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Vmware Command Line

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Transcript

  • 1. ESX Server from the Command Line
    • The command-line environment
    • Working with disks
    • Working with virtual machines
  • 2. Tips for command-line use
    • Install an ssh (Secure Shell) client on your desktop
      • Windows: PuTTY (freeware), SecureCRT (commercial)
    • Know the features of the bash shell
      • Use arrow keys to navigate command history
      • Use TAB to complete file names and commands
      • Useful keystrokes:
        • ctrl- A : beginning of line ctrl- E : end of line
        • ctrl- W : erase previous word ctrl- U : blank this line
        • ctrl- Z : suspend this job
      • bg command puts suspended job in background
      • Caution! ctrl- S freezes the screen; use ctrl- Q to unfreeze
  • 3. Useful Service Console add-on packages
    • nano : a simple text editor
      • An alternative to vi
      • Always invoke as nano –w filename to turn off word-wrap
    • lynx : a text-only Web browser
      • Especially useful for downloading files from Web sites to Service Console
    • ncftp : an enhanced text-only FTP client
      • Contains ncftpget , useful for unattended FTP downloads
    • lsof : list open files
      • Shows what processes are using what files and ports
  • 4. Working with Service Console packages
    • rpm –qa : list installed packages
    • rpm –qi packagename : get more information about a package
    • rpm –ql packagename : list files composing a package
    • rpm –Uvh filename(s) : install a package
      • You may need to satisfy a package’s dependencies; list multiple package filenames on command line
    • rpm –e packagename : uninstalls a package
      • Warning: do not uninstall VMware packages!
    Or use –p packagefilename in place of packagename
  • 5. Partitioning disks with fdisk
    • fdisk requires a device file pointing at desired disk fdisk /dev/sdb
      • Enter p to print the present partition table
      • Enter n to create a new partition
        • Specify partition number if primary
        • Specify starting cylinder
        • Specify size: +1024M gives a 1 GB partition
      • Enter t to change the partition type: FB for VMFS
      • Enter w to save partition table to disk
    • Warning: Changing partition table of a disk with mounted Linux file systems may require reboot
  • 6. vmkfstools Syntax
    • The option flag governs the action of the command
      • Either a single letter with one hyphen or a word with two
    • The last argument is always a path using the VMkernel’s device space
      • Either a VMFS name (physical or friendly) vmhba0:1:0:5 /vmfs/vmhba0:1:0:5 myvmfs /vmfs/myvmfs
      • Or a VMFS name followed by a virtual disk file name vmhba0:1:0:5:a.dsk /vmfs/vmhba0:1:0:5/a.dsk myvmfs:a.dsk /vmfs/myvmfs/a.dsk
    vmkfstools -? [ otherarg otherarg … ] VMkernel-path
  • 7. Creating a new VMFS volume
    • Use vmkfstools –N to map from VMkernel disk to a Linux device file /dev/vsd n # vmkfstools –N vmhba0:8:0:0 /dev/vsd0
    • fdisk /dev/vsd0 Make a partition number 1 with type FB
    • Make new VMFS volumes using MUI or command line
    Whole disk
  • 8. Creating a new VMFS volume (cont’d)
    • Use vmkfstools –C to build a new VMFS vmkfstools –C vmfs2 vmhba0:8:0:1
    • Use vmkfstools –S to set the volume label vmkfstools –S VOL3 vmhba0:8:0:1
    • Use vmkfstools –l to list contents vmkfstools –l VOL3 or ls –l /vmfs/VOL3
  • 9. Basic VMFS virtual-disk operations
    • To create a new virtual disk: vmkfstools –c 4096m VOL3:webserver.dsk
    • To set access rights: chown ted:finance /vmfs/VOL3/webserver.dsk chmod u=rw,go= /vmfs/VOL3/webserver.dsk
    • To rename a virtual disk mv /vmfs/VOL3/ws.dsk /vmfs/VOL3/webserver.dsk
    • To remove a virtual disk rm /vmfs/VOL3/ws.dsk
  • 10. Copying a virtual disk
    • It’s safe to use the Service Console’s cp command on > 2 GB virtual disks
    • Not all Service Console utilities have been customized
    • Other environments may contain unsafe tools too
    • Safest to handle virtual disks in their exported (“COW”) format
      • To export: vmkfstools –e /vmimages/ws.vmdk vmfs3:ws.dsk
  • 11. Copying a virtual disk from one ESX Server to another
    • Use scp to copy securely scp /vmfs/VOL3/ws.dsk  user @esx2:/vmfs/myvmfs/ws.dsk
    • Always check for integrity # sum /vmfs/myvmfs/ws.dsk 39678 489473 /vmfs/myvmfs/ws.dsk # md5sum /vmfs/myvmfs/router-2.1.dsk 77dfc2ba10c75b6ad0a1812805887e28 router-2.1.dsk
    16-bit checksum size in 1 KB blocks
  • 12. Extending a virtual disk
    • Make a backup first!
    • Extend the virtual disk vmkfstools –X 4096M VOL3:windata.dsk
    • Now the file system inside the virtual disk does not fill the medium
    • Use Partition Magic or the equivalent inside the VM to extend the file system
  • 13. Inspecting virtual disks from Service Console
    • To identify a virtual disk: # head mydisk.dsk | file –
    • To import: vmkfstools –i /vmimages/otherdisk.dsk VOL3:other.dsk
      • GSX Server 2.x virtual disks can also be imported
    {nothing} Workstation 3.x GSX Server 2.x ASCII English text Workstation 4 x86 boot sector ESX Server
  • 14. Opening virtual disks from Service Console
    • To display the partition table inside a virtual disk: # vmware-mount.pl –p /vmfs/VOL3/w2k.dsk Nr Start Size Type Id System -- ----- ------- ---- --- --------------- 1 63 4176837 BIOS 7 HPFS/NTFS # vmware-mount.pl –p /vmfs/VOL3/linux.dsk Nr Start Size Type Id System -- ----- ------- ---- --- --------------- 1 32 81888 BIOS 83 Linux 2 81920 262144 BIOS 82 Linux swap 3 344064 972800 BIOS 83 Linux
      • Virtual disk must be in ESX format, reside in a VMFS, not powered on
  • 15. Opening virtual disks from Service Console (cont’d)
    • You may mount file systems from within a virtual disk onto the Service Console
      • Virtual disk must not be powered on
      • NTFS file systems are read-only!
        • vfat and ext3 file systems may be mounted read-write
    • Press ctrl- C to kill vmware-mount.pl when done
    # mkdir /myntfs # vmware-mount.pl /vmfs/ted/w2k.dsk 1  -t ntfs -o ro /myntfs In another window: # ls /myntfs AUTOEXEC.BAT CONFIG.SYS IO.SYS boot.ini Documents and Settings MSDOS.SYS
  • 16. VM Configuration File Syntax
    • Comments begin with a # character
      • Blank lines are allowed
    • Each other line is of the form attribute = value or class.attribute = value
    • Class can be:
      • A family of related items
      • A device controller
      • A device on a device controller
  • 17. A sample configuration file
    • config.version = "6"
    • virtualHW.version = "3"
    • memSize = "192"
    • numvcpus = "2"
    • displayName = "Controller for domain TEXAS.ORG"
    • guestOS = "win2000Serv"
    • ide1:0.present = "TRUE"
    • ide1:0.startConnected = "TRUE"
    • ide1:0.deviceType = "atapi-cdrom"
    • ide1:0.fileName = "/dev/cdrom"
    • floppy0.present = "TRUE"
    • floppy0.startConnected = "FALSE"
    • floppy0.fileName = "/dev/fd0"
    • scsi0.present = "TRUE"
    • scsi0.virtualDev = "vmxbuslogic"
    • scsi0.sharedBus = "none"
    • scsi0:0.present = "TRUE"
    • scsi0:0.fileName = “VOL3:winnt.dsk"
    • scsi0:0.mode = "persistent"
  • 18. A sample configuration file (cont’d)
    • ethernet0.present = "TRUE"
    • ethernet0.virtualDev = "vlance"
    • ethernet0.connectionType = "monitor_dev"
    • ethernet0.devName = "vmnic0"
    • suspend.directory = "/vmfs/VOL3"
    • remotedisplay.depth = "8"
    • checkpoint.cptconfigname = "rn2-52ff1bdc"
    • uuid.location =  "56 4d 7c 66 1f 23 b5 c3-2f 50 a9 29 7f 53 72 b5"
  • 19. Configuring for Terminal Services
    • Windows Terminal Services and Citrix Metaframe systems run with many processes
    • Windows 2000 systems benefit from a performance tweak
    • Add to configuration file workload = "TerminalServices"
    • If Citrix Metaframe XP, install Citrix hotfix XE102W014 in guest OS
  • 20. Time sync for graphicsless VMs
    • Normally need GUI VMware Tools agent to enable time synchronization between guest OS and Service Console
    • But Linux servers often run without graphics
    • To enable time sync without GUI: tools.syncTime = "TRUE"
  • 21. Adjusting Remote Console keyboard repeat
    • By default, virtual keyboard device in VM starts autorepeat if a physical key is not released within less than a second
    • Network latency or congestion may trigger autorepeat
    • Add to config file: keyboard.typematicMinDelay = 2000000
      • Value in microseconds (2 million  sec = 2 sec)
      • Choose a value that results in satisfactory performance
  • 22. Specifying autostart and autostop behavior
    • Config files may contain autostart = "poweron" autostart.delay = "2" Seconds to pause autostop = "poweroff" or… autostop = "suspend" autostop.delay = "2" Seconds to pause
    • Caution! Memory page sharing is not active when suspended VMs are resumed
  • 23. Starting and stopping VMs from the command line
    • To stop a VM: vmware-cmd /home/ted/vmware/a/a.vmx stop mode
    • To start a VM: vmware-cmd /home/ted/vmware/a/a.vmx start mode
    Abrupt power-off; resume without running normal scripts hard Try to run scripts in guest OS; use hard mechanism if VMware Tools is not accessible trysoft Run normal scripts in guest OS before shutdown or after resume; soft
  • 24. Questions?