level of 10, which is in the ideal range for a healthy stream. </li></ul><ul><li>A pH of 6.5-7.5 is the best water condition for most living organisms. The stream had a pH of 7 which is right in the middle of the ideal range. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrates and phosphates are okay to have, just in small quantities. The stream had low quantities of both phosphates and nitrates, making it a healthy stream. </li></ul><ul><li>If these factors go outside of their ideal range, organisms can suffocate without dissolved oxygen, die from the water being too basic or acidic, and too many phosphates or nitrates can damage the stream which in turn damages the entire food chain and eco-system </li></ul><ul><li>If the red fox lived near the marsh or mine waters as opposed to the stream, he would not survive. No organisms or plants that he consumes would be alive since the DO level is so low and the nitrate level is too high. The pH level near the coal mine is far too acidic as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Low turbidity allows predator-prey relations to occur and gills to be left unclogged. It also allows sunlight into the water freely. The temperature of the water affects an ecosystem because the colder it is the more dissolved oxygen it holds. This is possible because when water gets very warm, the dissolved oxygen turns into a gas and evaporates out of the water. </li></ul>
Soil Testing & Analysis <ul><li>pH is important because it controls how well the plant utilizes the nutrients available. Nitrogen because it is essential to the proper functioning of plant metabolism. Phosphorus, because it is needed for blooming, seed formation, and helps the plant survive during brittle, wintery months. Potash because it stimulates flowering and makes sugars during photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>IDEAL LEVELS </li></ul><ul><li>pH: 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Potash: High Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen: Trace </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus: Trace </li></ul>If any of these are out of ideal range, vegetation won’t grow, which means herbivores will die, leading to the fall of omnivores and carnivores.
Positive and Negative Factors <ul><li>The stream would be a healthy environment for the red fox, the marsh and mine would lead to its death after an extended period of time by not supplying adequate food and water. </li></ul><ul><li>A bad soil condition would also lead to the death of the red fox because bad soil cannot produce plants, which the red fox consumes. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of nitrogen and phosphates, and a non-desirable pH level, in either the soil or water would not be good for the ecosystem. They can make the water and soil intolerable to organisms and plant life. This will break down the entire ecosystem since the food chains start with plants, moves to herbivores and omnivores and finally ends with carnivores and decomposers. These can be avoided by not using or monitoring manure use, and by containing the bathroom places of cows. By polluting the stream, the red fox would die off from lack of vegetation, bugs and water that can be safely consumed. </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>I have learned that one slip in the ecosystem can unravel the entire food web and crash an entire species. </li></ul><ul><li>I thought it was interesting that the amount of bugs and organisms in a riparian zone can determine the value of the stream. </li></ul><ul><li>I think I would like to further research is detailed ways to heal AMD </li></ul>
Works Cited <ul><li>National Geographic . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2010. <http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/ mammals/red-fox.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Diversity . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2010. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/ accounts/information/Vulpes_vulpes.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Britannic Encyclopedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2010. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/ 494259/red-fox>. </li></ul>
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