Effective Group Work: Beyond Cooperative Learning Focus of this session …
Cooperative learning involves group work … But not all group work involves Cooperative learning. Remember …
Some of the main ‘characters’ … • David and Roger Johnson (Researcher) five basic elements • Robert Slavin (Researcher) complex structures - TAI, STAD • Elizabeth Cohen (Researcher) complex instruction • Shlomo Sharan (Researcher) group investigation • Jeanne Gibbs TRIBES • Spencer Kagan less complex structures
Johnsons’ Five Basic Elements • individual accountability • promoting face to face interaction • teaching collaborative skills • processing academic and collaborative objectives • applying one or more of the 9 types of positive interdependence
Johnsons’ 9 types of Positive Interdependence • Goal (must be clear) • Resource • Incentive • Role • Sequence • Identity • Outside Force • Environmental • Simulation
Johnsons’ Creative Controversy or Academic Controversy One of the most complex small-group structures Steps: 1. Select an issue for the controversy 2. Students are placed in groups of 4 or 6 (5 is fine) 3. Students letter off A1, A2, (A3) / B1, B2 (B3) 4. Plan arguments 5. Present arguments 6. Plan rebuttal 7. Present rebuttal 8. Flip sides and repeat steps 4 to 7 9. Round Robin re group consensus 10. Groups share, class discussion
A consideration … Cooperative learning is not an instructional strategy; rather, it is a way of thinking that supports students working in peer-mediated groups. It represents one of three approaches to classroom work. The other two are having students working individually or competitively. These three possibilities (cooperative, individual and competitive) represent the science of teaching. The art of teaching is deciding which of the three (or combinations of the three) are the most powerful in increasing the life chances and learning chances of students.
Possibilities Is it possible for what we know about brain research, multiple intelligences, the Johnsons’ 5 basic elements, how to frame questions, safety, accountability, fish bone diagram, place mat, one stay rest stay, checking for understanding, round robin, numbered heads, inductive thinking, Bloom’s taxonomy etc., to be integrated in say a 45 minute opportunity to learn?
How complex is simplicity ? Take ‘Think Pair Share’ for example -- two students taking time to first think, then share with each other, then to share with the class -- what are all the things a teacher should consider if Think Pair Share is going to be effective?
What the university students said … Is there an odd or even number of students? Who will work with the ‘odd’ person? Who works with the student no one wants to work with? Will boys sit beside girls? If so, will they talk? Can they actively listen? Can they paraphrase? Can the teacher frame questions effectively? How much wait time will the students get? Can the teacher ‘play’ with a taxonomy of thinking? Can you respond to students responses: a ‘no’ response, incorrect response, partially correct, a guess, a convoluted response, or a correct response?
Dimensions of Cooperative Learning Different Needs - eg Structures Planning - eg Basic Elements Safety - eg Tribes
There are about 300 small group structures … How many can you identify in one minute?
Structures … simple to more complex • numbered heads (Kagan) • think pair share (Lyman) • three person interview (Kagan) • teams games tournament (de Vries) • jigsaw (Aronson) • academic controversy (Johnsons) • group investigation (Thelan)
How are all the things in this bowl the same? • Multiple Intelligence • Learning Styles Literature • Child Development Literature • Motivation Research • Students • at Risk Literature • Research on students with Autism • Research on gender and literacy
How are these different from the previous grouping? • Mind Mapping • Concept Attainment • Jigsaw • Group Investigation • Reading Recovery • Concept Mapping • Academic Controversy
• Mind Mapping • Concept Attainment • Jigsaw • Group Investigation • Reading Recovery • Concept Mapping • Academic Controversy • Multiple Intelligence • Learning Styles Literature • Child Development Literature • Motivation Research • Students • at Risk Literature • Research on students with Autism • Research on gender and literacy What is their relationship?
TRIBES - JEANNE GIBBS FOUR AGREEMENTS • Attentive Listening • Mutual Respect • Appreciation Statements • Right to Pass Tribes Journey: From Inclusion to Influence to Community