Chapter 3


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Chapter 3

  1. 1. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 1
  2. 2.  You will write a “How To” paragraph. Time order and time order signals Complex sentences with time clauses Sentence error: fragments Four new capitalization rules One new comma rule. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 2
  3. 3. Chapter 3 Giving InstructionsOrganization It is a kind of paragraph that explain how to do something or how to make something. This kind help you to write a paragraph that gives instructions.Example: How to make a pizza, How to get A in English …. etc ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 3
  4. 4. Chapter 3 Giving InstructionsOrganization 1. Begin with a topic sentence (names the topic and says the paragraph gives instruction) 2. Divide the instructions to a series of steps. 3. Explain each step one by one. 4. Use Transition signals to introduce each new step. ( Time order signals/ listing order signals) 5. Use the command verb form to give instructions, Example: write, clean, read…etc. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 4
  5. 5. Chapter 3 Giving InstructionsOrganization  Topic sentence:( Topic)+( controlling idea) It is easy to write a paragraphif you follow the four steps in writing process.  Concluding sentence: Mentions the topic again to remind the reader what the paragraph was about If you follow these steps, your paragraph will be perfect. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 5
  6. 6. Chapter 3 Giving InstructionsOrganization Listing order signals Time order signals •LISTING ORDER PARAGRAPH •HOW TO PARAGRAPH : if the •HOW TO PARAGRAPH : if the instructions of the paragraph must instructions of the paragraph don’t be in a specific order. have a specific order. First, second, third…. They appear at the beginning of a sentence, followed by a COMMA. Also •appears at the beginning of a sentence, followed by a comma. •It is between the subject and the verb without a comma. •It can be at the end of aa lot of Remember: Don’t put sentence. The comma has to be before Also. transition signals in HOW TO PARAGRAPH. Use it with important Then:appears at the beginning of a steps. sentence. Don’t put a comma after then. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 6
  7. 7. Chapter 3 Giving InstructionsOrganization Prewriting Technique 1. › Listing is a way to get idea. [ prewriting Technique] › Make a list of every words or phrase that comes into your mind when you think about a topic. › Don’t stop to wonder if an idea is good or if your spelling or grammar is correct. Just keep writing. 2. › Choose the idea that you want from your list. › Decide whether your steps in order by time or not. 3. › Make a simple outline. › Change the number to capital letters. › Write a topic sentence › Add a concluding sentence at the end. › Don’t forget the title. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 7
  8. 8. Chapter 3 Giving Instructions Sentence Structure  A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. She learns English. Subject- Verb pair =>an independent clause Because she learns English Subject- Verb pair => a dependent clause Independent Clause Dependent Clause She learns English. Because She learns English. •This clause has one subject verb •This clause has one subject verb pair pair •It is an independent clause with a •It expresses a complete thought subordinating word (because). •( simple Sentence) •It doesn’t expresses a complete thought. •It must be joined to an independent clause. Together the tow clauses express a complete thought, and called a sentence ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 8
  9. 9. Chapter 3 Giving Instructions Sentence structure  Subordinating words: make a dependent clause. Remember! In addition to  Adverb Subordinators: introduce dependent clauses that act like time order adverbs. transition  They answer the questions when? Why? Where? …etc. signals, You can Example: use time clauses Before she learned English, she studied French. as, to show time Because she learned English, she has to study abroad. order Time Subordinators Time Subordinators are followed by are certain adverb TIME SUBORDINATIORS Subject- verb After I had subordinators that an accident combination introduce time After clauses. Before Example: She felt Until … etc better as soon as she took the PREPOSISTIONS Are followed by After my medicine. nouns accident ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 9
  10. 10. Chapter 3 Giving Instructions Sentence Structure  A complex sentence has: › (ONE) independent clause. › one or more dependent clauses.  The dependent clause can be in any order.  If the dependent clause is first, put a comma after it. Example: As soon as it started to rain, we run for shelter.  If the independent clause is first, Don’t put a comma. Example: We run for shelter as soon as it started to rain. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 10
  11. 11. Chapter 3 Giving Instructions Sentence Structure  A Sentence Fragment is only part of a sentence or half of a sentence which doesn’t make a meaningful sentence. ( not complete sentence) › Example: before the test began. ( dependent clause)  To correct fragment: add an independent clause. › Example: The teacher passed out papers before the test began ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 11
  12. 12. Chapter 3 Giving Instructions Sentence Structure Type of Independent Dependent Usage of comma sentence clause clause Simple sentence One --- --- Compound Two or More --- IC + , + CC+ IC sentence Complex One One or More DC +,+ IC sentence IC + DC ( no comma) IC : Independent Clause DC: Dependent Clause CC: Coordinating Conjunction ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 12
  13. 13. Chapter 3 Giving Instructions Capitalizationand Punctuation  Name of specific structures [ building, hotels, roads…] › Example: Taj Mahal, Sheraton, the White House  Name of special organizations[school, business, club, university…] › Example: Arabian League, Salman University..  Names of days, months, holidays, and special time period( But not the name of seasons) › Example: Sunday, June, Eid Alfiter..  Geographical areas, (but not compass directions) › Example: the Middle East, Southeast Asia. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 13
  14. 14. Chapter 3 Giving Instructions Capitalizationand Punctuation Rule of using a comma example After listing- order and time First, go to the main street order signals ( except then) Then turn right to the library ( no comma) Before coordinating She likes pizza, but I like cheeseburger conjunctions in a compound sentence After dependent clauses in After he finish his work, he goes to his complex sentence when a home. dependent clause comes before an independent clause. To separateitems in series ( 3 or I have a cat, a parrot, and two goldfish. more) ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 14
  15. 15. Chapter 3 Giving Instructions Writing •Getting ideas – Listing Technique •Organize your ideas - Outlining Prewriting •Rough form •Begin with a topic sentence ( topic – the paragraph about instructions) •Follow your outline 1st Draft •Add time- order or listing-order signals./ complex sentences •Don’t worry too much about errors •Checking your writing – make changes – correct the errors … •You have to check: 1- the paragraph as a whole( the meaning) Editing •2- the paragraph form, organization, grammar …etc •Write a well paragraph that can be submitted to your teacher. The final copy ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2011 15