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the Power of Storage SSDs to SAN

the Power of Storage SSDs to SAN

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  • 1. IBM Power Systems Craig Johnson The Power of Storage – SSDs to SAN Power Systems Software All statements regarding IBM's future direction and intent are subject to change without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 2. IBM Power Systems Mark Olson The Power of i – Solid State Drives Power Systems Hardware All statements regarding IBM's future direction and intent are subject to change without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 3. IBM Power Systems Solid State Drives (SSD) Matching Applications’ Need  Today‟s applications can often benefit with a faster storage option  SSD high speed can really help get rid of I/O bottlenecks, bridging the gap between memory and disk speeds – Improve performance – And save space, energy at the same time SSD Processors Memory Disk Very, very, Very, very, Very, very slow very, very, very fast Fast comparatively very fast 1,000,000 - < 10‟s ns ~100 ns ~200,000 ns 8,000,000 ns Access Speed 3 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 4. IBM Power Systems SSD Performance – Magnitudes Faster than Disk (HDD) 30,000 25,000 Random I/O’s per second 20,000 (Sustained ) 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 SSD HDD HDD SSD Cost Cost best best SSD HDD Performance Capacity 4 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 5. IBM Power Systems Example: Batch Window Reduction  Bank running IBM i needed to reduce month end batch run time from 4+ hours to under 3 hours 40% Reduction  SSDs cut 1.5 hours from batch run time – Plus a 16% reduction in # of disk drives Batch Performance Runs 5 4 # of SAS # of Batch Run Hours Disk Drives SSDs Time 3 Base run 72 0 4:22 2 SSD run 1 72 8 2:43 1 SSD run 2 60 4 2:48 0 72 HDD 72 HDD + 8 SSD 60 HDD + 4 SSD  Leveraged recent IBM i enhancements – Directed 8 DB2 Objects (table, index, view) to SSD Source: IBM Power Systems Performance and Benchmark Center 5-23-09 5 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 6. IBM Power Systems Mixed SSD + HDD Can be Great Solution  It is typical for data bases to have a large percentage of data which is infrequently used (“cold”) and a small percentage of data which is frequently used (“hot”) Hot data may be only 10-20% capacity, but represent 80-90% activity  SSD offers best price performance when focused on “hot” data  HDD offers best storage cost, so focus it on “cold” data …. a hierarchal approach Cold May be able to use larger HDD and/or a larger % capacity used Hot Can run SSD closer to 100% capacity 6 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 7. IBM Power Systems Implementing “Hot” and “Cold” Data IBM i 5.4 and later offers best integrated SSD options in the industry Three options, (can use separately or all together): 1. SSD “Trace and Balance” function part of IBM i – Monitors by partition or Aux Storage Pool to determine hot/cold – Upon request, automatically moves hot data to SSD, cold to HDD – Can re-monitor & rebalance any time 2. Can specify specific data base objects to be placed on SSD 3. A few key OS files automatically placed on SSD if present 7 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 8. IBM Power Systems Scenario: Complete HDD Refresh  Modernize older HDD subsystem, replacing all old HDD with new SSD+HDD  Put “hot” active data on SSD & put “cold” data on HDD – Combination has better price performance than using all SSD  Save space, power/cooling, improve performance and increase storage capacity POWER5/6 5xx w/ older SCSI disk POWER6 5xx w/ SSD & newer SAS disk  (360) 35GB disk = 12.6 TB  (32) 69 GB SSD = 2.2 TB  152 U rack space (4.1 racks)  (48) 282 GB disk = 13.5 TB  36 U rack space (1 rack) 4.5x fewer drives 25% higher capacity Assumptions:  Amount customer useable space net of parity protection not shown  Ratio of hot to cold data for this scenario = 1 : 6 Will vary by client and application  * Impact/benefit of using a higher % of drive‟s capacity not considered  Example uses 4 partitions equal in size and configuration for disk and controllers 8 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 9. IBM Power Systems Scenario: Existing HDD Refresh - SSD Turbo-charger Problem: Older HDD not meeting performance needs  Normal tuning efforts have not worked  Prefer not to mix newer HDD with older HDD  Leases/budgets make it difficult to replace existing HDD  Prefer not to invest more money in additional older HDD Solution: Add SSD and keep HDD. Put “hot” data on SSD & keep “cold” data on HDD  SSD gives performance boost to system …. SWAG 20-30%  SSD provides new technology investment  HDD usable capacity now larger … SWAG 20-30%...as average capacity utilization increased  HDD financial investment protected/leveraged POWER6 5xx w/ older SCSI disk (360) 35GB disk = 12.6 TB (12) 69 GB SSD = 756 G Plus xx% more GB usable from HDD Assume • older drives 30% data capacity • 80-20 cold-hot split System configuration and usage will impact results and applicability Then: 12 SSD covers hot data needs 9 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 10. IBM Power Systems Scenario: Existing SAN Refresh - SSD Turbo-charger Problem: Older HDD in SAN not meeting performance needs  Normal tuning efforts have not worked  Leases/budgets make it difficult to replace existing SAN  Prefer not to invest more money in additional older SAN resource Solution: Add SSD and keep SAN. Put “hot” data on SSD & keep “cold” data on SAN  SSD gives performance boost to system …. SWAG 20-40%  SSD provides new technology investment  SAN usable capacity can be larger SWAG 10-20%...as average capacity utilization increased  HDD financial investment protected/leveraged Same scenario works for SAN (12) 69 GB SSD = 756 G Plus xx% more GB usable from HDD Note – additional operational considerations if SAN using higher level functions such as flash copy, metro mirroring, etc. Assume • older drives 30% data capacity • 80-20 cold-hot split System configuration and usage will impact results and applicability Then: 12 SSD covers hot data needs 10 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 11. IBM Power Systems Will SSD Benefit Your POWER6 Configuration?  Yes, will benefit, BUT want to focus SSD use where the best return on investment (ROI) – addressing your batch window or response time challenges caused by I/O bottleneck  SSD‟s best ROI is with workloads with high percentage of random reads, – Lower ROI with high percentage writes or predictable reads  Quick, easy way to analyze your specific configuration: just-released SSD Analyzer Tool & instructions – Down load from IBM Techdocs http://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/PRS3780 – Collect performance data as usual on IBM i 5.4 or 6.1 system – SSD Analyzer evaluates collected data Provides a “yes”, “probably no”, or “maybe” answer  IBM Techline and/or ATS marketing support groups can then further assist in analyzing details of SSD configuration needed 11 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 12. IBM Power Systems Some SSD Specifics SFF SSD  69.7 GB capacity per SSD drive – Enterprise class SSD (not cheap PC SSD)  SSD Located on POWER6 server – 3.5-inch SAS drive bay of #5886 EXP 12S SAS Disk Drawer 3.5-inch SSD – 3.5-inch SAS drive bay of Power 560/570 CEC – SFF drive bay of Power 520/550 CEC  SFF & 3.5” attached to SAS adapter, just like “classic” SAS disk drives – PCI-X 1.5 GB cache controller – Embedded controller of Power 520/550 and Power 560/570 • Less horsepower than 1.5 GB controller, lower price  Contents protected like “classic” SAS drives – Mirroring, RAID-5 or RAID-6 (and hot spare)  IBM i 5.4 or later  POWER6 servers (not POWER5 or earlier) 12 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 13. IBM Power Systems Power Systems SSD White Papers  IBM i-specific – “Performance Value of Solid State Drives using IBM i” – First published May 2009  More technology specific – AIX/IBM i/Linux appropriate – “Performance Impacts of Flash SSDs Upon IBM Power Systems” – First published June 2009  AIX-specific – “Driving Business Value on Power Systems with Solid State Drives” – First published April 2009  Above papers in Power Systems web site under “Resources/Literature” – http://www.ibm.com/common/ssi/apilite?infotype=SA&infosubt=WH&lastdays=1825&hitlimit=2 00&ctvwcode=US&pubno=POW*USEN&appname=STGE_PO_PO_USEN_WH&additional=summ ary&contents=keeponlit  SAP environment white paper with IBM i in SAP web site – http://www.sdn.sap.com/irj/sdn/db4?rid=/library/uuid/90a1637e-065f-2c10-3ab7-bea9375fc88d 13 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 14. The Power of i – SAN Capabilities Vess Natchev IBM Systems Lab Services & Training All statements regarding IBM's future direction and intent are subject to change without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 15. IBM Power Systems IBM i Direct Support for DS5000*  IBM i plans to support direct attachment to DS5000 storage in 4Q 2009 to enable simpler SAN planning and leverage midrange open storage  DS5000 benefits – Multiple RAID levels, including RAID 6 – Custom XOR processor for RAID calculations – Consolidated storage for IBM i, Unix, Linux, Windows applications – Can use FC or SATA drives FC strongly recommended for IBM i production workloads  Support statements: – DS5100 and DS5300 only in 4Q 2009 Power Hypervisor – IBM 6.1.1 – POWER6 hardware – POWER5(+) hardware not supported – IBM 5.4 and 5.4.5 not supported – Smart FC adapter (#5735, #5774, #5749 only) – PowerVM and VIOS not required  DS5000 performance for IBM i – Significant improvement over DS4000 through VIOS, esp. RAID5 – Similar to DS5000 through VIOS * All statements regarding IBM's future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. 15 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 16. IBM Power Systems IBM i VIOS Support for DS5000  IBM i supports IBM DS5100 and DS5300 with PowerVM VIOS configurations to leverage the latest midrange storage offerings for storage consolidation of multiple workloads  DS5000 benefits – Multiple RAID levels, including RAID 6 – Custom XOR processor for RAID calculations VIOS – Consolidated storage for IBM i, Unix, Linux, Windows applications – Can use FC or SATA drives FC strongly recommended for IBM i production workloads Power Hypervisor  VIOS can virtualize DS5000 storage to IBM i, AIX, Linux – PowerVM VIOS configurations with IBM i 6.1 partitions – POWER6 processor-based tower and rack servers – IBM is planning to support POWER6 processor-based blades  DS5000 performance for IBM i – Significant improvement over DS4000, esp. RAID5 – See DS5000 performance white paper at http://www.ibm.com/systems/i/advantages/perfmgmt/resource.html 16 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 17. IBM Power Systems IBM i VIOS Support for SVC  IBM i supports IBM Systems Storage SAN Volume Controller with PowerVM VIOS configurations to help reduce costs and improve flexibility of enterprise storage environments  SVC is combines storage capacity from multiple disk systems into a single reservoir that can be used by multiple servers – Increasing storage virtualization VIOS – Improving productivity of storage administrators – Enhancing availability with copy services Power Hypervisor  SVC supports heterogeneous storage and operating systems – Storage: including IBM and non-IBM disk subsystems – Support based on SVC data sheet – OS: including AIX, Linux, Windows, and UNIX  VIOS can virtualize SVC storage to IBM i – PowerVM VIOS configurations with IBM i 6.1 partitions – SVC and SVC Entry Editions – POWER6 processor-based servers and blades 17 http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/storage/software/virtualization/svc/specifications.html © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 18. IBM Power Systems IBM i VIOS Support for XIV  IBM i supports IBM XIV Storage System with PowerVM VIOS configurations to leverage simplicity in SAN configuration  XIV benefits: – Massive parallelism – No arm skew (hot spots) VIOS – Thin provisioning built-in – Ease of configuration (no RAID array creation, simple GUI) – Rapid self-healing Power Hypervisor – Off-the-shelf components (cost)  VIOS can virtualize XIV storage to IBM i – PowerVM VIOS configurations with IBM i 6.1 partitions – POWER6 processor-based servers and blades 18 http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/storage/software/virtualization/svc/specifications.html © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 19. IBM Power Systems IBM Systems Storage Support for IBM i Direct Attach DS5100* DS5300* DS6800 DS8100 DS8300 Systems POWER6* POWER6* POWER5/6 POWER5/6* POWER5/6* Ports (max) Fibre -8 Fibre -16 Fibre - 8 Fibre - 64 Fibre - 128 # of drives (max) 256 448 128 384 1024 FC/SATA FC/SATA FC, FATA FC, FATA FC, FATA Cache (max) 8 GB 16 GB 4 GB 128 GB 256 GB RAID 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 10 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 10 5, 10 5, 6, 10 5, 6, 10 System Storage Managed FlashCopy Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Metro Mirror Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Global Mirror Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PowerHA Managed Metro Mirror No No Yes Yes Yes Global Mirror No No Yes Yes Yes Geo Mirror Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Logical Replication iCluster & Other Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes •Source: http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/storage/disk/product-compare.html * All statements regarding IBM's future direction and intent are subject to change or 19 withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 20. IBM Power Systems IBM Systems Storage Support for IBM i PowerVM VIOS Attach DS3200 DS3400 DS4700 DS4800 DS5100 DS5300 XIV Systems BladeCenter S POWER6 POWER6 POWER6 POWER6 POWER6 POWER6 and H BladeCenter H BladeCenter H BladeCenter H BladeCenter H BladeCenter H BladeCenter H VIOS Yes Yes Yes Yes Optional Optional Yes Ports (max) SAS - 4 Fibre - 4 Fibre - 8 Fibre -8 Fibre -8 Fibre -16 Fibre -24 # of drives (max) 48 SAS/SATA 48 SAS/SATA 112 224 256 448 180 FC/SATA FC/SATA FC/SATA FC/SATA SATA Cache (max) 1 GB 1 GB 4 GB 16 GB 8 GB 16 GB 120 GB RAID 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 10 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 10 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 10 0, 1, 3, 5, 10 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 10 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 10 Mirrored System Storage Managed FlashCopy Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Metro Mirror No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Global Mirror No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No PowerHA Managed Metro Mirror No No No No No No No Global Mirror No No No No No No No Geo Mirror Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Logical Replication iCluster & Other Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes •Source: http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/storage/disk/product-compare.html 20 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 21. IBM Power Systems How to Configure Open Storage for IBM i Before you start: IBM i Virtualization and Open Storage Read-me First – http://www.ibm.com/systems/i/os/  Step 1: Perform sizing – Use Disk Magic, where applicable – Use the PCRM, Ch. 14.5 – http://www.ibm.com/systems/i/advantages/perfmgmt/resource.html – Number of physical drives is still most important – VIOS itself does not add significant disk I/O overhead – For production workloads, keep each i partition on a separate RAID array  Step 2: Use appropriate storage UI and Redbook for your environment to create LUNs for IBM i and attach to VIOS (or use TPC or SSPC where applicable) DS Storage Manager for DS8000 Storage Manager SVC Console for XIV Storage GUI for DS3200, DS3400, DS4700, for DS8100 and DS8300 SVC XIV DS4800, DS5100, DS5300 21 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 22. IBM Power Systems How to Configure Open Storage for IBM i, Cont.  Step 3: Assign LUNs to IBM i – „cfgdev‟ in VIOS CLI necessary to detect new physical volumes if VIOS is running – Virtualize whole LUNs/drives (“physical volumes”) to IBM i – Do not use storage pools in VIOS If using If using HMC IVM – Create VSCSI adapters for VIOS – Assign LUNs to IBM i in IVM and IBM i partitions – Assign LUNs to IBM i in HMC Requires latest HMC release 22 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 23. IBM Power Systems VIOS Configuration: HMC System 1) Assign XIV volumes to FC adapters in VIOS using WWPNs 2) In HMC: System->Configuration->Virtual Resources->Virtual Storage Management  No need to use VIOS command line  Assign volume to correct IBM i LPAR  Volume then becomes available to IBM i as DDxx 23 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 24. IBM Power Systems VIOS Configuration: IVM System 1) Assign XIV volumes to FC adapters in VIOS using WWPNs 2) In IVM: View/Modify Virtual Storage  Physical Volumes  No need to use VIOS command line  Assign volume to correct IBM i LPAR  Volume then becomes available to IBM i as DDxx 24 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 25. IBM Power Systems IBM i View: Service Tools I  Virtual storage IOA is the VSCSI client adapter in IBM i partition  Disk units are virtual target devices mapped to LUNs in VIOS  Disk units show the same type and model regardless of backend storage subsystem 25 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 26. IBM Power Systems IBM i View: Service Tools II  No concept of “IBM i protected” and “IBM i unprotected” LUNs with open storage  Standard open storage LUNs created, attached to AIX/VIOS-type host  Once virtualized by VIOS, LUNs will appear unprotected in IBM i  LUNs should not be mirrored in IBM (already protected on SAN)  LUNs assigned to ASPs/IASPs as any other disk 26 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 27. IBM Power Systems IBM i View: Operating System  Type of virtualized disk is always 6B22 (same as when IBM i is hosting IBM i)  Size does not have to match physical disk unit sizes  Supported sizes for LUNs through VIOS are 160MB – 2TB 27 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 28. IBM Power Systems DS4000/DS5000 Copy Services – Flash Copy • DS4000/DS5000 FlashCopy and VolumeCopy • Production LPAR on IBM Power are supported by IBM as a client of VIOS on server or Power Blade both IBM Power servers and IBM Power blades • IBM i as client of VIOS • Full-system FlashCopy and VolumeCopy • Manual solution when the production IBM i logical partition • No toolkit available (LPAR) is powered off are supported • Not supported by PowerHA • Full-system FlashCopy and VolumeCopy when the production IBM i LPAR is in restricted state are supported Fibre Channel • The DS4000/DS5000 'disable' and 're-create' functions with full-system FlashCopy and VolumeCopy when the production IBM i LPAR is powered off or is in restricted state are supported Fibre Channel • Full-system FlashCopy and VolumeCopy of the production IBM i logical partition (LPAR) after only using the IBM i 6.1 memory flush to disk (quiesce) function are not supported • DS4700, DS4800, DS5100, DS5300 • Full-system FlashCopy and VolumeCopy • FlashCopy or Volume Copy when the production IBM i LPAR is running are • Full system only not supported • FlashCopy and VolumeCopy of Independent • Backup LPAR on IBM Power server or Power blade Auxiliary Storage Pools (IASPs) are not • IBM i as client of VIOS supported See IBM i Virtualization and Open Storage Read-me First (Ch. 12) – http://www.ibm.com/systems/i/os/ 28 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 29. IBM Power Systems DS4000/DS5000 Copy Services – Replication • Production LPAR on IBM Power • Manual solution • PowerHA for IBM i (Geographic Mirroring, server or Power Blade • No toolkit available specifically) is also supported and is lead-with • IBM i as client of VIOS • Not supported by PowerHA solution • DS4000/DS5000 ERM is supported by IBM as a client of VIOS on both IBM Power servers and IBM Power blades • Metro and Global Mirror are supported Fibre Channel • Metro and Global Mirror for planned failover • DS4700, DS4800, DS5100, DS5300 (IBM i production LPAR is powered off) are • Metro and Global Mirror supported • Full system only • Metro and Global Mirror for planned failover (IBM i production LPAR is running) are supported • Replication of IASPs is not supported Fibre Channel • Suspending replication and accessing the replicated LUNs on backup site is not supported • Backup LPAR on IBM Power server or Power blade • IBM i as client of VIOS See IBM i Virtualization and Open Storage Read-me First (Ch. 12) – http://www.ibm.com/systems/i/os/ 29 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 30. IBM Power Systems IBM Systems Lab Services Virtualization Program  What is it? – Free presales technical assistance from Lab Services – Help with virtualization solutions: Open storage Power blades IBM Systems Director VMControl Other PowerVM technologies – Design solution, hold Q&A session with client, verify hardware configuration  Who can use it? – IBMers, Business Partners, clients  How do I use it? – Contact Lab Services – Sandy Brow sbrow@us.ibm.com – Complete nomination form; send form in – Participate in assessment call with Virtualization Program team – Work with dedicated Lab Services technical resource to design solution 30 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 31. IBM Power Systems Vouchers for Power Systems  Free postsales getting-started assistance from Lab Services  http://www.ibm.com/systems/power/hardware/vouchers/index.html 31 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 32. IBM Power Systems Documentation  Performance – Latest Performance Capabilities Reference manual, Chapter 14.5 – http://www.ibm.com/systems/i/advantages/perfmgmt/resource.html – Disk Magic strongly recommended for sizing  Implementation and support statements – IBM i Virtualization and Open Storage Read-me First (2nd half) – http://www.ibm.com/systems/i/os/  Implementation – IBM i and Midrange External Storage Redbook  VIOS – PowerVM Editions Guide: http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/systems/scope/hw/index.jsp?topic=/arecu/arecukickoff.htm – VIOS command line – http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/systems/scope/hw/index.jsp?topic=/iphb1/iphb1_vios_commandslist.htm – VIOS-only support statements – http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/sas/f/vios/documentation/datasheet.html 32 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 33. IBM Power Systems 33 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 34. IBM Power Systems Special notices This document was developed for IBM offerings in the United States as of the date of publication. IBM may not make these offerings available in other countries, and the information is subject to change without notice. Consult your local IBM business contact for information on the IBM offerings available in your area. Information in this document concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of these products or other public sources. Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products. IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. Send license inquires, in writing, to IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, New Castle Drive, Armonk, NY 10504-1785 USA. All statements regarding IBM future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. The information contained in this document has not been submitted to any formal IBM test and is provided "AS IS" with no warranties or guarantees either expressed or implied. All examples cited or described in this document are presented as illustrations of the manner in which some IBM products can be used and the results that may be achieved. Actual environmental costs and performance characteristics will vary depending on individual client configurations and conditions. IBM Global Financing offerings are provided through IBM Credit Corporation in the United States and other IBM subsidiaries and divisions worldwide to qualified commercial and government clients. Rates are based on a client's credit rating, financing terms, offering type, equipment type and options, and may vary by country. Other restrictions may apply. Rates and offerings are subject to change, extension or withdrawal without notice. IBM is not responsible for printing errors in this document that result in pricing or information inaccuracies. All prices shown are IBM's United States suggested list prices and are subject to change without notice; reseller prices may vary. IBM hardware products are manufactured from new parts, or new and serviceable used parts. Regardless, our warranty terms apply. Any performance data contained in this document was determined in a controlled environment. Actual results may vary significantly and are dependent on many factors including system hardware configuration and software design and configuration. Some measurements quoted in this document may have been made on development-level systems. There is no guarantee these measurements will be the same on generally- available systems. Some measurements quoted in this document may have been estimated through extrapolation. Users of this document should verify the applicable data for their specific environment. 34 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  • 35. IBM Power Systems Special notices (cont.) IBM, the IBM logo, ibm.com AIX, AIX (logo), AIX 6 (logo), AS/400, BladeCenter, Blue Gene, ClusterProven, DB2, ESCON, i5/OS, i5/OS (logo), IBM Business Partner (logo), IntelliStation, LoadLeveler, Lotus, Lotus Notes, Notes, Operating System/400, OS/400, PartnerLink, PartnerWorld, PowerPC, pSeries, Rational, RISC System/6000, RS/6000, THINK, Tivoli, Tivoli (logo), Tivoli Management Environment, WebSphere, xSeries, z/OS, zSeries, AIX 5L, Chiphopper, Chipkill, Cloudscape, DB2 Universal Database, DS4000, DS6000, DS8000, EnergyScale, Enterprise Workload Manager, General Purpose File System, , GPFS, HACMP, HACMP/6000, HASM, IBM Systems Director Active Energy Manager, iSeries, Micro-Partitioning, POWER, PowerExecutive, PowerVM, PowerVM (logo), PowerHA, Power Architecture, Power Everywhere, Power Family, POWER Hypervisor, Power Systems, Power Systems (logo), Power Systems Software, Power Systems Software (logo), POWER2, POWER3, POWER4, POWER4+, POWER5, POWER5+, POWER6, POWER6+, System i, System p, System p5, System Storage, System z, Tivoli Enterprise, TME 10, Workload Partitions Manager and X-Architecture are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. If these and other IBM trademarked terms are marked on their first occurrence in this information with a trademark symbol (® or ™), these symbols indicate U.S. registered or common law trademarks owned by IBM at the time this information was published. Such trademarks may also be registered or common law trademarks in other countries. A current list of IBM trademarks is available on the Web at "Copyright and trademark information" at www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml The Power Architecture and Power.org wordmarks and the Power and Power.org logos and related marks are trademarks and service marks licensed by Power.org. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States, other countries or both. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries or both. Microsoft, Windows and the Windows logo are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries or both. Intel, Itanium, Pentium are registered trademarks and Xeon is a trademark of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States, other countries or both. AMD Opteron is a trademark of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries or both. TPC-C and TPC-H are trademarks of the Transaction Performance Processing Council (TPPC). SPECint, SPECfp, SPECjbb, SPECweb, SPECjAppServer, SPEC OMP, SPECviewperf, SPECapc, SPEChpc, SPECjvm, SPECmail, SPECimap and SPECsfs are trademarks of the Standard Performance Evaluation Corp (SPEC). NetBench is a registered trademark of Ziff Davis Media in the United States, other countries or both. AltiVec is a trademark of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. Cell Broadband Engine is a trademark of Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. InfiniBand, InfiniBand Trade Association and the InfiniBand design marks are trademarks and/or service marks of the InfiniBand Trade Association. Other company, product and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others. 35 © 2009 IBM Corporation