Copyright and fair use basicsPresentation Transcript
Copyright and Fair Use Basics
What is copyright? “Here in the information age, virtually all intellectual creations can be protected by some form of intellectual property law. Intellectual property divides the universe of intellectual creations into three domains: copyrights, trademarks and patents. In a nutshell, copyright protects expression, trademark protects names, and patents protect ideas.” http://www.benedict.com/
Why does copyright protection exist? People felt that creativity was a worthwhile endeavor. A composer who wrote music or an author who wrote a book could either receive one fee for their work and be a pauper or could receive a perpetual income related to the popularity of their work and have the financial encouragement to continue composing or writing. Basically, copyright is a way to say that we appreciate the creative works of people and feel they should be compensated for their efforts.
So, the following are copyrighted: Written expression (books, articles, plays, informational websites, etc.) Music and audio recordings Choreography Artistic works (paintings, photographs, sculpture, architecture, etc.) Basically any form of expression is protected by copyright as soon as it is in “a fixed, tangible form”. http://www.benedict.com/Info/Law/What.aspx
So, what can educators use? Anything in public domain Anything that falls within the fair use guidelines Anything the creator grants permission for you to use
Public Domain Since copyright law is primarily to compensate people who create, at some point after their death the creation enters into public domain and any one can use it with paying a royalty. The timing of when a creation becomes public domain has changed many times and can be determined by a somewhat complicated flowchart. See the flowchart at http://www.benedict.com/Info/Law/Duration.aspx .
Fair Use The premise behind copyright law was to prevent theft of intellectual material (prevent someone from making money off someone else’s creation).
To be considered fair use of a copyrighted work ALL of these conditions must be met: Purpose must be for teaching, news reporting, research, criticism or other non-profit use. The work is worthy of copyright protection. Technically anything our students write is protected by copyright, but not all of it is something that people would pay money to read. The amount of material used is a small fraction of the whole work. No more was taken than necessary to achieve the academic purpose. The general guideline for music is whichever is shorter: 10% or 30 seconds. These are guidelines, but not stated rules. The use will not cause financial harm to the creator.
Permission Granted: Wikimedia Commons A service of Wikipedia Free use images Has 8 million media files Check it out: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
So, let’s play legal or illegal! You go to Applebee’s for your birthday and they sing you the traditional song “Happy Birthday to you…” ILLEGAL – this is the reason restaurants make up their own birthday songs. “Happy Birthday” is still protected by copyright. The first few bars of “Hey Jude” is offered as a free ringtone. LEGAL as long as the company is not making money off it and it’s only a small portion of the song. Teenagers downloading songs from a website for free. ILLEGAL if the artist has not granted permission, but LEGAL if the artist has offered it for free to try to build their fan base. A teacher showing a movie like ”Apollo 13” for science class. ILLEGAL Even though most teachers use whole movies, it is not really fair use and therefore technically illegal.