Crusades #1-Why did the crusades begin?????? -The Crusades was a helping hand from Pope urban 2 to Emporer Alexus in constatinople. He was wanting an elite group of mercenaries but got peaseants and towns people.
Crusades 1a-What was so important about Jerusalem? –It was the holy land for both Christians and Muslims and very important. 1b-Who was in control of Jerusalem at the end of the 11th century? –the muslims 1c-What did Pope Urban 2 have to do with the First Crusade? – he ordered the army
crusades 2-Explain the Relationship between Urban 2 and Emporer Alexis 1st - the were allies and Alexius sent reinforcements to Urban. 2a-Why would Urban 2 agree to help Alexius? - muslim armies had conquered most of northern Africa, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Spain
Crusades 3-When the Crusades arrived outside on Constantinople, why was Emporer Alexius 1st furious? -he was expecting elite mercenaries and instead he got peasants and towns people. Most of them riddles with pestilence. What was he expecting to receive when he called for aid from Urban 2? -elite mercenaries
- he let Pope urban 2 keep any of the lands they conquer Why did the Crusaders want to seize Antiocch prior to moving on toward Jerusalem? -it was in a good location and a major staging ground against Jerusalem
Crusades ad·mon·ish 1 a : to indicate duties or obligations to b : to express warning or disapproval to especially in a gentle, earnest, or solicitous manner -These were used to assign certain units certain duties in combat.
Crusades ar·du·ous- a: hard to accomplish or achieve : difficult b: marked by great labor or effort : strenuous The crusades themselves were long and arduous talsks, crossing such long distances.
Crusades be·reft deprived or robbed of the possession or use of something Most of the crusaders would rob the possesions of the local towns people.
crusades ca·lam·i·tous being, causing, or accompanied by calamity Something bothersome or annoying usually like disease and exhaustion.
crusades cog·ni·zant knowledgeable of something especially through personal experience; also : mindful Most of the first crusaders were not warriors but townspeople.
crusades em·pa·thet·ic involving, characterized by, or based on empathy Most were not empathetic as they slaughtered women and children
crusades in·so·lence the quality or state of being insolent Some people didn’t agree with all the things that were asked of them but had to do it.
crusades jo·cund marked by or suggestive of high spirits and lively mirthfulness The crusaders had high spirits as they marched into the holy land.
Crusaders me·an·der a winding path or course; especially : labyrinth Some of the castles had labyrinths and mazes.
crusades pes·ti·lence a contagious or infectious epidemic disease that is virulent and devastating; especially:bubonic plague
crusades re·ver·ber·ate : to become driven back b : to become reflected Some of the attacks made at jerusalem were reflected back at the attackers either by sheilds or some sort of protection.
crusades seize: to vest ownership of a freehold estate in boften seise: to put in possession of something Urban 2 told alexius that they would seize any lands they conquered.
crusades zeal eagerness and ardent interest in pursuit of something : fervor The zeal to reclaim the holy land from the muslims was enough to walk those thousands of miles
Facts about crusades Fought over a period of over 200 years Different campaigns lasted until about the 15th century Fought mainly against the muslims but also fought against pagan Slavs, Jews, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites, Waldensians, Old Prussians, and political enemies of the popes
facts Crusaders took vows against their sins and thought they had forgiveness for the killings at the crusades. The sixth crusade was the first crusade to set sail without the official blessing from the pope The ninth crusade marked the end of the crusades
facts The muslim presence in the holy land was first initiated by the capture of palestine The presence of the muslims put pressure on the bysantine empire Another action that incresed pressure was the ordered destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
facts In 1039 after requiring large sums be paid for the right, permitted the Byzantine Empire to rebuild it Pilgrimages were allowed to the Holy Lands before and after the Sepulchre was rebuilt For a time pilgrims were captured and some of the clergy were killed
facts The muslims realized that the wealth of Jerusalem came from their pilgrims and allowed them back into the city. In 1063, pope alexander 2, had given his blessing to Iberian Christians in their wars against the Muslims
facts A crusader would, after pronouncing a solemn vow, receive a cross from the hands of the pope and was thenceforth considered a "soldier of the Church". The remission of sin was a driving factor and provided any God-fearing man who had committed sins with an irresistible way out of eternal damnation in hell
facts Most believed that by retaking Jerusalem they would go straight to heaven after death The Jews and Muslims fought together to defend Jerusalem against the invading Franks. They were unsuccessful though and on 15 July 1099 the crusaders entered the city. They proceeded to massacre the remaining Jewish and Muslim civilians and pillaged or destroyed mosques and the city itself
facts The Crusaders also tried to gain control of the city of Tyre, but were defeated by the Muslims. After gaining control of Jerusalem the Crusaders created four Crusader states: the kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch and the County of Tripoli
facts Crusade of 1101 Following this crusade there was a second, less successful wave of crusaders, in which Turks led by Kilij Arslan defeated the Crusaders in three separate battles in a well-managed response to the First Crusade
facts Norwegian Crusade 1107-1110 Sigurd 1 of Norway was the first European king who went on a crusade and defeated Muslims in Spain, the Baleares, and in Palestine After a period of relative peace in which Christians and Muslims co-existed in the Holy Land, Muslims conquered the town of Edessa
facts French and South German armies, under the command of Kings Louis VII and Conrad III respectively, marched to Jerusalem in 1147 but failed to win any major victories On the other side of the Mediterranean, the Second Crusade met with great success as a group of Northern European Crusaders stopped in Portugal and allies with the king.
facts In 1187, Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, conquered Jerusalem after nearly a century under Christian rule, following the Battle of Hattin After the Christians surrendered the city, Saladin spared the civilians and for the most part left churches and shrines untouched to be able to collect ransom money from the Franks