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  1. 1. Riparian Zone Retreat and population studies Daniel Finger, Class Bio II, and Period 1.
  2. 2. Bobcats!
  3. 3. Niche of a Bobcat or Lynx Rufus <ul><li>Bobcats can be found in a variety of habitats, including forests, semi-deserts, mountains, and brushland. They sleep in hidden dens, often in hollow trees, thickets, or rocky crevices. </li></ul><ul><li>Bobcats are strictly meat eaters. Stealthy hunters, they stalk their prey, then pounce and (if successful) kill with a bite to the vertebrae of the neck. </li></ul><ul><li>They hunt rodents, rabbits, small ungulalates, large ground birds, and sometimes reptiles. They occasionally eat small domesticated animals and poultry. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factors which Affect Birth Rate of the Bobcat <ul><li>Bobcats usually mate in the early spring, although the timing is variable. </li></ul><ul><li>After a gestation period of 60 to 70 days, </li></ul><ul><li>A litter of about 3 kittens is born. </li></ul><ul><li>Bobcats breed once yearly </li></ul>
  5. 5. Factors Which Affect the Death Rate of a Bobcat <ul><li>Bobcat kittens are preyed upon by foxes, coyotes, and large owls. Humans are the only real threat to adult bobcats. </li></ul><ul><li>Bobcats live up to 12 years in the wild. In captivity, they may live up to 32 years. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bobcat may harbor external parasites, mostly ticks and fleas, and will often carry the parasites of its prey, especially those of rabbits and squirrels. </li></ul><ul><li>they nurse through their second month. Young bobcats disperse during the winter, when they are about 8 months old. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Food Chain of Bobcat Producer Autotroph Primary Consumer Omnivore Secondary Consumer Carnivore Tertiary Consumer Omnivore
  7. 7. Food web of a Bobcat Herbivore Producer Omnivore Carnivore Carnivore Producer Carnivore Herbivore Herbivore Omnivore Producer
  8. 8. Population Sampling Techniques <ul><li>Ecologists use the catch-and-release technique to estimate the size and population of different species. This way, species of the Ecologists conserved while getting an accurate population size </li></ul><ul><li>With an abundance of prey the creature has an opportunity to grow larger </li></ul><ul><li>With a better environment the bobcats have an opportunity to flourish as well. Ecologists will study how much prey is left in the assigned area to determine the size of the Bobcat. If there is an abundance of prey, it represents that the size is large in the bobcat population. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Stream Quality Data & Analysis <ul><li>This graph represents a great stream quality because of the abundance of class 1 organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an great abundance of class 1 organisms and those organisms have to live in a pristine water quality environment </li></ul><ul><li>With a healthy stream it leaves itself and its prey healthy and hydrated. </li></ul><ul><li>It would be affected directly in its own hydration it would die of dehydration. It would be affected indirectly by its prey dying of dehydration and it not getting the needed nutrients. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Water Testing Data & Analysis <ul><li>The more the dissolved oxygen the better the ecosystem. Less nitrates and phosphates would also make a great ph of close to 7 </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal range for phosphates and nitrates is 0. the Ideal PH is between 6.5 and 7.5. The ideal D.O level is 6ppm and above. The ideal temperature is 70 degrees and below and for turbidity you want clear water. </li></ul><ul><li>Like all organisms I think my creature would flourish in the Powdermill environment. But in acid and marsh it would not because like most organisms they do not flourish in poor environments. If one creature would die out my creature would suffer because it creates an imbalance in the ecosystem. Also if it was bobcat prey it would even more suffer and not likely survive without intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>A streams temperature and turbidity are very important. If a stream is cloudy creature cannot hunt. The pH level at Powdermill is at 7.0, which is at perfect conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>For places outside Powdermill like in acid mines and marshes, water is covered with nitrates and phosphates, that would be an indication that there is something wrong because the water is contaminated. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Soil Testing & Analysis <ul><li>Ph controls how the plants utilize nutrients. Nitrogen is essential for a properly functioning plant metabolism. Phosphorus is important for proper root function. The Potash is important for the stimulation of flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal ranges of chemicals above the soil is above 6.5 to 7.5 </li></ul><ul><li>If chemical levels are out of their range the environment will suffer and die out because they depend on a balance in the ecosystem. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Positive and Negative Factors <ul><li>With the current stream being very healthy I feel that my creature would do nothing but benefit from that. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the current stream, marsh and mine waters are healthy, it means that the environment is good for the Bobcat. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the mine waters are healthy, this benefits the Bobcats because it restrains pollution out of the stream and if the stream is polluted, it cleans out the organisms in the stream, and this will not permit the chipmunk to survive because it affects the whole food web. </li></ul><ul><li>There are factors that positively affect the riparian zone such as planting trees, no littering, and saving the natural habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>Planting a tree is a very useful technique because provides shade for the forest, the stream, and the bobcat, </li></ul><ul><li>This is practical because it keeps the temperature of the stream down to safe temperatures and provides a home and hunting environment for the bobcat </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that can negatively affect the riparian zone are dead animals in the stream and the burning of fossil fuels from power plants. </li></ul><ul><li>This is very harmful to the bobcat because it destroys its environment and harms the bobcats living conditions. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Conclusion <ul><li>I learned many things about the ecosystem and how it works. I learned about how the carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen cycles all work. I learned about how all of the organisms of the earth contribute the ecosystems well being and its all a cycle. I learned all about macro-invertebrates, and how they affect water quality and how they live. Lastly, I learned how my creature the bobcat contributes to the ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>The thing I found most interesting was my creature. The Bobcat has a very instinctual way of eating. Bobcats are strictly meat eaters. Stealthy hunters, they stalk their prey, then pounce and (if successful) kill with a bite to the vertebrae of the neck! </li></ul><ul><li>Another environmental topic I would like to cover is weather. I am interested in meteorology and I would like to do a presentation on that. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Works Cited <ul><li>Online book </li></ul><ul><li>-Bobcats </li></ul><ul><li>-Wild animals </li></ul><ul><li>Pg 87 </li></ul><ul><li>Website address- http:// </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia </li></ul><ul><li>Title- Bobcats </li></ul><ul><li>Name of Encyclopedia – Grolier </li></ul><ul><li>Website address- http:// </li></ul><ul><li>Date of website updated- 5/5/09 </li></ul><ul><li>Website </li></ul><ul><li>Title- Bobcat </li></ul><ul><li>Name-http://animal divesity </li></ul><ul><li>Website address: </li></ul>