Pre columbian america and european colonization


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Pre columbian america and european colonization

  2. 2. How Do We Know… And Why??   Archaeology Physical anthropology  DNA analysis  Linguistics  11/12/2013 Writing?
  3. 3. Timeline 23000-16500 years ago  16500-13000 years ago-- PreClovis sites at Meadowcroft Rockshelter (PA), Cactus Hill (VA) and…. Monte Verde (Chile)  13000-10000 years ago-- Clovis (NM)  Dated about 11000 years ago 11/12/2013 
  4. 4. Post-Archaic Period: Southwest The Ancestral Pueblo (Anasazi) were the largest group in the Southwest Centered around the Four Corners area
  5. 5. Chaco Canyon, Ancestral Pueblo
  6. 6. Agriculture in the Southwest • Ancestral Pueblo: Dry farming techniques, garden “grids,” terracing, and check dams • Hohokam: Irrigation
  7. 7. Eastern Woodlands: Mississippian ● Mississippian: flourished 900-1500 (contact) ● Mounds ● Maize-based agriculture ● ● Widespread trade networks Development of the chiefdom and social inequality
  8. 8. Cahokia
  9. 9. Age of Discovery 15th -17th centuries  Direct contact with Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Oceania established  Continent mapping  Search for alternate routes to “the Indies” 
  10. 10. Portuguese Expansion Explored West African coast in 1418 and reached Indian Ocean in 1488 Prince Henry the Navigator New technology: caravel, astronomical charts Objectives: Explore the African coastline to find a better route to the Indies
  11. 11. Spanish Expansion The Reconquista, 1492 Treaty of Grenada: The relinquishment in January 1492 of the sovereignty of the Moorish Emirate of Granada (founded five centuries earlier) to the Catholic monarchs of Spain. Bypass of the Portuguese lock on the African trade routes
  12. 12. Columbus Believed that it was possible to reach the Indies by sailing west from Europe Landed in Hispaniola in 1492 After four trips, he refused to believe he did not reach China
  13. 13. Pssst….. Columbus wasn’t first!
  14. 14. Columbian Exchange ● ● Intentional-- and unintentional-- transfers between Old World and New World Includes transfers from Asia to Europe (bubonic plague, Asian flu)
  15. 15. Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
  16. 16. Spanish Colonization Encomienda system: Crown granted a person a specified number of natives for whom they were to take responsibility. Theory: the receiver of the grant was to protect the natives from warring tribes and to instruct them in the Spanish language and in the Catholic faith. In return: extract tribute from the natives in the form of labor, gold or other products.
  17. 17. SPANISH COLONIZATION IN 1600 •Interaction with Native Americans changes •Spanish and Native Americans frequently intermingled, leading to a class of Spanish citizens known as Mestizos •Half Spanish, Half Native American •Spanish crown took this seriously, gave the Mestizos a decent amount of rights as Spanish citizens •Crown also began a series of preventative measures to ensure Spanish explorers and colonists did not further exploit Native Americans: Leyes de Indias
  18. 18. Spread of Catholicism Ajacan: 1570 • Reductions and missions • Created to Christianize tax, and govern natives more efficiently • Missions: • Sought to incorporate indigenous people into the Spanish colonial empire, Catholicism, and certain aspects of Hispanic culture • Jesuit reductions: • Indigenous people expected to convert to Christianity but not necessarily adopt European values and lifestyles
  19. 19. PUEBLO REVOLT ● ● 11/12/2013 First native peoples to successfully revolt against Europeans-- Pueblo Revolt, 1680 Leader: Pope
  20. 20. French Colonization Founding of Port Royal in 1605 Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608 Helped establish an empire from the St. Lawrence River to the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi River ● France slow to colonize-Spanish protection of its own interests and distractions caused by the French Wars of Religion ● Early attempts to colonize in Brazil, the Carolinas, and Florida were unsuccessful
  21. 21. French Colonization ● ● ● Emphasis on trade rather than agricultural settlements Establish control-- albeit loose- over large areas of North American continent through series of First Nations alliances Relatively little interest in colonialism; France concentrated more on dominance in Europe Black Robe
  22. 22. Dutch Colonization ● ● ● ● 1609: Henry Hudson claims for the Dutch East India Company (VOC) parts of Canada and Northeastern North America 1614: Adriaen Block explores the lower Hudson River 1615: First Dutch settlement at Fort Nassau, near present-day Albany 1621: Dutch West India Company (WIC) formed – ● Granted trade monopoly in the West Indies and exclusive rights to the Atlantic slave trade 1626-- Peter Minuit buys Manhattan; New Amsterdam settled
  23. 23. Swedish Colonization ● ● New Sweden on the Delaware, includes parts of modern-day DE, PA, NJ, and MD Settled in 1638-wiped out by the Dutch by 1655