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Presentación de la Conferencia " Fuentes de Polifenoles con propiedades benéficas para la salud "

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  • 1. FUENTES DE POLIFENOLES CON PROPIEDADES BENEFICAS A LA SALUD F.Saura Calixto, Dpto Metabolismo y Nutrición (ICTAN-CSIC) Madrid Tec. Monterrey . QUERETARO, Marzo 2014
  • 2. Nutrientes •Proteina •Grasas •Hidratos de carbono •Vitaminas •Minerales No Nutrientes/ Bioactivos •Fibra •Carotenoides •Fitoesteroles •Polifenoles (Antocianinas, ácidos fenólicos, Resveratrol, Quercetina, Flavonoides, Fitoestrógenos) N U T R I C I Ó N Lácteos Carnes Pescados Alimentos vegetales Dietas con exceso de macronutrientes (grasa, proteína ) y déficit de no nutrientes Nutrición: Dieta saludable Industria agroalimentaria: Ingredientes funcionales Diferencias nutrientes-no nutrientes: Número Contenido en alimentos y dieta Biodisponibilidad y lugar de acción Requerimientos nutricionales
  • 3. TANINOS FLAVONOIDES ÁCIDOS FENÓLICOS ESTILBENOS POLIFENOLES O H O H C H C H C O O H Ac. Cafeico H O O H O H C O O H Ac. Gálico Lycopeno CH3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 H 3 C CH 3 -caroteno C H 3 C H 3 C H 3 C H 3 C H 3 C H 3 C H 3 C H 3 H 3 C C H 3 Luteina OH HO CH3 H3C CH3CH3CH3 CH3CH3CH3 CH3 CH3 Criptoxantina CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 H3C CH3 HO CAROTENOIDES ANTIOXIDANTES VITAMINAS C y E MACROANTIOXIDANTES OMe
  • 4. OXIDATIVE STRESS OXIDATIVE METABOLISM and others (pollution, smoke, drugs, radiations,..) ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM FREE RADICALS Superoxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl, peroxil, alkoxyl Damage DNA Membrane Proteins Lipids ENDOGENOUS: Enzymes(catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and others DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS Plant foods and beverages
  • 5. Propiedades biológicas de los antioxidantes polifenólicos Eliminación de radicales libres (reducción de daño oxidativo, en órganos y piel) Actividad antiinflamatoria Protección del endotelio vascular (efecto vasorrelajante) Reducción del colesterol oxidado (aterosclerosis) Estimulación de la flora intestinal (bífidobacterias, lactobacilos…) Protección de la mucosa intestinal
  • 6. EstilbenosÁcidos fenólicos Flavonoides Lignanos OH OH O O OH O OH H H H OH OH O OH OH OH CH2 OH O O OH OH OH OOH OH O O OH CH2 OH OH OH MeO OMe O OH OH OH O CH2 OH O OH OH OH O CH2 OH OH OH OO OH OH OH CH2 OH Flavonoles Isoflavonas Catequinas Antocianinas Flavanonas Proantocianidinas Pérez-Jiménez et al.J. Agric. Food Chem., 2010 Más de 500 polifenoles en los alimentos
  • 7. Índices de mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares Colesterol Mortalidad (mg/dL) (por 10000) U.S.A. 209 182 U.K. 244 380 FRANCIA 216 102 0,33 L vino tinto Diario(per capita) PARADOJA FRANCESA
  • 8. 1) Estudios epidemiológicos Ref. Población Asociaciones inversas significativas Cassidy et al. Am J. Clin. Nutr., 2010 > 130.000 mujeres Antocianinas-hipertensión Hollman et al. J. Nutr., 2010 Meta-análisis 6 estudios > 110.000 sujetos Flavonoles- infarto Tresserra-Rimbau et al. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis., 2014 > 7.000 sujetos Ingesta total-CVD POLIFENOLES Y CVD
  • 9. Estudios epidemiológicos. Cáncer colorrectal. Ref. Población Asociaciones inversas significativas Arts et al. Cancer Causes Control, 2002 > 34.000 mujeres postmenopáusicas Catequinas Theodoratou et al. Cancer Epidem. Biomark Prev., 2007 > 3.000 sujetos Flavonoles Kyle et al. Br. J. Nutr., 2010 > 600 sujetos Flavonoles Rossi et al. Nutr. Cancer, 2010 > 26.000 sujetos Antocianinas, proantocianidinas (sobre todo polímeros), flavonoles, flavonas,isoflavonas POLIFENOLES Y CÁNCER
  • 10. 7200 sujetos 55-80 años SU.VI.MAX, < 1%
  • 11. Diseño del ensayo clínico con un zumo antioxidante 0 meses 2 meses 200 ml/día Zumo rico en antioxidantes Recogida de sangre y orina Medida de presión sanguínea Medidas antropométricas 28 adultos jóvenes sanos 2000 umolTrolox/día Capacidad antioxidante de la dieta: Patrón de Dieta Mediterránea Dieta española actual 2000 umolTrolox/día
  • 12. 8 semanas 200 mL/día Zumo rico en antioxidantes Efectos en estatus oxidativo Oxidación lipídica * * Capacidad antioxidante plasmática * * * Oxidación lipídica Capacidad antioxidante MEJORA ESTATUS OXIDATIVO
  • 13. Estudio metabolómico t= 0 t= 8 semanas PLASMA ORINA Ionización en positivo Ionización en negativo Clara separación de metaboloma global (plasma y orina) tras la ingesta de zumo rico en antioxidantes durante dos meses Cambios subyacentes aunque no se vieran modificaciones en otros marcadores bioq Esperables más cambios en sujetos de más edad y con factores de riesgo/enfermeda
  • 14. cereals 1% legumes 4% vegetables 8% fruits 10% nuts 5% vegetable oils 0,4% Beverages 72% Total Dietary Antioxidant Capacity in the Spanish Diet 1 90 % Polyphenols 10 % Vitamins & CarotenoidsMajor contributors 1F. Saura Calixto y col.(2006) Antioxidant capacity of the Spanish Mediterranean diet. Food Chem., 94, 442-447. * ABTS method Plant food Daily Intake (year 2000) (g fresh matter) Fruits Vegetables Legumes Cereals Nuts Beverages (ml) Vegetable oils (ml) Olive Sunflower Total Antioxidant Capacity* 266 331 22 222 7 505 31 21 342 272 135 33 176 2576 13 2 3549
  • 15. TANINOS FLAVONOIDES ÁCIDOS FENÓLICOS ESTILBENOS POLIFENOLES O H O H C H C H C O O H Ac. Cafeico H O O H O H C O O H Ac. Gálico Lycopeno CH3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 H 3 C CH 3 -caroteno C H 3 C H 3 C H 3 C H 3 C H 3 C H 3 C H 3 C H 3 H 3 C C H 3 Luteina OH HO CH3 H3C CH3CH3CH3 CH3CH3CH3 CH3 CH3 Criptoxantina CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 H3C CH3 HO CAROTENOIDES ANTIOXIDANTES VITAMINAS C y E MACROANTIOXIDANTES OMe
  • 16. I. EXTRACTABLE POLYPHENOLS ( Compunds extracted by aqueous organic solvents:Flavonoids, polyphenolic acids, stilbenes, tannins,etc- monomers to olihgomers ) II. NON EXTRACTABLE POLYPHENOLS (MACROANTIOXIDANTS) (Compounds remaining in residues of aqueous organic extraction: polymeric PP- proanthocyanidins , hydrolizable PP, single PP associated with poysacharides and protein) ) NON-EXTRACTABLE POLYPHENOLS ARE QUANTITATIVELY IMPORTANT AND BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS DIETARY POLYPHENOLS (CHEMICAL CONCEPT) DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS: Vitamins (A,C,D), Carotenoids, Polyphenols Antioxidant Amount in human diets : 90% Polyphenols; 10% vitamins plus carotenoids
  • 17. I. EXTRACTABLE POLYPHENOLS ( Compunds solubilized in intestinal fluids, directly or released from the food matrix by the action of digestive enzymes) II. NON EXTRACTABLE POLYPHENOLS (Compounds non soluble in intestinal fluids that cross intact the gastrointestinal tract and reach the colon associated with macromolecules where they release absorbable metabolites ) NON-EXTRACTABLE POLYPHENOLS ARE QUANTITATIVELY IMPORTANT AND BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS DIETARY POLYPHENOLS (PHYSIOLOGICAL CONCEPT)
  • 18. I. Antioxidantes (VitaminasA,C,E,Se,carotenoides,flavonoides,etc) II. Macroantioxidantes LOS MACROANTIOXIDANTES SON COMPUESTOSBIOLOGICAMENTE ACTIVOS Y SON CUANTITATIVAMENTE IMPORTANTES J.Perez-Jimenez, ME Diaz Rubio y F. Saura Calixto. Nutrition Research Reviews, 118-120, 2013 DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS Compuestos de bajo peso molecular
  • 19. METHODOLOGY PLANT FOODS 1) Methanol-water, pH2 (80:20, v/v) 2) Acetone-water (70:30, v/v) 50 mL NEPA ( Abs, 555 nm) Perez-Jimenez et al., 2009 Butanol/HCl/FeCl3, 100ºC, 1h 25 mL SUPERNATANT RESIDUE EPP (HPLC-DAD-MS) Tomás-Barberán et al., 2001 EPA (NORMAL PHASE-HPLC) Gu et al., 2002; Prior et al., 2005 Combination Methanol/H2SO4 (90:10, v/v), 85ºC, 20 h HPP (HPLC-DAD-MS) Bennett et al., 2004 50 mL
  • 20. RESULTS SAMPLE EPP NEPP TOTAL HPP NEPA FRUITS 303.0 + 20 366.5 + 18.8 514.0 + 12 1183.5 + 29.9 VEGETABLES 195.8 + 10.7 325.7 + 17.4 n.d. 521.5 + 20.4 CEREALS 43.8 + 3.2 209.9 + 5.4 n.d. 253.7 + 6.2 NUTS 120.7 + 6 136.2 + 3.1 199.0 + 8 455.9 + 10.4 LEGUMES 57.5 + 1 254.0 + 10.1 310.0 + 5 621.5 + 11.3 TABLE 2: Total polyphenols content in plant food (mg/100g dry matter) n.d.: Not detected
  • 21. TOTAL -per capita-INTAKE OF PP IN THE SPANISH DIET(from plant foods) SAMPLES(consumption, per capita g/day) EPP NEPP mg/day Main compounds mg/day Main compounds FRUITS(258.1) 110.4 + 7.6 Hesperidin Naringin (-)-Epicatechin Catechin Sinapic acid Ellagic acid Hydroxybenzoic acid 439.0 + 8.1 Ferulic acid Cinnamic acid Caffeic acid Protocatechuic acid Hydroxybenzoic acid Catechin (-)-Epicatechin Epicatechin gallate Polymeric proanthocyanidins VEGETABLES(279.4) 73.6 + 4 122.9 + 6.5 CEREALS(139.7) 49.9 + 3.7 291.7 + 11.3 NUTS(6.9) 6.8 + 1.1 28.8 + 1.2 LEGUMES(11.8) 6.2 + 0.8 89.1 + 2.3 TOTAL 246.9 + 9.4 971.5 + 15.5 TOTAL(685.9) 1218.2 + 15.6
  • 22. RESULTS TABLE 1: EPP and NEPP content in fruits (mg/100g dry matter) EXTRACTABLE NON EXTRACTABLE FRUITS EPP EPA HPP NEPA Total 305.9 + 20 31.1 + 1.0 366.5 + 18.8 514.0 + 12.0 Structure Hesperidin Naringin (-)-Epicatechin Gallocatechin gallate Chlorogenic acid Pelargonidin-3-glucoside Sinapic acid Procyanidin B2 Ferulic acid Cyanidin-3-glucoside Others Monomers Dimers Trimers 4-6mers 7-10mers Polymers Ferulic acid Catechin Hydroxybenzoic acid Gallocatechin Gallic acid Caffeic acid Polymeric proanthocyanidins
  • 23. 2. Metabolites from macrontioxidants Urolithin METABOLITES FROM COLONIC FERMENTATION 1. Short chain fatty acids –SCFA (Acetic,propionic, butiric) From Dietary Fiber
  • 24. GENERAL PROPERTIES OF MACROANTIOXIDANTS a. Increase of antioxidant activity in large intestine and cecum: high antioxidant status b. Production of bioavailable metabolites in the colon ( hydroxiphenyl acids, urolithin, etc). c. Inhibition of proliferation in the colonic epithelium by reducing the total number of intestinal polyps and crypts d. Positive effects on lipid metabolism (total cholesterol, - LDL- cholesterol and triacylglycerides ) e. Enhancement of the excretion of lipids, protein, water and total fecal output
  • 25. FIBRA ANTIOXIDANTE DE UVA Capacidad Antioxidante (mol eq trolox/g materia seca) LDL-Cu FRAP ABTS ORAC 643  42 319  14 233  12 412  28 Fibra Insoluble Fibra Soluble FIBRA TOTAL Polifenoles asociados (Catequina; Ácidos hidroxicinámicos Flavonoles; etc.) Taninos condensados (Proantocianidinas) Composición: 53.21  3.4 20.78  0.76 74 5.63  0.2 12.3
  • 26. INGREDIENTE ALIMENTOS FUNCIONALES SUPLEMENTO DIETÉTICO  Productos de la pesca  Productos cárnicos  Alimentación animal  Salud gastrointestinal  Enfermedades cardiovasculares Aplicaciones FIBRA DIETÉTICA ANTIOXIDANTE DE UVA Fibra Dietética Fitoquímicos (Antioxidantes)
  • 27. 10 controles (sin suplemento)34 voluntarios (7,5 g FAU) 4 meses SUPLEMENTO DIETÉTICO (ENSAYO CON VOLUNTARIOS) Resultados (“Effects of Grape Antioxidant Dietary Fiber on cardiovacular disease risk factors” Nutrition, 24,646-653,2008) • Aumento significativo del tránsito intestinal • Disminución significativa de colesterol total (9%), colesterol LDL (9%), presión sistólica (6%) y diastólica (5%). En sujetos hipercolesterolémicos descensos aún más marcados en colesterol total (14,2%) y colesterol LDL (11,6%), así como en triglicéridos (18,6%). (La reducción de colesterol es superior a la de fibras como psyllium y β-glucanos con health claims autorizados por FDA y del mismo orden que la de fitoesteroles ) • Disminución significativa del porcentaje de grasa corporal en hipergrasos • Posibles efectos en la regulación de glucemia
  • 28. MATERIAS PRIMAS RICAS EN FIBRA Y ANTIOXIDANTES Larrauri et al. (1996). Mango peels as a new tropical fiber: Preparation and characterization. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol., 29: 729-733. Larrauri et al. (1997). Pineapple shell as a source of dietary fiber with associated poliphenols. J.Agric. Food Chem.,45: 4028-4031. Jiménez-Escrig et al. (2001). Guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) as a new source of antioxidant dietary fiber. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 5489-5493. Perez Jimenez et al. (2008). Efects of grape antioxidant dietary fibre on cardiovascular diseases risks factors. Nutrition, 24, 646-653. Acerola; Acai (EMBRAPA-CSIC) (2010) Non traditional tropical fruits Food Chem., 121, 996-1002) y otros en prensa Díaz-Rubio et al. (2008). Dietary fiber and antioxidant 1 capacity in Fucus vesiculosus products. Int J Food Sci Nutr
  • 29. Diciembre, 2013
  • 30. - - Proanthocyanidin content in foods is largely underestimated in the literature data.An approach to quantification of the missing proanthochyanidins. Jara Pérez-Jiménez, Sara Arranz , Fulgencio Saura-Calixto.*Food Res Int, 42, 1381-1388,2009 - High Contents of Nonextractable Polyphenols in Fruits Suggest That Polyphenol Contents of Plant Foods Have Been UnderestimatedArranz, S, Saura-Calixto, F , Shaha, S, Kroon, PA J Agric Food Chem 57(16), 7298-7303, 2009 - Proanthocyanidin metabolites associated with dietary fibre from in vitro colonic fermentation and proanthocyanidin metabolites in human plasmaFulgencio Saura- Calixto*1 et al. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research , 54, 939-946, 2010 - S. Arranz, F. Saura-Calixto. Non extractable polyphenols, ussually ignored, are the major part of dietary polyphenopsl: A study on the Spanish diet. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 54, 1646-1658, 2010. .- F. Saura-Calixto. Dietary fiber as a carrier of dietary antioxidants: an essential physiological function. (Perspective) J. Agric. Food. Chem. , 59, 43-40, 2011. -Zurita, Javier; Elena Diaz-Rubio, Maria; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio Improved procedure to determine non-extractable polymeric proanthocyanidins in plant foods. Int. J. Food Sci Nutr.: 63(8), 936-939 , 2012. - Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio. Concept and Health-Related Properties of Nonextractable Polyphenols: The Missing Dietary Polyphenols. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60 (45) 11195-11200 , 2012. Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio. Concept and Health-Related Properties of Nonextractable Polyphenols: The Missing Dietary Polyphenols. J. Agric. Food Chem.( Perspective) 60 (45) 11195-11200 , 2012. Grape antioxidant dietary fiber inhibits intestinal polyposis in ApcMin/+ mice: relation to cell cycle and immune responseS.Sánchez- Tena, ….F. Saura-Calixto, G. Capellà, and M. Cascante Carcinogenesis (2013) 34 (8): 1881-1888 Non-extractable polyphenols, a major dietary antioxidant: ocurrence, metabolic fate and health effects. J. Perez-Jimenez, ME Diaz-Rubi and F. Saura-Calixto, . Nutr. Res, Rev, in press RECENT PAPERS ON MACROANTIOXIDANTS (2009-2013)
  • 31. www.paraninfo.mx/catalogo/9788484597001 En MEXICO: www.paraninfo.mx
  • 32. Gracias por su atención !!