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presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
presentacion CM Ian Campbell
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presentacion CM Ian Campbell

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  • Such manufacturing systems, dubbed “compact factories” or “fabbers,” may have the same potential to transform human civilization as another “universal” technology – the digital computer. The ability to directly fabricate functional custom objects could transform the way we design, make, deliver and consume products.
  • Quotes from a thread on Core77 MySpace example
  • If you're looking at these thinking they are awful, or crass, or in bad taste, or that they would never sell, you have missed the point. The point is that ONE person thought this was a good idea, and they thought it was such a good idea they spent a lot of time and effort realising it.
  • If you're looking at these thinking they are awful, or crass, or in bad taste, or that they would never sell, you have missed the point. The point is that ONE person thought this was a good idea, and they thought it was such a good idea they spent a lot of time and effort realising it.
  • One advantage designers and engineers have is access to the means of production Typically CAD software requires a substantial investment in time in order to gain even a basic expertise. The UI is complex and intimidating to non-experts.
  • http://www.cosmicblobs.com http://sketchup.google.com/
  • http://www.electronicarts.co.uk/spore/
  • http://www.openmoko.com
  • My prediction If you think that sounds crazy, actually it’s already happening.
  • Mass customised products present the consumer with an unfinshed product, and invite their wishes and opinions to create a unique object. But when presented with mass customisation as an example of consumer design, designers often say that this is configuration, not design. That choosing from a menu of existing options does not make someone a designer. And this is true. However, if the consumer wasn’t making these choices, about colour and components and specification, who would be? It would be the professional designer. And so whilst it might be true to say that the consumer is not actually a designer, it’s undeniable that what the consumer is doing is what, in other circumstances, would be described as design. But of course, what’s not possible within a mass customisation scenario is the ability to actually change the shape of the bike, to affect the size or geometry.
  • So now I’d like to present a couple of projects which I have worked on, showing how this principle can be taken beyond mass customisation, and then to show some projects from other designers. The first came about from a project where I’d been asked to consider how to make USB memory sticks for a number of brands, to be given away as gifts at fashion shows (they would contain images from the collection). The production run was small, so obviously a number of digital fabrication options were considered. But as I was doing the project I started to think how it could be made much more personal. About what would happen if the ‘brand’ were a single person.
  • And that led me to thinking about graffiti tags, about how they could be thought of as personal logos. So we developed a system whereby, if you took a photo of a tag…
  • A piece of software would extract the tag from the image and then create a vector path of the outline
  • This vector path could then be input into a really simple, crude solid modelling application. It could be scaled and moved within certain boundaries governed by the shape and size of the core product. And then it could be extruded to create a physical manifestation of the tag.
  • This slide shows the end result, a personalised MP3 player. And basically what this project shows is the possibility for a consumer to create a unique product without requiring ID skills.
  • Depression for thumb
  • So what both these exercises show, I think, is that consumers are able to create unique designs if they are enabled and guided by the right tools. Basically what these projects, and the next ones I’m about to show do, is remove the fear of ‘blank paper syndrome’ What’s also important though, and fundamental to the success of these systems, is that they don’t allow the consumer to make mistakes. If someone is paying money for a product they’ve designed themselves, they want the confidence to know that it won’t break, or be dangerous, basically that it’s going to work.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Unfinished Business: IndustrialDesign in the Consumer-Driven EraIan Campbell,Yuhdi Ariadi and Matt Sinclair (both PhD students)Loughborough Design School
    • 2. Overview of Presentation Loughborough Design School Arguments for and against consumer design Examples of consumer customisation Enabling consumer design Classification of consumer involvement Pilot study Conclusions and future directions
    • 3. Main Argument Loughborough Design SchoolAs additive manufacturing technologies becomecheaper and more available, consumers willcustomise, design and make their own products
    • 4. Counter-argument Loughborough Design SchoolAs additive manufacturing technologies becomecheaper and more available, consumers willcustomise, design and make their own productsdo exactly the same thing theyve always done“A small percentage of consumers may want to choose colours on theirsneakers, or push and pull a few points on a NURBS surface, but yourcomment comes off as pretty ignorant as to what design actually is.”“The rapid protoyping machine in many ways is no different than the hotglue gun, it allows crafters to excercise their wimsy and their perspective,some of which is good, most horrid.”“Myspace is a perfect example of what happens when you put design intothe hands of everyone. A huge percentage of the pages on Myspace areunusable/unreadable. Personal fabrication will be no different… onbalance… a big, ugly mess.”
    • 5. Counter counter-argument Loughborough Design School Consumer customisation and design is already happening in many areas and is likely to increase in future This will happen whether designers, engineers, corporations and brands like it or not
    • 6. Examples of Consumer Customisation Loughborough Design SchoolConsumer Customisation ofHarley Davidson motorcyles
    • 7. Examples of Consumer Customisation Loughborough Design SchoolConsumer Customisation of PCs
    • 8. Enabling Consumer Design Loughborough Design SchoolConsumerscannot beexpected tomake use ofhighly complex“professional”computer aideddesign systems
    • 9. Enabling Consumer Design (cont.) Loughborough Design SchoolBut they can use these: Comic Blobs and SketchUp
    • 10. Enabling Consumer Design (cont.) Loughborough Design SchoolThey can do even better with something like this:Spore Creature Creator
    • 11. Enabling Consumer Design (cont.) Loughborough Design School Not everything in the product will be designed by the consumer – there will be a central “core” around which they will manipulate the external shape
    • 12. Classification of Consumer Involvement Loughborough Design SchoolDesigner’s commitment to consumer involvement is ameasure of: consumer’s autonomy how much autonomy the designer ‘hands over’Consumer’s involvement in design is a measure of: the degree of involvement in the conception, specification, design and manufacture of a product the effectiveness of that involvementThis relationship can be plotted on a graph withconsumers involvement on the vertical axis plottedagainst designer commitment on the horizontal axis
    • 13. Consumer involvement versus designer commitment Loughborough Design SchoolOn the left of the graph, the On the right of the graph, thedesigner retains control of designer gives up controlthe product’s final form, and over the product’s final form,acts as an interpreter of and acts as a facilitator toconsumer needs to arrive at allow the consumer to createa design solution their own design solution
    • 14. Consumer involvement versus designer commitment Loughborough Design School Direct, deliberate influence on product formConsumers involvement Limited, direct influence onfalls into one of four product formcategories, moving up Limited, indirect influence onthe vertical axis product form No influence on product form
    • 15. Mapping of existing products onto graph Loughborough Design SchoolExisting examples of consumer involvement weremapped onto the classificationExamples had to be accessible to consumers; academicstudies, in-house trials etc. were excludedOnly three examples are given of conventionallydesigned products, though the majority of all productsare designed this wayNo ‘real world’ examples of co-designed products wereidentifiedSome examples fall into more than one area
    • 16. Examples of existing products Loughborough Design School OpenmokoHot rod cars World of FreeRunner Warcraft Phone Figureprints Build-a- Bear Materialise hearing aids NikeID trainers Nokia 7610
    • 17. Openmoko FreeRunner Phone Loughborough Design SchoolA project to create a family of totally open source mobilephones, including the hardware specification and theoperating system
    • 18. Power relationship between designer and consumer Loughborough Design SchoolIn all design activitiesthere is a powerrelationship between thedesigner and theconsumer. This is a resultof the relative importanceof the designer’s opinionscompared to those of theconsumer.
    • 19. Impact of Changed Power Relationship Loughborough Design SchoolTraditionally most design activity has occurred in thebottom left of the diagram In an age of mass manufacture, where the barriers to entry to the means of production are high, design has largely been restricted to professional designers and engineers Direct Digital Manufacturing technologies (additive manufacturing, laser cutting etc.) significantly lower these barriersApproaches to design which occur in the top right of thediagram require a new way of working from designers An acceptance of the need to enable consumers to design their own products (if they wish) An acceptance of the need to design “products which are not finished” A recognition that this involves giving up control over the function and aesthetic of the final product
    • 20. Hypothesis Loughborough Design SchoolIn future, the role of designers will beto design unfinished objects Products which require unique decisions and inputs from consumers Products which are incomplete without the consumer’s expertise
    • 21. It is already happening! Loughborough Design School
    • 22. Pilot Study 1 – two dimensional Loughborough Design School
    • 23. Personalised Input Loughborough Design School
    • 24. Capturing the Data Loughborough Design School
    • 25. CAD Modelling Loughborough Design School
    • 26. Final Design Loughborough Design School
    • 27. Pilot Study 2 – three dimensional Loughborough Design SchoolPilot Study undertaken to see if Variational ConsumerDesign could be applied to a customised memory stick
    • 28. Use of Genoform software Loughborough Design SchoolGenoform enables the parameters of CAD modelscreated in SolidWorks to be encoded into a “genome”
    • 29. Use of Genoform software (continued) Loughborough Design SchoolValues in the genome can be “mutated” (within set limits) tocreate an almost infinite number of variations of the model
    • 30. Use of Genoform software (continued) Loughborough Design SchoolCertain aspects of the model can be protected from themutation process, in this case the internal components
    • 31. Original designs created within SolidWorks Loughborough Design School Six alternative concept designs were modelled in SolidWorks and then encoded within Genoform
    • 32. Variations created by Genoform Loughborough Design SchoolEight participants were asked to select their preferred designwhich was then mutated within GenoformVariations of the design were presented to the participant, apreferred option selected and the process repeated until theywere happy with the design outcome
    • 33. Some final designs Loughborough Design School
    • 34. Pilot Study 3 – real-time interaction Loughborough Design School“PenCAD” enables consumers to change the designform in real-time using slider bars in Rhino/Grasshopper
    • 35. Conclusions and Future Directions Loughborough Design SchoolConsumer design is here and is growingThere are different types of consumer design and somewill require a major change in designer attitudesThere is a tension between consumer desires to designand consumer capabilities for designingUser-friendly method(s) for capturing consumer designintent must be developedThis could take the form of a “customisation toolkit” toenable consumer design but also apply key design rulesDesigners will need to create “unfinished designs” to befinished by the consumer
    • 36. Thank you … any questions? r.i.campbell@lboro.ac.uk

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